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Estado Novo (Portugal)

Index Estado Novo (Portugal)

The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist. [1]

262 relations: A Portuguesa, Academic Crisis, Adrian Hastings, Adriano Moreira, Agostinho Neto University, Agrarianism, Agrochemical, Alcobaça, Portugal, Alentejo, Algarve, Américo Amorim, Américo Tomás, Anarchism, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, Angola, Annexation of Goa, António Champalimaud, António de Oliveira Salazar, António Egas Moniz, Anti-Comintern Pact, Anti-communism, Anti-imperialism, Antisemitism, Armed Forces Movement, Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Authoritarianism, Axis powers, Azores, Álvaro Cunhal, Óscar Carmona, Banco Santander Portugal, Bank, Beer, Benito Mussolini, Bicameralism, Blackshirts, Brazil, Breadbasket, Caldas da Rainha, Cape Verde, Captain (armed forces), Carlos I of Portugal, Carnation Revolution, Cascais, Catholic Church, Catholic University of Portugal, Cement, Central de Cervejas, Cerebral angiography, Chemical substance, ..., Cimpor, Civil liberties, Civilizing mission, Clement Attlee, Clerical fascism, Communism, Companhia União Fabril, Conglomerate (company), Conscription, Conservatism, Consumerism, Continental Portugal, Core business, Corporate statism, Corporatism, Corporative Chamber, Corticeira Amorim, Counter-insurgency, Coup d'état, Covilhã, Cultural assimilation, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Decolonization, Democracy, Diário de Notícias, Diplomatic history of World War II, Ditadura Nacional, Drink, Economic growth, Eduardo Mondlane University, Education in Portugal, Electoral college, Electrical engineering, Estoril, European Economic Community, European Free Trade Association, Far-right politics, Fascism, Fernando Rosas, FET y de las JONS, Final good, First Portuguese Republic, France, Francisco Craveiro Lopes, Francisco Franco, Francoist Spain, French Revolution, Germany, Ginjinha, Goa, Government budget, Government of Portugal, Guerrilla warfare, Henrique Galvão, Hitler Youth, Humberto Delgado, India, Indian Armed Forces, Indian subcontinent, Insurance, Integralism, Italian Fascism, Italy, Jacques Ploncard d'Assac, Jaime Nogueira Pinto, Japan, Jerónimo Martins, João Franco, José Manuel de Mello, Keiretsu, Kenneth Maxwell, Left-wing politics, Legião Portuguesa (Estado Novo), Liberalism, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, Licor Beirão, Lisbon, Lisbon Regicide, List of Portuguese monarchs, List of Presidents of Portugal, List of Prime Ministers of Portugal, Literacy, Lobotomy, Luanda, Lusotropicalism, Luxembourg, Machine, Madeira, Marcelo Caetano, Marinha Grande, Metallurgy, Metropole, Minimum wage, Mining, Mocidade Portuguesa, Monarchism, Movement of Democratic Unity, National Assembly, National interest, National Salvation Junta, National Union (Portugal), Nationalism, NATO, Naval architecture, Nazi Germany, Nazism, New University of Lisbon, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, North America, Northern Hemisphere, OECD, One-party state, Os Grandes Portugueses, Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, Paper, People's Republic of Angola, People's Republic of Mozambique, Petrochemical, Philippe Pétain, PIDE, Pluricontinentalism, Political freedom, Port wine, Porto, Porto Editora, Portugal, Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Armed Forces, Portuguese Colonial War, Portuguese Commercial Bank, Portuguese Communist Party, Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese escudo, Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese India, Portuguese language, Portuguese legislative election, 1976, Portuguese Mozambique, Portuguese National Liberation Front, Portuguese Timor, Portuguese-speaking African countries, President of the Council of Ministers, Primary education, Primary school, Public finance, Quality of life, Racism, Radio and Television of Portugal, Rector (academia), Refugee, Republic, Republic of Dahomey, Right of asylum, Rome, RTP2, Santa Maria hijacking, Santiago, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Secondary education, SEDES, Sines, Sintra, Social order, Social security, Socialism, Socialist Party (Portugal), Sonae, Sovereign wealth fund, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Spanish Civil War, Standard of living, Superpower, Sustainability, Switzerland, Tarrafal camp, Terrorism, Tete, Mozambique, Textile, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Times, Time (magazine), Timeline of Portuguese history, Tourism, Trade union, Transport in Portugal, Tungsten, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, United States, University of Aveiro, University of Évora, University of Coimbra, University of Lisbon, University of Minho, Vargas Era, Venezuela, Vietnam War, Western Europe, Westernization, Wind of Change (speech), World War II, YouTube, Yves Guérin-Sérac, Zaibatsu, 1973 oil crisis, 28 May 1926 coup d'état, 5 October 1910 revolution. Expand index (212 more) »

A Portuguesa

"A Portuguesa" (The Portuguese) is the national anthem of Portugal.

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Academic Crisis

The Academic Crisis is the name given to a Portuguese governmental policy instigated in 1962 by the Portuguese dictatorial regime (the Estado Novo) entailing the boycott and closure of several student associations and organizations, including the National Secretariat of Portuguese Students.

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Adrian Hastings

Adrian Hastings (23 June 1929 – 30 May 2001) was a Roman Catholic priest, historian and author.

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Adriano Moreira

Adriano José Alves Moreira, ComC GCC GOIH GCSE (born September 15, 1922, Grijó de Vale Benfeito, Macedo de Cavaleiros, Portugal), is a Portuguese lawyer, professor and retired politician.

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Agostinho Neto University

The Agostinho Neto University (Universidade Agostinho Neto) is a public university based in Luanda, the capital city of Angola.

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Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.

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An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.

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Alcobaça, Portugal

Alcobaça is a city and a municipality in Oeste Subregion, region Centro in Portugal, formerly included in the Estremadura Province.

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The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.

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The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.

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Américo Amorim

Américo Ferreira Amorim (21 July 1934 – 13 July 2017) was a Portuguese industrialist and businessman.

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Américo Tomás

Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás (or Thomaz), GCC, GOA, GOSE, (19 November 1894 – 18 September 1987) was a Portuguese Navy officer and politician.

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anglo-Portuguese Alliance

The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.

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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Annexation of Goa

The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.

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António Champalimaud

António de Sommer Champalimaud (Lisbon, Lapa, 19 March 1918 – Lisbon, Lapa, 8 May 2004) was a Portuguese banker and industrialist who in 2004 was the wealthiest man in Portugal.

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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.

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António Egas Moniz

António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.

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Anti-Comintern Pact

The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.

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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Armed Forces Movement

A mural dedicated to the MFA, it reads: ''Towards freedom. Long live the 25th of April!'' The Armed Forces Movement (Movimento das Forças Armadas; MFA) was an organisation of lower-ranked left-leaning officers in the Portuguese Armed Forces.

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Assembly of the Republic (Portugal)

The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República) is the parliament of the Portuguese Republic.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Álvaro Cunhal

Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal (10 November 1913 – 13 June 2005) was a Portuguese communist revolutionary and politician.

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Óscar Carmona

António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, BTO, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona,; 24 November 1869 – 18 April 1951) was the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal and 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951), having been Minister of War in 1923.

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Banco Santander Portugal

Banco Santander Portugal (formerly Banco Santander Totta), also known as Santander is a Portuguese bank, founded in 1988.

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A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain.

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Caldas da Rainha

Caldas da Rainha is a medium-sized city in western central Portugal in the historical province of Estremadura and the district of Leiria.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Carlos I of Portugal

Dom Carlos I of Portugal (English: Charles) known as the Diplomat (also known as the Martyr); o Diplomata and o Martirizado; 28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the first Portuguese king to be murdered since Sebastian of Portugal in 1578.

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Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.

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Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal, west of Lisbon.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic University of Portugal

The Catholic University of Portugal (Universidade Católica Portuguesa), also referred to as Católica or UCP for short, is the only concordatary university (non-state-run university with concordatary status) of the Catholic Church, in Portugal.

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A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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Central de Cervejas

Sociedade Central de Cervejas (SCC) (full name: SCC – Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A.) is a Portuguese brewery, founded in 1934.

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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain, thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Cimpor - Cimentos de Portugal is the largest Portuguese cement group, operating in eleven countries - Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Brazil, Tunisia, Turkey, Cape Verde, Mozambique, China, Egypt and South Africa, involved in manufacturing and marketing cement, hydraulic lime, concrete and aggregates, precast concrete and dry mortars.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civilizing mission

The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Clerical fascism

Clerical fascism (also clero-fascism or clerico-fascism) is an ideology that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with clericalism.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Companhia União Fabril

The Companhia União Fabril (CUF) is a Portuguese chemical corporation and a part of Grupo José de Mello.

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Conglomerate (company)

A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.

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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.

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Continental Portugal

Continental Portugal (Portugal continental) or mainland Portugal are terms used for the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe; having approximately 95% of the total population and 96.6% of the country's land.

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Core business

The core business of an organization is an idealized construct intended to express that organization's "main" or "essential" activity.

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Corporate statism

Corporate statism or state corporatism is a political culture and a form of corporatism whose adherents hold that the corporate group which is the basis of society is the state.

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Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.

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Corporative Chamber

The Corporative Chamber (Câmara Corporativa) was one of the two parliamentary chambers established under the Portuguese Constitution of 1933, the other being the National Assembly.

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Corticeira Amorim

Corticeira Amorim S.G.P.S., S.A., is a Portuguese subholding company belonging to the Amorim Group and claims to have been the world leader in the cork industry for over 130 years, with operations in hundreds of countries all over the world.

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A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Covilhã is a city and a municipality in the Centro region, Portugal.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.

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Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.

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Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Diário de Notícias

Diário de Notícias is a Portuguese daily tabloid newspaper published in Lisbon, Portugal.

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Diplomatic history of World War II

The Diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies and the Axis powers.

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Ditadura Nacional

The Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) was the name of the Portuguese regime that started in 1928 after re-election of General Óscar Carmona to the post of President.

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A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Eduardo Mondlane University

The Eduardo Mondlane University (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane; UEM) is the oldest and largest university in Mozambique.

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Education in Portugal

Education in Portugal is free and compulsory until the age of 18, when students complete the 12th grade.

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Electoral college

An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Estoril is a town and a former civil parish in the municipality of Cascais, Portugal, on the Portuguese Riviera.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.

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Far-right politics

Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.

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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Fernando Rosas

Fernando José Mendes Rosas (born 18 April 1946, in Lisbon) is a Portuguese historian, professor and politician.

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FET y de las JONS

The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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First Portuguese Republic

The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francisco Craveiro Lopes

Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964) was a Portuguese politician and military man.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Ginjinha or simply Ginja, is a portuguese liqueur made by infusing ginja berries, (sour cherry) (Prunus cerasus austera, the Morello cherry) in alcohol (aguardente is used) and adding sugar together with other ingredients.

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Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.

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Government budget

A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.

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Government of Portugal

The Government of Portugal is one of the four sovereignty bodies of the Portuguese Republic, together with the President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic and the courts.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Henrique Galvão

Henrique Galvão (February 4, 1895 – June 25, 1970) was a Portuguese military officer, writer and politician.

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Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.

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Humberto Delgado

Humberto da Silva Delgado, ComC, GCA, GOA, ComA, OA, ComSE, GCL, OIP, CBE (Portuguese pronunciation:; 15 May 1906 – 13 February 1965) was a General of the Portuguese Air Force and politician.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Armed Forces

The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

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Integralism or Integrism is used in the context of Catholicism to refer to an organization of the state which rejects "the separation of politics from concern with the end of human life, holding that political rule must order man to his final goal." Though less commonly referred to in modern theology, Integralism defines the social order of medieval Christendom and is part of the social teaching of the Catholic Church.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jacques Ploncard d'Assac

Jacques Ploncard (13 March 1910, Chalon-sur-Saône – 20 February 2005), also called "Jacques Ploncard d'Assac", was a French writer and journalist and a far right activist — he was, among other things, a member of the Parti Populaire Français.

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Jaime Nogueira Pinto

Jaime Alexandre Nogueira Pinto (born 4 February 1946 in Porto, Santo Ildefonso) is a Portuguese writer and university professor, son of Jaime da Cunha Guimarães by Alda Branca Nogueira Pinto, who died in 2007.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jerónimo Martins

Jerónimo Martins SGPS, SA (JM) is a Portuguese corporate group that operates in food distribution and specialised retail.

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João Franco

João Franco Ferreira Pinto Castelo-Branco, GCTE ((14 February 1855 in Alcaide, Fundão – 4 April 1929 in Anadia) was a Portuguese politician, minister, 43rd Minister for Treasury Affairs (14 January 1890) and 73rd Prime Minister, in the last years of the Portuguese monarchy.

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José Manuel de Mello

José Manuel de Mello (December 8, 1927 – September 16, 2009), was a Portuguese businessman who founded the conglomerate Grupo José de Mello.

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A is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings.

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Kenneth Maxwell

Kenneth Robert Maxwell (born 1941) is a British historian who specializes in Iberia and Latin America.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Legião Portuguesa (Estado Novo)

The Portuguese Legion (Legião Portuguesa) was a Portuguese paramilitary state organization founded in 1936 during the Portuguese President of the Council´s António de Oliveira Salazar's right-wing regime, the Estado Novo.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Liberté, égalité, fraternité

Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.

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Licor Beirão

Licor Beirão is a Portuguese liqueur with 22% ABV.

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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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Lisbon Regicide

The Lisbon Regicide (O Regicídio de 1908) was the murder of King Carlos I of Portugal and the Algarves and his heir-apparent, Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, by assassins sympathetic to Republican interests and aided by elements within the Portuguese Carbonária, disenchanted politicians and anti-monarchists.

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List of Portuguese monarchs

The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

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List of Presidents of Portugal

The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime.

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List of Prime Ministers of Portugal

The Prime Minister of the Portuguese Republic (Primeiro-Ministro da República Portuguesa) is the head of the country's Government.

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Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.

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Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.

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Lusotropicalism or Luso-tropicalism was first used by Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre to describe the distinctive character of Portuguese imperialism overseas, proposing that the Portuguese were better colonizers than other European nations.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.

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Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

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Marcelo Caetano

Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (GCTE, GCC; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar, who was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime, from 1968 until his overthrow in the Carnation Revolution of 1974.

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Marinha Grande

Marinha Grande is a municipality in the Leiria District, Portugal.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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The metropole (from the Greek metropolis for "mother city") is the homeland or central territory of a colonial empire.

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Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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Mocidade Portuguesa

The Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth) was a Portuguese youth organization founded in 1936 (dissolved in 1974) during the Portuguese President of the Council´s António de Oliveira Salazar's far-right-wing regime, the Estado Novo.

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Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.

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Movement of Democratic Unity

The Movement of Democratic Unity (Movimento de Unidade Democrática or MUD) was a quasi-legal platform of Portuguese democratic organizations that opposed the authoritarian regime of António Oliveira Salazar and was founded in October 1945.

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National Assembly

National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.

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National interest

The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État ("reason of State"), is a country's goals and ambitions, whether economic, military, cultural or otherwise.

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National Salvation Junta

The National Salvation Junta (Junta de Salvação Nacional) was a group of military officers designated to maintain the government of Portugal in April 1974, after the Carnation Revolution had overthrown the Estado Novo dictatorial regime.

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National Union (Portugal)

The National Union (União Nacional) was the only legal political party in Portugal for most of the period of the Estado Novo.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Naval architecture

Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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New University of Lisbon

New University of Lisbon (Universidade Nova de Lisboa -) or NOVA is a Portuguese university whose Rectorate is located in Campolide, Lisbon.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Os Grandes Portugueses

Os Grandes Portugueses (The Greatest Portuguese) was a public poll contest organized by the Portuguese public broadcasting station RTP and hosted by Maria Elisa.

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Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho

Otelo Nuno Romão Saraiva de Carvalho, GCL (born 31 August 1936), is a retired Portuguese military officer.

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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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People's Republic of Angola

The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.

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People's Republic of Mozambique

The People's Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República Popular de Moçambique) was a self-declared communist state that lasted from 25 June 1975 to 1 December 1990, when the country became the present-day Republic of Mozambique.

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Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Philippe Pétain

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.

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The PIDE or International and State Defense Police (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) was a Portuguese security agency that existed during the Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.

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Pluricontinentalism (Portuguese: Pluricontinentalismo) was a geopolitical concept, positing that Portugal was a transcontinental country and a unitary nation-state consisting of continental Portugal and its overseas provinces.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

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Port wine

Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto,, Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.

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Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Porto Editora

Porto Editora is the largest Portuguese publisher with a consolidated turnover of more than 90M € in 2010.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese Angola

Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.

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Portuguese Armed Forces

The Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal.

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Portuguese Colonial War

The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.

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Portuguese Commercial Bank

Portuguese Commercial Bank (Banco Comercial Português (BCP)), is a Portuguese bank that was founded in 1985 and is the largest private bank in the country.

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Portuguese Communist Party

The Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português,, PCP) is a major political party in Portugal.

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Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975

The Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975 was carried out in Portugal on 25 April 1975, exactly one year after the Carnation Revolution.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Portuguese escudo

The Portuguese escudo is the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002.

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Portuguese Guinea

Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

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Portuguese India

The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese legislative election, 1976

The Portuguese legislative election of 1976 took place on 25 April, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution.

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Portuguese Mozambique

Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.

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Portuguese National Liberation Front

Portuguese National Liberation Front (in Portuguese: Frente Portuguesa de Libertação Nacional) was a Portuguese political movement, founded in Rome in 1964 by General Humberto Delgado, following a split from the Patriotic National Liberation Front (with the same acronym - FPLN), founded two years earlier, in December 1962, and based in Algiers.

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Portuguese Timor

Portuguese Timor (Timor Português) was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975.

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Portuguese-speaking African countries

The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.

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President of the Council of Ministers

The President of the Council of Ministers or sometimes Chairman (in English, sometimes called informally Prime Minister) is the most senior member of the cabinet in the executive branch of government.

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Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

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Primary school

A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.

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Public finance

Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Radio and Television of Portugal

Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal.

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Rector (academia)

A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.

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A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Dahomey

The Republic of Dahomey (République du Dahomey) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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RTP2 is the second television channel of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, the Portuguese public broadcasting corporation.

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Santa Maria hijacking

The Santa Maria hijacking was carried out on 23 January 1961 when Portuguese and Spanish political rebels seized control of a Portuguese cruise liner, aiming to force political change in Portugal.

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Santiago, Cape Verde

Santiago (Portuguese for “Saint James”), or Santiagu in Cape Verdean Creole, is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation’s population.

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São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.

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Secondary education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.

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The SEDES is one of the oldest Portuguese civic associations and think tanks.

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Sines is a Portuguese city of Setúbal District, the Alentejo region and subregion of the Alentejo coast, with about 18,298 inhabitants (2015 INE).

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Sintra is a municipality in the Grande Lisboa subregion (Lisbon Region) of Portugal, considered part of the Portuguese Riviera.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Socialist Party (Portugal)

The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista,, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Portugal.

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Sonae (Sonae SGPS, S.A.) is a Portuguese retail company (Sonae MC and Sonae SR) with two big partnerships in the shopping centres areas (Sonae Sierra) and the Software and Information Systems, Media and Telecommunications (Sonaecom).

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Sovereign wealth fund

A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.

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Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tarrafal camp

Tarrafal (also known as Campo da Morte Lenta in Portuguese) was a prison camp in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Tete, Mozambique

Tete is the capital city of Tete Province in Mozambique.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of Portuguese history

This is a timeline of Portuguese history.

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Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Transport in Portugal

Transport in Portugal is well-developed and diversified.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 109

United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, adopted on December 14, 1955, after being instructed by the General Assembly to consider the applications for membership of Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, and Spain the Council recommended all of the above-named countries for admission to the United Nations.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Aveiro

The University of Aveiro (Universidade de Aveiro) is a public university, in addition to providing polytechnic education, located in the Portuguese city of Aveiro.

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University of Évora

The University of Évora (Universidade de Évora) is a public university in Évora, Portugal.

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University of Coimbra

The University of Coimbra (UC; Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal.

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University of Lisbon

The University of Lisbon (ULisboa; Universidade de Lisboa) is a public research university in Lisbon, and the largest university in Portugal.

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University of Minho

The University of Minho (Universidade do Minho) is a public university in Portugal, divided into the following campuses.

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Vargas Era

The Vargas Era (Portuguese: Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.

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Wind of Change (speech)

The "Wind of Change" speech was a historically significant address made by the UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Yves Guérin-Sérac

Yves Guérin-Sérac, real name (alias Jean-Robert de Guernadec, alias Ralf) (born 1926 in Ploubezre) was a French anti-Communist Roman Catholic activist, former officer of the French army and veteran of the First Indochina War (1945–54), the Korean War (1950–53) and the Algerian War of Independence (1955–62).

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is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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28 May 1926 coup d'état

The 28 May 1926 coup d'état, sometimes called 28 May Revolution or, during the period of the authoritarian Estado Novo (New State), the National Revolution (Revolução Nacional), was a military coup of a nationalist origin, that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship), later refashioned into the Estado Novo, an authoritarian dictatorship that would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974.

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5 October 1910 revolution

The 5 October 1910 revolution was the overthrow of the centuries-old Portuguese Monarchy and its replacement by the Portuguese Republic.

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Redirects here:

Dictatorship of Portugal, Estado Novo Portugal, Fascist Portugal, History of Portugal (1926-1974), History of Portugal (1926–1974), New State (Portugal), Portugal under Salazar, Portuguese Second Republic, Portuguese authoritarian regime, Portuguese dictatorship, Salazar dictatorship, Salazar government, Salazar regime, Salazarist dictatorship, Second Portuguese Republic, The New State (Portugal).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estado_Novo_(Portugal)

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