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Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
The Aesti (also Aestii, Astui or Aests) were an ancient people first described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his treatise Germania (circa 98 AD).
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Ahti Heinla (born 2 May 1972) is an Estonian programmer and entrepreneur.
Aleksander Kunileid (born Aleksander Saebelmann), was an Estonian composer.
Aleksander Tammert (born 2 February 1973 in Tartu) is an Estonian discus thrower.
Alempois (Alumbus) was a small independent landlocked country in ancient Estonia, bordered by Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Nurmekund, Sakala, and Läänemaa.
Alice in Wonderland is a 2010 American fantasy adventure film directed by Tim Burton from a screenplay written by Linda Woolverton.
Ancient Estonia refers to a period covering History of Estonia from the middle of the 8th millennium BC until the conquest and subjugation of the local Finnic tribes in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Danish Northern Crusades.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andres Ilmar Kasekamp (born December 7, 1966 in Toronto) is the director of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute (since 2000) and Professor of Baltic Politics at the University of Tartu, Estonia (since 2004).
Andrus Ansip (born 1 October 1956) is an Estonian politician, the current European Commissioner for Digital Single Market and Vice President of the European Commission, in office since 2014.
Andrus Kivirähk (born 17 August 1970) is an Estonian writer.
Andrus Veerpalu (born 8 February 1971) is an Estonian former cross-country skier.
Anett Kontaveit (born 24 December 1995) is an Estonian professional tennis player.
Anton Hansen Tammsaare (also known as A. H. Tammsaare; born Anton Hansen 30 January 1878 – 1 March 1940), was an Estonian writer whose pentalogy Truth and Justice (Tõde ja õigus; 1926–1933) is considered one of the major works of Estonian literature and "The Estonian Novel".
The Apostolic Administration of Estonia is a Latin, territorial Catholic circonscription that covers all of the Baltic state of Estonia.
Artur Kapp (28 February 1878 – 14 January 1952) was an Estonian composer.
Artur Lemba (24 September 1885, Tallinn – 21 November 1963, Tallinn) was an Estonian composer and piano teacher, and one of the most important figures in Estonian classical music.
Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian composer of classical and religious music.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The local autonomy in Estonia (Эстляндия) was established as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Baltic Assembly (BA) is a regional organisation that promotes intergovernmental cooperation between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Baltic Defence College (official acronym BALTDEFCOL) is a multinational military college, established by the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) in 1999.
The Baltic Entente was based on Treaty of Good-Understanding and Co-operation signed between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia on September 12, 1934 in Geneva.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic News Service (BNS) is the largest news agency operating in the Baltic states.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continued until 2006–2007.
The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain (also Chain of Freedom; Balti kett, Baltijas ceļš, Baltijos kelias, Балтийский путь) was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989.
The Baltic Landwehr or Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Territorial Army") was the name of the unified armed forces of the Couronian and Livonian nobility from 7 December 1918 to 3 July 1919.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.
The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of swallow in the world.
Basketball at the 1936 Summer Olympics was the first appearance of the sport as an official medal event.
The Battle of Cēsis (Cēsu kaujas; Võnnu lahing Battle of Võnnu; Schlacht von Wenden, Battle of Wenden), fought near Cēsis (or Võnnu, Wenden) in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.
The Battle of Ergeme (also Battle of Ermes) (Härgmäe lahing; Schlacht bei Ermes; сражение при Эрмесе; Ērģemes kauja) was fought on 2 August 1560 in present-day Latvia (near Valga) as part of the Livonian War between the forces of Ivan IV of Russia and the Livonian Confederation.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
Battle of Krivasoo (Krivasoo lahing; November 18, 1919 - December 30, 1919) took place in the Kriivasoo swamp, Estonia during the Estonian War of Independence between Estonian Army and the Red Army.
The Battle of Lihula or Battle of Leal was fought between invading Swedes and Estonians for the control of a castle in Lihula, Estonia in 1220.
The Battle of Lindanise was a battle which helped King Valdemar II of Denmark establish the territory of Danish Estonia during the Northern Crusades, which were undertaken in response to calls from the Pope.
The Battle of Narva was a military campaign between the German Army Detachment "Narwa" and the Soviet Leningrad Front fought for possession of the strategically important Narva Isthmus on 2 February – 10 August 1944 during World War II.
The Battle of Saule (Saulės mūšis or Šiaulių mūšis; Schlacht von Schaulen; Saules kauja) was fought on 22 September 1236, between the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and pagan Samogitians.
The Battle of Matthew's Day (Madisepäeva lahing) was fought near Viljandi (probably in Vanamõisa) on September 21, 1217 during the Livonian Crusade.
The Battle of Wilkomierz (see other names) took place on September 1, 1435, near Ukmergė in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
BC Kalev, known as BC Kalev/Cramo for sponsorship reasons, is a professional basketball club based in Tallinn, Estonia.
BC Tartu, commonly known as University of Tartu (Tartu Ülikool), is a professional basketball club based in Tartu, Estonia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bengt Gottfried Forselius (ca 1660, Harju-Madise, Harju County, Swedish Estonia – November 16, 1688, Baltic Sea) was a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.
The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.
The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The German Luftwaffe and Soviet Long Range Aviation bombed the Estonian capital Tallinn several times during World War II.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carl Robert Jakobson (–) was an Estonian writer, politician and teacher active in Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire.
Carl Ernst Heinrich Schmidt (13 June 1822 – 27 February 1894), also known in Russia as Karl Genrikhovich Schmidt (Карл Ге́нрихович Шмидт) was a Baltic German chemist from the Governorate of Livonia, a part of the Russian Empire.
Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
Cinema in Estonia is the film industry of the Republic of Estonia.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an annual publication by Germanwatch and Climate Action Network Europe.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
A concertina is a free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Congress of Estonia was an innovative grassroots parliament established in Estonia as a part of the process of regaining of independence from the Soviet Union.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law of the Republic of Estonia and establishes the state order as that of a democratic republic where the supreme power is vested in its citizens.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
NATO CCD COE, officially the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (K5 or NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus) is one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A cottage is, typically, a small house.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.
Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
The culture of Estonia combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the country's Finnic national language Estonian, with Nordic cultural aspects.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
The Danish Census Book or the Danish book of land taxation (Liber Census Daniæ), (Kong Valdemars Jordebog) from the 13th Century consists of notes for practical use in the Royal Chancery of Valdemar II containing a collection of information on Royal income and Royal land property.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
Dave Benton (born 31 January 1951, birth name Efrén Eugene Benita) is a pop musician from Aruba who lives in Estonia.
Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (also called DFAT, ˈdiː.fæˑt, DEE-fat) is the department of the Government of Australia with the responsibility of the foreign policy, foreign relations, foreign aid, consular services, and trade and investment of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Destruction battalions, colloquially istrebitels (истребители, "destroyers", "exterminators") abbreviated: istrebki (Russian), strybki (Ukrainian) were paramilitary units under the control of NKVD in the western Soviet Union, which performed tasks of internal security on the Eastern Front and after it.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The Dew Tour is an extreme sports circuit organized by the TEN: The Enthusiast Network.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
The Duchy of Estonia (Hertugdømmet Estland Ducatus Estonie), also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion (dominium directum) of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordenstaat.
The Duchy of Estonia (Hertigdömet Estland, Eestimaa hertsogkond, Herzogtum Estland), also known as Swedish Estonia, (italic) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1561 until 1721 during the time that most or all of Estonia was under Swedish rule.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.
e-Residency of Estonia (also called virtual residency or E-residency) is a program launched by Estonia on 1 December 2014.
The concept of e-service (short for electronic service) represents one prominent application of utilizing the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different areas.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatia to the south.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eda-Ines Etti (born 26 May 1981 in Haapsalu) is a singer and celebrity in Estonia, also known for her participation in the Eurovision Song Contest 2000.
Edgar Krahn (in Laiuse Parish – 6 March 1961) was an Estonian mathematician.
Eduard Tubin (– 17 November 1982) was an Estonian composer and conductor, who lived in Sweden from 1944 onwards.
Eesti Energia AS is a private limited energy company in Estonia with its headquarters in Tallinn.
Eesti Päevaleht ("Estonia Daily") is a major daily Estonian newspaper, from the same publishers as the weekly Eesti Ekspress.
Eesti Rahvusringhääling (ERR) – Estonian Public Broadcasting – is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created in Estonia on 1 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio (ER) (Estonian Radio) and Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television), under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.
Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television) is the free-to-air national public television station of Estonia.
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The term Elder or its equivalent in another language, is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority.
Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) refers to voting using electronic means to either aid or take care of the chores of casting and counting votes.
The idea of having electronic voting in Estonia gained popularity in 2001 with the "e-minded" coalition government.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Endel Tulving (born May 26, 1927) is an Estonian Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist whose research on human memory has influenced psychological scientists, neuroscientists, and clinicians.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
The Era of Silence (vaikiv ajastu) was the period between 1934 and 1938 or 1940 in Estonian history.
Erika Salumäe (born 11 June 1962) is an Estonian track bicycle racer who won the first Olympic gold medal for Estonia after the country regained its independence in 1991.
Erki Nool (born 25 June 1970 in Võru, Estonia) is an Estonian decathlete and politician.
Ernst Julius Öpik (– 10 September 1985) was an Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist who spent the second half of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonia men's national basketball team represents Estonia in international basketball competitions and is controlled by the Estonian Basketball Association (Eesti Korvpalliliit).
The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration.
Founded in 1938, the Estonian Academy of Sciences (Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia) is Estonia's national academy of science in Tallinn.
The Estonian Air Force (Eesti Õhuvägi) is the aviation branch of the Estonian Defence Forces.
Estonian Business School is a private, higher-education institution situated in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond) is a centrist, social-liberal, and populist political party in Estonia.
The Estonian Constituent Assembly (Asutav kogu) was elected on 5–7 April 1919, called by the Estonian Provisional Government during the Estonian War of Independence.
The Estonian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Manifesto to the Peoples of Estonia (Manifest Eestimaa rahvastele), is the founding act of the Republic of Estonia from 1918.
The Estonian Defence Forces (Eesti Kaitsevägi) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
The Estonian Defence League (Eesti Kaitseliit) is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
Estonia was occupied on June 17, 1940, by Red Army troops and was forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union on August 6, 1940.
Estonian euro coins feature a single design for all eight coins.
The Estonian government-in-exile refers to the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1944 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1991–92.
An independence referendum was held in Estonia on 3 March 1991,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p574 alongside a similar referendum in Latvia the same month.
The Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity (also known as the History Commission or Max Jakobson Commission) was the commission established by President of Estonia Lennart Meri in October 1998 to investigate crimes against humanity committed in Estonia or against its citizens during the Soviet and German occupation, such as Soviet deportations from Estonia and the Holocaust in Estonia.
The kroon (sign: kr; code: EEK) was the official currency of Estonia for two periods in history: 1928–1940 and 1992–2011.
The Estonian Land Forces (Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the Estonian Army, is the name of the unified ground forces among the Estonian Defence Forces where it has an offensive military formation role.
The Estonian Land Reform Act 1919 (Estonian: 1919. Eesti maareform) was passed in Estonia on the 10 October 1919 shortly after the independence of the nation earlier that year.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Estonian Legion (Eesti Leegion, Estnische Legion) was a military unit within the Combat Support Forces of the Waffen SS Verfügungstruppe during World War II, mainly consisting of Estonian soldiers.
Estonian literature (eesti kirjandus) is literature written in the Estonian language (c. 1,100,000 speakers) The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language.
The Estonian mark (Estonian: Eesti mark) was the currency of Estonia between 1918 and 1927.
The Estonian Age of Awakening (Ärkamisaeg) is a period in history where Estonians came to acknowledge themselves as a nation deserving the right to govern themselves.
The Estonian National Independence Party (Estonian: Eesti Rahvusliku Sõltumatuse Partei), commonly abbreviated ERSP, was a nationalist political party founded on 20 August 1988 in what was then the Estonian SSR.
The Estonian National Museum (Eesti rahva muuseum) founded 1909 in Tartu is a museum devoted to folklorist Jakob Hurt's heritage, to Estonian ethnography and folk art.
Estonian citizenship – based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis – is governed by a law promulgated on the 19th of January 1995 by the Riigikogu which took effect on the 1st of April 1995.
Estonian Fund for Nature (Eestimaa Looduse Fond) or ELF is an Estonian environmental non-profit organisation.
The Estonian Navy (Eesti Merevägi), is the name of the unified naval forces among the Estonia Defence Forces.
Estonian Neopaganism, or the Estonian native faith (Estonian: Maausk, literally "Native faith"), is the name, in English, for a grouping of contemporary revivals (often called "Neopagan", although adherents of Estonian native religion generally don't use the termJüri Toomepuu.. Presentation at KLENK 2011, published on January 7, 2012. St. Petersburg, Florida.) of the indigenous Pagan religion of the Estonian people.
Parliamentary elections were held in Estonia on 24 and 25 February 1938.
Parliamentary elections were held in Estonia on 4 March 2007.
The Estonian Provincial Assembly (Maapäev) was elected after the February Revolution in 1917 as the national diet of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia in Russian Empire.
The Estonian Provisional Government (Eesti Ajutine Valitsus) was formed on February 24, 1918, by the Salvation Committee appointed by Maapäev, the Estonian Province Assembly.
Estonian Restoration of Independence (juridically defined as the Restoration of the Republic of Estonia) is celebrated on the 20th of August as on that day, in 1991 at 11:02 pm local time, the Estonian Supreme Soviet, in agreement with the Estonian Committee (the executive organ of the Estonian Congress) proclaimed Estonian independence from the Soviet Union.
The Estonian Salvation Committee (Eestimaa Päästekomitee, or Päästekomitee) was the executive body of the Estonian Provincial Assembly that issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence.
Estonian Self-Administration (Eesti Omavalitsus), also known as the Directorate, was the puppet government set up in Estonia during occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany.
The Estonian Song Festival (in Estonian: laulupidu) is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world, a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration (suveräänsusdeklaratsioon), fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest), was issued on November 16, 1988 during the Singing Revolution in Estonia.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
Estonian Students' Society (Eesti Üliõpilaste Selts, commonly used acronym: EÜS) is the largest and oldest all-male academical student society in Estonia, which is similar to Baltic German student corporations (should not be confused with American college fraternities).
The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (estlandssvenskar, "Estonia Swedes", colloquially aibofolke, "Island People", rannarootslased, i.e. "Coastal Swedes" or eestirootslased) are a Swedish-speaking minority traditionally residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia.
The Estonian University of Life Sciences (Estonian: Eesti Maaülikool, EMÜ), located in Tartu, Estonia, is the former Estonian Agricultural University, which was established in 1951 and renamed and restructured in November 2005.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
The European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT Systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (eu-Lisa) is an agency of the European Union that was founded in 2012 to ensure the uninterrupted operation of large-scale IT systems within the area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ).
EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
FIBA EuroBasket 2015 was the 39th annual edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organised by FIBA Europe.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European mink (Mustela lutreola), also known as the Russian mink, and Eurasian mink is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
In Greek mythology, Eurydice (Εὐρυδίκη, Eurydikē) was an oak nymph or one of the daughters of Apollo.
Evelin Samuel (born on 13 May 1975) is an Estonian singer.
"Everybody" was the winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2001, performed in English by Tanel Padar, Dave Benton and 2XL, representing Estonia.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
A fen is one of the main types of wetland, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, and peaty bogs.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
Infantry Regiment 200 (Jalkaväkirykmentti 200, JR 200, Jalaväerügement 200, JR 200) or soomepoisid (Finnish Boys) was a unit in the Finnish army during World War II made up mostly of Estonian volunteers, who preferred to fight against the Soviet Union in the ranks of the Finnish army instead of the armed forces of Germany.
Finnish–Estonian defence cooperation began in 1930 with a secret military pact between Finland and Estonia against the threat of the Soviet Union.
The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
The Forest Brothers (also Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren, or Forest Brotherhood; metsavennad, meža brāļi, miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
Fortumo is an international mobile technology company.
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
The freedom to roam, or "everyman's right", is the general public's right to access certain public or privately owned land for recreation and exercise.
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Василий Яковлевич Струве, trans. Vasily Yakovlevich Struve; 15 April 1793 –) was a German-Russian astronomer and geodesist from the famous Struve family.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Georg Lurich (– 20 January 1920) was an Estonian Greco-Roman wrestler and strongman of the early 20th century.
Georg Ots (21 March 1920 – 5 September 1975) was an Estonian singer and actor.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Gerd Kanter (born 6 May 1979) is an Estonian discus thrower.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
The occupation of Estonia by the German Empire occurred during the later stages of the First World War.
After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, Army Group North reached Estonia in July.
German–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact was signed in Berlin on June 7, 1939, by the Estonian and German Ministers of Foreign Affairs Karl Selter and Joachim von Ribbentrop.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Giuseppe D’Amato is an Italian historian, specializing in Russia and the former USSR, and a columnist of international politics.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.
GrabCAD, Inc. is a Cambridge, Massachusetts-based startup that has created a free cloud-based collaboration solution that helps engineering teams manage, view and share CAD files.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Famine of Estonia (also The great starvation) killed about a fifth of Estonian and Livonian population (70,000–75,000 people) in two years.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque (or grottoesque) has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween masks.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf 16 June 1858 – 29 October 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Haabersti is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.
Harjumaa, (Harria) (1200 hides), was an ancient Estonian county.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heino Eller (7 March 1887 – 16 June 1970) was an Estonian composer and composition teacher.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Hiiu County (Hiiu maakond), or Hiiumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia, being the smallest county both in terms of area and population.
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
Hiiumaa Parish is a rural municipality of Estonia on the Hiiumaa island.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Ida-Viru County (Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalinos Atominė Elektrinė, IAE, Игналинская атомная электростанция, Ignalinskaya atomnaya elektrostantsiya) is a closed two-unit RBMK-1500 nuclear power station in Visaginas Municipality, Lithuania.
Independence Day (Eesti Vabariigi aastapäev) is a national holiday in Estonia marking the anniversary of the Estonian Declaration of Independence in 1918.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
This page list topics related to Estonia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The Ingrians (inkeriläiset, inkerinsuomalaiset; Ингерманландцы, Ingermanlandtsy), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire.
Yngvar Harra (or Ingvar) Proto-Norse *Ingu-Hariz (d. early 7th century) was the son of Östen and reclaimed the Swedish throne for the House of Yngling after the Swedes had rebelled against Sölvi.
Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Ivangorod (p; Jaanilinn; Jaanilidna) is a town in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Narva River by the Estonia–Russia border, west of St. Petersburg.
The Izhorians (Ижо́ра; ижо́рцы; sg. inkerikot, isurit, ižoralaine, inkeroine, ižora, ingermans, ingers, ingrian, pl. ižoralaizet), along with the Votes, are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous people native to Ingria.
Jaan Einasto (born 23 February 1929, in Tartu) is an Estonian astrophysicist and one of the discoverers of the large-scale structure of the Universe.
Jaan Kaplinski (born 22 January 1941 in Tartu) is an Estonian poet, philosopher, and culture critic.
Jaan Kirsipuu (born 17 July 1969 in Tartu) is a retired Estonian road bicycle racer, living in Estonia.
Jaan Kross (19 February 1920 – 27 December 2007) was an Estonian writer.
Jaan Tallinn (born 14 February 1972 in Tallinn) is an Estonian programmer, investor, and physicist who participated in the development of Skype in 2002 and FastTrack/Kazaa, a file-sharing application, in 2000.
Jaan Tõnisson (near Tänassilma – 1941?, in Tallinn?) was an Estonian statesman, serving as the Prime Minister of Estonia twice during 1919 to 1920, as State Elder (head of state and government) from 1927 to 1928 and in 1933, and as Foreign Minister of Estonia from 1931 to 1932.
Jakob Hurt (in Himmaste – in St Petersburg) was a notable Estonian folklorist, theologian, and linguist.
Jakob Johann Baron von Uexküll (8 September 1864 – 25 July 1944) was a Baltic German biologist who worked in the fields of muscular physiology, animal behaviour studies, and the cybernetics of life.
Järva County (Järva maakond), or Järvamaa (Jerwen, Jervia), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Jõgeva County (Jõgeva maakond), or Jõgevamaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Jüri Ratas (born 2 July 1978, in Tallinn) is an Estonian politician who is the current leader of the Centre Party and the Prime Minister of Estonia.
Jüri Uluots (13 January 1890 – 9 January 1945) was an Estonian prime minister, journalist, prominent attorney and distinguished Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Tartu.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jogentagana (Latin: Jogentagania) was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the eastern part of the territory of Estonia.
Johan Laidoner (12 February 1884 – 13 March 1953) was an Estonian general and statesman.
Johann Voldemar Jannsen (in Vändra, Livonia, Russian Empire – in Tartu) was an Estonian journalist and poet active in Livonia.
Johannes Kotkas (3 February 1915 – 8 May 1998) was a heavyweight Greco-Roman wrestler from Estonia who won a gold medal at the 1952 Summer Olympics.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Juhan Aavik (29 January 1884 in Holstre, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire – 26 November 1982 in Stockholm, Sweden) was an Estonian composer.
The June deportation (Juuniküüditamine, Jūnija deportācijas, Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day western Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.
Kaali is a group of 9 meteorite craters in the village of Kaali on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.
Kaarel Eenpalu (until 1935 named Karl August Einbund) (in Paju talu, Vesneri Parish, Tartu County, Estonia, Russian Empire – 27/28 January 1942, Kirov Oblast, Russia, USSR) was an Estonian journalist, politician and head of state.
Kaia Kanepi (born 10 June 1985) is an Estonian professional tennis player.
Kaleva was a civilian Junkers Ju 52 passenger and transport plane, belonging to the Finnish carrier Aero O/Y.
Kalevipoeg (Kalev's Son) is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic.
Kannel is an Estonian plucked string instrument (chordophone) belonging to the Baltic box zither family known as the Baltic psaltery along with Finnish kantele, Latvian kokles, Lithuanian kanklės, and Russian gusli.
Karelians (karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.
Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.
Kazaa Media Desktop (once stylized as "KaZaA", but later usually written "Kazaa") started as a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol licensed by Joltid Ltd. and operated as Kazaa by Sharman Networks.
Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.
Kelly Sildaru (born 17 February 2002) is an Estonian freestyle skier.
Kerli Kõiv (born 7 February 1987), better known mononymously as Kerli, is an Estonian singer and songwriter.
Kersti Kaljulaid (born 30 December 1969) is an Estonian politician who is the fifth and current President of Estonia, in office since 10 October 2016.
Kesklinn (Estonian for "Central Town") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kevin Korjus (born 9 January 1993 in Tallinn) is an Estonian racing driver.
Kiiking is a sport invented in Estonia by Ado Kosk in 1993.
Koit Toome (born 3 January 1979, Tallinn), is an Estonian singer and musical actor.
Konstantin Päts (– 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of interwar Estonia, and served five times as the country's head of state.
The Korvpalli Meistriliiga (Basketball Champions League), known as the Alexela Korvpalli Meistriliiga for sponsorship reasons, is the highest level tier and most important professional club basketball competition in Estonia, and is controlled by the Estonian Basketball Association.
Kristiine (Estonian for "Christina") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kristina Šmigun-Vähi (born 23 February 1977 in Tartu) is a former and so far most successful Estonian female cross-country skier.
Kristjan Palusalu (until 1935 Kristjan Trossmann, – 17 July 1987) was an Estonian heavyweight wrestler and Olympic winner.
Kumu (Kumu kunstimuuseum) is an art museum in Tallinn, Estonia.
Kunda Culture, originating from the Swiderian culture, comprised mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards through Latvia into northern Russia, dating to the period 8500–5000 BC according to calibrated radiocarbon dating.
Kunda is a town (founded May 1, 1938) in Viru-Nigula Parish, in Estonia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.
Lahemaa National Park is a park located in northern Estonia, 70 kilometers east from the capital Tallinn.
Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Lasnamäe is the most populous administrative district of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
According to the Constitution of Estonia (Põhiseadus), the supreme power of the state is vested in the people.
Lääne County (Lääne maakond), or Läänemaa (literally "Western land"; Wiek, Rotalia), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Lääne-Viru County (Lääne-Viru maakond), or Lääne-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
The Lübeck law (Lübisches (Stadt)Recht) was the constitution of a municipal form of government developed at Lübeck, now in Schleswig-Holstein, after it was made a free city in 1226.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lembitu (Estonian also: Lembit, died 21 September 1217) was an ancient Estonian king of Sakala County and military leader in the struggle against conquest of the Estonian lands by the German Livonian Brothers of the Sword at the beginning of the 13th century.
Lenna Kuurmaa (born 26 September 1985 in Tallinn, Estonia) is an Estonian singer-songwriter and actress.
The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.
Lietuvos Energija is a state-controlled energy holding company in Lithuania.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
Irreligion, which may include deism, agnosticism, ignosticism, anti-religion, atheism, skepticism, ietsism, spiritual but not religious, freethought, anti-theism, apatheism, non-belief, pandeism, secular humanism, non-religious theism, pantheism and panentheism, varies in the different countries around the world.
This is a list of lakes in Estonia.
This is a list of national birds, most official, but some unofficial.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Loksa is a town and municipality in Harju County, northern Estonia.
Loparite-(Ce) is a granular, brittle oxide mineral of the perovskite class.
Ludvig Puusepp (also Pussep or Pousep, rus. Людвиг Мартынович Пуссеп), (in Kiev – 19 October 1942 in Tartu) was an Estonian surgeon and researcher and the world's first professor of neurosurgery.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Maarja-Liis Ilus, sometimes better known by her performing name Maarja (born 24 December 1980 in Tallinn, Estonia) is a pop musician.
Maavalla Koda (literally House of the Native Land, short for Taarausuliste ja Maausuliste Maavalla Koda, Estonian House for Taaraist and Native Religion Followers) is a religious organisation uniting adherents of the two kinds of Estonian native religion or Estonian Neopaganism: Taaraism and Maausk.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Markko Märtin (born 10 November 1975 in Tartu) is a rally driver from Estonia, who competed in the World Rally Championship from 2000 until 2005.
Marko Asmer (born 30 July 1984 in Tallinn) is an Estonian racing driver, whose career in single-seater junior formula is notable for his British Formula 3 Championship title in 2007.
Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.
Mart Saar (in Hüpassaare - 28 October 1963) was an Estonian composer, organist and collector of folk songs.
Mõhu was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the central part of the territory of Estonia.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Miina Härma (9 February 1864 – 16 November 1941) was a widely recognised Estonian composer. She was the second Estonian musician with higher education. Her greatest contribution is perhaps the fact that she took organ music to the countryside, as virtually no skilled organists gave concerts outside of towns. During her 60-year period of creativity, she wrote more than 200 choral songs, 10 cavatinas, a canto, "Kalev and Linda" and much more. Most of her works were forms of vocal music, rather than instrumentals.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Minister of Defence (Estonian: Kaitseminister) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Defence (Kaitseministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy") is the national anthem of Estonia; it was adopted as the national anthem ((riigi)hümn) in 1920.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustamäe (Estonian for Black Hill) is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Muuga Harbour (Muuga sadam) is the largest cargo port in Estonia, located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, northeast of the capital Tallinn, in Maardu.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Narva culture or eastern Baltic (c. 5300 to 1750 BC) was a European Neolithic archaeological culture found in present-day Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast (former East Prussia), and adjacent portions of Poland, Belarus and Russia.
The Narva Power Plants (Narva Elektrijaamad) are a power generation complex in and near Narva in Estonia, near the border with Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.
Nasdaq Nordic is the common name for the subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc. that provide financial services and operate marketplaces for securities in Nordic, Baltic, and Caucasus countries.
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities.
The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia (EVRK) was a self-styled resistance movement in German-occupied Estonia in March 1944.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (NICPB; Estonian Keemilise ja Bioloogilise Füüsika Instituut,'KBFI) is public non-profit research institute that carries out fundamental and applied research and engages in the development of the novel directions in material sciences, physics, chemistry, gene- and biotechnology, environmental technology, and computer science.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nõmme (Estonian for "Heath") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
Nikolai Novosjolov (born 9 June 1980) is an Estonian fencer, a two-time world champion and world silver medalist in men's épée, winning gold at the 2010 World Championships in Paris and the 2013 World Championships in Budapest, and winning the silver at the 2017 World Championships in Leipzig.
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (–) was a prominent Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847).
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.
Noarootsi Parish (Noarootsi vald, Nuckö kommun) was a rural municipality in Lääne County, western Estonia between 1991 and 2017.
Nord Pool AS runs the largest market for electrical energy in Europe, measured in volume traded (TWh) and in market share.
NORDEFCO (Nordic Defence Cooperation) is a collaboration among the Nordic countries in the area of defense.
The Nordic Battlegroup (NBG) is one of eighteen European Union battlegroups.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an international financial institution founded in the mid-1970s by the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) is a regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nurmekund (Low German: Nurmegunde) was a small independent country (ancient Estonian county) on the north coast of Lake Võrtsjärv in Central Estonia, bordered by Sakala, Alempois, Järvamaa, Mõhu, and Ugandi.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
The Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant (Olkiluodon ydinvoimalaitos) is on Olkiluoto Island, which is on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia in the municipality of Eurajoki in western Finland.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Operation Faustschlag ("Operation Fist Punch"), also known as the Eleven Days' War,Mawdsley (2007), p. 35 was a Central Powers offensive against the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
Operation Priboi ("Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Oskar Luts (– 23 March 1953) was an Estonian writer and playwright.
Osmussaar (Odensholm) is an Estonian island situated in the mouth of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, 7.5 km off the Estonian mainland.
Ott Tänak (born 15 October 1987) is an Estonian rally driver.
Otto Tief (– 5 March 1976) was an Estonian politician, military commander (during the Estonian War of Independence), and a lawyer.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Estonia: Estonia – state of 1.29 million people in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Patriotic League (Isamaaliit) was a political movement in Estonia, and the only legally permitted party in the country between 1935 and 1940.
Paul Keres (January 7, 1916June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and chess writer.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
The Pärnu (Pärnu jõgi) is a river in Estonia that drains into the Gulf of Riga at Pärnu.
Pärnu County (Pärnu maakond), or Pärnumaa (Kreis Pernau), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Põhja-Tallinn (Estonian for "Northern Tallinn") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Põlva County (Põlva maakond), or Põlvamaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Pechorsky District (Печо́рский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.
Pechory (Печо́ры; Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town and the administrative center of Pechorsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia.
A pentalogy (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a compound literary or narrative work that is explicitly divided into five parts.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petseri County (Petserimaa) was a county of Estonia established in 1918.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
The Phosphorite War (Fosforiidisõda) is the name given to a late-1980s environmental campaign in the then-Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, against the opening of large phosphorite mines in the Virumaa region.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Pillage of Sigtuna was an event in the summer of 1187 described in the Eric Chronicles and in annals from the 13th century.
Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The term Polish–Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—the "Republic of the Two Nations"—in 1569 and eventually to the creation of a short-lived unitary state in 1791.
The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.
The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
The Popular Front of Estonia (Rahvarinne), introduced to the public by the Estonian politician Edgar Savisaar under the short-lived name Popular Front for the Support of Perestroika, was a political organisation in Estonia in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Postimees (The Postman) is an Estonian daily newspaper established on January 1, 1857, by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
Priit Kasesalu (born 10 April 1972) is an Estonian programmer and software developer best known for his participation in the development of Kazaa, Skype and, most recently, Joost.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protected areas of Estonia are regulated by the Nature Conservation Act, which was passed by the Estonian parliament on April 21, 2004 and entered into force May 10, 2004.
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Pskov Oblast (Пско́вская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the west of the country.
Pulli settlement, located on the right bank of the Pärnu River, is the oldest known human settlement in Estonia.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information-generation and -sharing, media, and research and development, as well as knowledge-based services like consultation, education, financial planning, blogging, and designing.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Ragnar Nurkse (Käru, Estonia – 6 May 1959, near Lake Geneva, Switzerland) was an Estonian international economist and policy maker mainly in the fields of international finance and economic development.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Rapla County (Rapla maakond), or Raplamaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
"Rändajad" (English translation: Nomads or Travellers) is a song by the Estonian band Urban Symphony, composed by Sven Lõhmus, and represented Estonia at the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 in Moscow, Russia.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian political scientist and former politician.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Revala (also Rävälä, Revalia, by Henry of Livonia Revele, by Danish Census Book Revælæ) was an Ancient Estonian county.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
Risto Kalervo Näätänen (born June 14, 1939 in Helsinki, Finland) is a psychological scientist, pioneer in the field of cognitive neuroscience, and known worldwide as one of the discoverers of the electrophysiological mismatch negativity.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rudolf Tobias (– 29 October 1918) was the first Estonian professional composer, as well as a professional organist.
Ruhnu (Runö; Roņu sala) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea.
A rural municipality, often abbreviated RM, is a type of municipal status in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, to be called rural municipalities and soon to be Prince Edward Island, or a group of municipal status types in the provinces of Alberta and Nova Scotia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The population of Russians in Estonia is estimated at 320,000, most of whom live in the urban areas of Harju and Ida-Viru counties.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Saare County (Saare maakond), or Saaremaa; (Oesel; Ösel) is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.
Sakala County (Estonian: Sakala, Latin: Saccalia) was an ancient Estonian county first mentioned in print by Henry of Latvia in the beginning of the 13th Century.
The Sarmatic mixed forests constitute an ecoregion within the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature classification (ecoregion PA0436).
A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.
Seto (seto kiil´; setu keel) is a dialect of South Estonian spoken by 12,549 people.
Setos (setokõsõq, setoq, setud) are an indigenous ethnic and linguistic minority in south-eastern Estonia and north-western Russia.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) is an Old World flying squirrel with a range from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Coast in the east.
Sigtuna is a locality situated in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 8,444 inhabitants in 2010.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Sindi (Zintenhof) is a town in Tori Parish, in Pärnu County, Estonia, with a population of 3906 in 2017.
The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
Smallville is an American television series developed by writer-producers Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, based on the DC Comics character Superman created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster.
The Society of Estonian Literati (Eesti Kirjameeste Selts - EKmS) was an influential association of Estonian intellectuals based in Tartu between the years 1871 and 1893.
Soopoolitse was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the eastern part of the territory of Estonia.
South Estonian is spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, encompassing the Tartu, Mulgi, Võro and Seto varieties.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, also called Tallinn disaster or Russian Dunkirk, was a Soviet operation to evacuate the 190 ships of the Baltic Fleet, units of the Red Army, and pro-Soviet civilians from the fleet's encircled main base of Tallinn in Soviet-occupied Estonia during August 1941.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty, also known as the Bases Treaty was a bilateral treaty signed in Moscow on 28 September 1939.
Soviet–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact was a non-aggression pact, signed between the Soviet Union and Estonia on May 4, 1932.
Special administrative region is a designation for types of administrative territorial entities in China, North Korea and Indonesia.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
State continuity of the Baltic states describes the continuity of the Baltic states as legal entities under international lawZiemele (2005).
The State of World Liberty Index was a ranking of countries according to the degree of economic and personal freedoms that their citizens enjoy.
Statistics Estonia (Statistikaamet) is the Estonian government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Estonia.
Sten Pentus (born 3 November 1981 in Tallinn) is an Estonian racing driver.
The Stimson Doctrine is the policy of nonrecognition of states created as a result of aggression.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The Supreme Court of Estonia (Riigikohus) is the court of last resort in Estonia.
The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.
Suur Munamägi (in translation "Big Egg Mountain") is the highest peak in Estonia (and the Baltic states), reaching above sea level.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
The Swedish Institute of International Affairs (Utrikespolitiska Institutet (UI)) is a public-service organization located in central Stockholm, Sweden.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tallinn Offensive (Таллинская наступательная операция) was a strategic offensive by the Red Army's 2nd Shock and 8th Armies and the Baltic Fleet against the German Army Detachment ''Narwa'' and Estonian units in mainland Estonia on the Eastern Front of World War II on 17–26 September 1944.
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) are the grounds on which the Estonian Song Festival is held every five years.
The Nasdaq Tallinn Stock Exchange is a stock exchange operating in Tallinn, Estonia.
Tallinn University (TU; Tallinna Ülikool, TLÜ) is a public research university in Estonia.
Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TTÜ; Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, abbreviated TTÜ) is the only technical university in Estonia.
Tanel Padar (born 27 October 1980) is an Estonian singer and songwriter.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Tartu County (Tartu maakond), or Tartumaa (Kreis Dorpat), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Tõnu Õnnepalu (born 13 September 1962), also known by the pen names Emil Tode and Anton Nigov, is an Estonian poet, author and translator.
Telephone numbers in Estonia follow a closed telephone numbering plan.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Taara (variations of the name include Tooru, Tharapita and Tarapitha) is a prominent god in Estonian mythology.
The Holocaust in Estonia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
Theatre of Estonia dates to 1784 when August von Kotzebue founded an amateur theatre company in Tallinn.
Thomas Johann Seebeck (9 April 1770 – 10 December 1831) was a Baltic German physicist, who, in 1821, discovered the thermoelectric effect.
Tiigrihüpe (Estonian for Tiger's Leap) was a project undertaken by Republic of Estonia to heavily invest in development and expansion of computer and network infrastructure in Estonia, with a particular emphasis on education.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
TransferWise is an Estonian developed and UK-based money transfer service launched in January 2011 by Kristo Käärmann and Taavet Hinrikus with headquarters in London and offices in a number of cities including Tallinn, New York and Singapore.
Tartu Peace Treaty (Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu is a peace treaty between Estonia and Soviet Russia signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence.
Truth and Justice (Tõde ja õigus) I-V, written in 1926–1933, is a pentalogy by Anton Hansen Tammsaare, considered to be his most famous work, and one of the foundational works in Estonian literature.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Ugandi (Latin: Ungannia or Ugaunia; Ugaunija; Low German: Uggn) was an independent county between the east coast of Lake Võrtsjärv and west coast of Lake Pskov, bordered by Vaiga, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Sakala, Tālava, and The Principality of Pskov.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Urban Symphony is an Estonian music group.
Vaiga was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the eastern part of the territory of Estonia.
Vaino Väljas (born 28 March 1931 in Külaküla, Hiiumaa) is a former Soviet politician.
Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241.
Valga County (Valga maakond), or Valgamaa is the first-level administrative unit in Estonia and one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Vanilla Ninja was an Estonian all-female rock trio which enjoyed chart success in a number of countries across Europe, especially in Estonia, Germany and Austria.
Vaps Movement, (Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Keskliit, later Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Liit, vabadussõjalased, or colloquially vapsid, a single member of this movement was called vaps) the Union of Participants in the Estonian War of Independence was founded as an Estonian association of veterans of the Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920).
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Võros (Võro: võrokõsõq, pronounced, võrukesed) are inhabitants of historical Võrumaa (Vana Võromaa), a region in Southeastern Estonia (Võru and Põlva Counties with parts extending into Valga and Tartu Counties).
Võrumaa, or Võru maakond (Võru County,, Võro maakund) officially, is a county in Southern Estonia.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Veljo Tormis (7 August 1930 – 21 January 2017) was an Estonian composer, regarded as one of the greatest living choral composers and one of the most important composers of the 20th century in Estonia.
Viljandi (Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,473 in 2013.
Viljandi County (Viljandi maakond or Viljandimaa, Kreis Fellin), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Virumaa (Vironia; Low German: Wierland; Old Norse: Virland) is a former independent county in Ancient Estonia.
Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant is a planned nuclear power plant project in Lithuania.
Voldemar Väli (10 January 1903 – 13 April 1997) was an Estonian two-time Olympic medalist in Greco-Roman wrestling.
Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand.
The Warsaw Accord was signed on 17 March 1922 by Finland, Poland, Estonia and Latvia, but the Finnish parliament failed to ratify it and therefore it never entered into force.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is a very large eagle widely distributed across Eurasia.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
The X Games is an annual extreme sports event hosted, produced, and broadcast by ESPN.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yuri Mikhailovich Lotman (Ю́рий Миха́йлович Ло́тман, Juri Lotman) (Petrograd, 28 February 1922 – Tartu, 28 October 1993) was a prominent literary scholar, semiotician, and cultural historian, who worked at the University of Tartu.
The Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung (Journal of East Central European Studies) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history and culture of Eastern Europe.
Zither is a class of stringed instruments.
.ee is the internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of Estonia, operated by the Estonian Internet Foundation.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1920 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.
The Attempted coup of 1924 in Estonia (1.),Estonia and the Estonians, Hoover Institution Press, p.15 conducted by the Comintern, was a failed coup attempt in Estonia staged by Communists (mostly infiltrated from Soviet Union) on December 1, 1924.
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Berlin, Germany, from 1 August to 16 August.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The 2004 World Rally Championship was the 32nd season of the FIA World Rally Championship.
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held in Turin, Italy, from February 10 to February 26, 2006.
A series of cyber attacks began 27 April 2007 that swamped websites of Estonian organizations, including Estonian parliament, banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters, amid the country's disagreement with Russia about the relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, an elaborate Soviet-era grave marker, as well as war graves in Tallinn.
The 2011 Population and Housing Census (PHC 2011) (Rahva ja eluruumide loendus (REL 2011)).
The 2016–17 Korvpalli Meistriliiga season (also known as the Alexela Korvpalli Meistriliiga for sponsorship reasons) is the 92nd season of top-tier basketball in Estonia.
The 2017 Rally Italia Sardegna was the seventh round of the 2017 World Rally Championship and was the 14th running of the Rally d'Italia Sardegna.
20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian) (20., 20.) was a unit of the Waffen SS established on 25 May 1944 in German-occupied Estonia during World War II.
Administrative divisions of Estonia, Eesti, Eesti Vabariik, Eestimaa, Esthonia, Estija, Estonie, Etymology of Estonia, ISO 3166-1:EE, Igaunija, Name of Estonia, Prehistoric Estonia, Republic of Estonia, Republic of Estonia (1918-1940), Republic of Estonia (1918–1940), Republic of Estonia (1919–1940), Subdivisions of Estonia, Эстония.