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Estonian War of Independence

Index Estonian War of Independence

The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr. [1]

144 relations: Ainaži, Alūksne, Aleksander Tõnisson, Allies of World War I, Andres Larka, Andrievs Niedra, Anton Irv, Armoured train, Arthur Ransome, August Rei, Baltic Defence College, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Germans, Baltic nobility, Baltische Landeswehr, Battle of Cēsis (1919), Battle of Krivasoo, Battle of Paju, Battle of Utria, Bogatyr-class cruiser, Bolsheviks, Broad-gauge railway, California, Captain (armed forces), Carl Axel Mothander, Cēsis, Chief of staff, Colonel, Commander-in-chief, Commemorative Medal for the Estonian War of Independence, Commune of the Working People of Estonia, Cross of Liberty (Estonia), Danes, Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps, Daugava, Diet (assembly), Edwyn Alexander-Sinclair, Ernst Põdder, Estonia, Estonian Constituent Assembly election, 1919, Estonian Declaration of Independence, Estonian Defence League, Estonian Land Forces, Estonian Navy, Estonian Provincial Assembly election, 1917, Estonian Provisional Government, Estonian Red Riflemen, Estonian Salvation Committee, Field gun, Finland, ..., Finns, Freikorps in the Baltic, Gauja, Georgy Chicherin, German Army (German Empire), German Empire, German occupation of Estonia during World War I, German Revolution of 1918–19, Gulbene, Gulf of Finland, Hans Kalm, Heimosodat, History of Estonia, Imperial Germans, Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 405, Ingria, Jaan Maide, Jaan Tõnisson, Jēkabpils, Johan Laidoner, Jorģis Zemitāns, Jukums Vācietis, Kārlis Ulmanis, Konstantin Päts, Krasnaya Gorka fort, Krišjānis Berķis, Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion, Lake Lubāns, Lake Peipus, Land reform, Latvia, Latvian Riflemen, Latvian War of Independence, Liepāja, Limbaži, Lithuanian Wars of Independence, Luga River, Machine gun, Maidla, Juuru Parish, Major general, Mebibyte, Monterey, California, Names in Marble, Narva, Narva River, Nikolai Yudenich, Northwestern Army (Russia), Oskars Kalpaks, Otto Strandman, Pavel Bermondt-Avalov, Pechory, Petseri County, Pskov, Pskov Oblast, Pytalovo, Rüdiger von der Goltz, Rūjiena, Rear admiral, Richard Gustav Borgelin, Royal Navy, Russia, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Salacgrīva, Santa Barbara, California, Seda, Latvia, Setomaa, Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19, Straupe, Swedes, Tallinn, Tapa, Estonia, Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian), United Kingdom, Valga, Estonia, Valmiera, Vaps Movement, Vastseliina, Velikaya River, Vidzeme, Viktor Puskar, Virumaa, Walter Cowan, War of Independence Victory Column, West Russian Volunteer Army, White movement, World War I, 1st Division (Estonia), 2nd Division (Estonia), 3rd Division (Estonia), 6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 7th Army (RSFSR). Expand index (94 more) »

Ainaži

Ainaži (pronounced; Heinaste, Haynasch) is a harbour town in the Vidzeme region of Latvia.

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Alūksne

Alūksne is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia.

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Aleksander Tõnisson

Aleksander Tõnisson VR I/1 (April 17, 1875 – June 30, 1941) was an Estonian military commander (Major General) during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Andres Larka

ạ Andres Larka VR I/1 (5 March 1879 Pilistvere, Kabala Parish (now in Kõo Parish, Viljandi County) Estonia – 8 January 1943 Malmyzh, Kirov, Soviet Union) was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence and a politician.

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Andrievs Niedra

Andrievs Niedra (archaic spelling: Andreews Needra; born 8 February 1871 in Tirza parish, Russian Empire – 25 September 1942 in Riga, Reichskommissariat Ostland) was a Latvian writer, Lutheran pastor and the Prime Minister of the German puppet government in Latvia between April and June 1919, during the Latvian War of Independence.

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Anton Irv

Anton Irv VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 (17 September 1886 – 27 April 1919) was a highly decorated Estonian combat soldier and military officer during World War I and in the Estonian War of Independence.

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Armoured train

An armoured train is a railway train protected with armour.

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Arthur Ransome

Arthur Michell Ransome (18 January 1884 – 3 June 1967) was an English author and journalist.

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August Rei

August Rei VR III/1 (– 29 March 1963) was an Estonian Social Democratic politician.

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Baltic Defence College

The Baltic Defence College (official acronym BALTDEFCOL) is a multinational military college, established by the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) in 1999.

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Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic nobility

The Baltic or Baltic German nobility was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltische Landeswehr

The Baltic Landwehr or Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Territorial Army") was the name of the unified armed forces of the Couronian and Livonian nobility from 7 December 1918 to 3 July 1919.

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Battle of Cēsis (1919)

The Battle of Cēsis (Cēsu kaujas; Võnnu lahing Battle of Võnnu; Schlacht von Wenden, Battle of Wenden), fought near Cēsis (or Võnnu, Wenden) in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.

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Battle of Krivasoo

Battle of Krivasoo (Krivasoo lahing; November 18, 1919 - December 30, 1919) took place in the Kriivasoo swamp, Estonia during the Estonian War of Independence between Estonian Army and the Red Army.

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Battle of Paju

The Battle of Paju (Paju lahing) was fought in Paju, near Valga, Estonia, on 31 January 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Battle of Utria

Battle of Utria (Utria dessant) took place during the Estonian War of Independence on 17–20 January 1919 at Udria beach.

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Bogatyr-class cruiser

The Bogatyr class were a group of protected cruisers built for the Imperial Russian Navy.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Broad-gauge railway

A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the standard-gauge railways.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Carl Axel Mothander

Carl Axel Mothander (18861965) a former Swedish reserve officer; major in the White Finnish Army in the Finnish War of Independence 1917/18, organizer of the Finnish White Army's field hospitals promoted to major; commander of the Swedish volunteers in the Estonian War of Independence promoted to lieutenant colonel.

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Cēsis

Cēsis, (Wenden, Venden, Võnnu, Kieś) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Central Vidzeme Upland.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Colonel

Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commemorative Medal for the Estonian War of Independence

The Commemorative Medal for the Estonian War of Independence (Eesti Vabadussõja mälestusmärk) is an Estonian medal established on 14 December 1920 and awarded to those who served in the Estonian War of Independence of 1918-1920.

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Commune of the Working People of Estonia

The Commune of the Working People of Estonia (Eesti Töörahva Kommuun, initially Eesti Töörahwa Kommuuna; Эстляндская трудовая коммуна, ЭТК or ETK) was an unrecognised government claiming the Bolshevik-occupied parts of Republic of Estonia as its territories during the Estonian War of Independence and the Russian Civil War.

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Cross of Liberty (Estonia)

The Cross of Liberty was a medal established by then Prime Minister of Estonia, Konstantin Päts, on 24 February 1919 to honor people for their services during the Estonian War of Independence and conferred in three grades, each in three classes.

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Danes

Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.

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Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps

Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps (DBAC) was a Danish company of military volunteers, established 1919 as a non-governmental initiative to help in the Estonian and Latvian war of independence.

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Daugava

The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.

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Diet (assembly)

In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.

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Edwyn Alexander-Sinclair

Admiral Sir Edwyn Sinclair Alexander-Sinclair (1865 – 13 November 1945) was a British Royal Navy officer, notable for firing the first shots of the Battle of Jutland, and for leading a squadron of light cruisers in the Baltic to support independence of Estonia and Latvia in 1918–1919.

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Ernst Põdder

Ernst Põdder VR I/1 (10 February 1879 - 24 June 1932) was a famous Estonian military commander in the Estonian War of Independence.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonian Constituent Assembly election, 1919

The Estonian Constituent Assembly (Asutav kogu) was elected on 5–7 April 1919, called by the Estonian Provisional Government during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Estonian Declaration of Independence

The Estonian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Manifesto to the Peoples of Estonia (Manifest Eestimaa rahvastele), is the founding act of the Republic of Estonia from 1918.

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Estonian Defence League

The Estonian Defence League (Eesti Kaitseliit) is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.

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Estonian Land Forces

The Estonian Land Forces (Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the Estonian Army, is the name of the unified ground forces among the Estonian Defence Forces where it has an offensive military formation role.

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Estonian Navy

The Estonian Navy (Eesti Merevägi), is the name of the unified naval forces among the Estonia Defence Forces.

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Estonian Provincial Assembly election, 1917

The Estonian Provincial Assembly (Maapäev) was elected after the February Revolution in 1917 as the national diet of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia in Russian Empire.

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Estonian Provisional Government

The Estonian Provisional Government (Eesti Ajutine Valitsus) was formed on February 24, 1918, by the Salvation Committee appointed by Maapäev, the Estonian Province Assembly.

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Estonian Red Riflemen

Estonian Riflemen, Estonian Red Riflemen, Estonian Red Army, Estonian Red Guards (Eesti Kütiväed, Eesti Punased Kütid, Eestimaa Punaarmee, Eesti Punakaart) were military formations assembled starting 1917 in the Soviet Russia.

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Estonian Salvation Committee

The Estonian Salvation Committee (Eestimaa Päästekomitee, or Päästekomitee) was the executive body of the Estonian Provincial Assembly that issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence.

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Field gun

A field gun is a field artillery piece.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finns

Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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Freikorps in the Baltic

After 1918, the term Freikorps was used for the anti-communist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around the German Empire, including in the Baltic states, as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. It was one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time.

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Gauja

The Gauja River (Koiva jõgi, Livländische Aa) is a river in Vidzeme, Latvia.

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Georgy Chicherin

Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (24 November 1872– 7 July 1936) was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician.

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German Army (German Empire)

The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German occupation of Estonia during World War I

The occupation of Estonia by the German Empire occurred during the later stages of the First World War.

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German Revolution of 1918–19

The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.

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Gulbene

Gulbene (Schwanenburg) is a town in northeastern Latvia.

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Hans Kalm

Hans Kalm (21 April 1889 – 1 February 1981) was an Estonian soldier who served in the armies of Russian Empire, Finland and Estonia.

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Heimosodat

The term in Finnish historiography heimosodat has been translated literally into English as "Kindred Nations Wars", "Wars for kindred peoples" or "Kinship Wars," specifically Finnic kinship.

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History of Estonia

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

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Imperial Germans

Reichsdeutsche, literally translated "Germans of the Reich", is an archaic term for those ethnic Germans who resided within the German state that was founded in 1871.

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Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 405

Infanterie-Regiment Nr.

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Ingria

Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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Jaan Maide

Jaan Maide, VR II/3 (30 May 1896 – 10 August 1945) was a senior Estonian Army officer who fought in World War I, the Estonian War of Independence and World War II.

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Jaan Tõnisson

Jaan Tõnisson (near Tänassilma – 1941?, in Tallinn?) was an Estonian statesman, serving as the Prime Minister of Estonia twice during 1919 to 1920, as State Elder (head of state and government) from 1927 to 1928 and in 1933, and as Foreign Minister of Estonia from 1931 to 1932.

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Jēkabpils

Jēkabpils (Jakobstadt; Jakubów) is a city in southeastern Latvia roughly halfway between Riga and Daugavpils and spanning the Daugava River.

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Johan Laidoner

Johan Laidoner (12 February 1884 – 13 March 1953) was an Estonian general and statesman.

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Jorģis Zemitāns

Jorģis Zemitāns (23 February 1873, Skrīveri parish – 16 January 1928, Riga) was an army officer and commander of the Latvian Northern Brigade during the Latvian War of Independence.

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Jukums Vācietis

Jukums Vācietis (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис, Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis; 11 November 1873 – 28 July 1938) was a Latvian Soviet military commander.

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Kārlis Ulmanis

Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.

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Konstantin Päts

Konstantin Päts (– 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of interwar Estonia, and served five times as the country's head of state.

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Krasnaya Gorka fort

Krasnaya Gorka (Красная Горка meaning red Hill) is a coastal artillery fortress west of Lomonosov, Russia on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, opposite Kotlin Island and the Baltic Fleet's base at Kronstadt.

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Krišjānis Berķis

Krišjānis Berķis (April 26, 1884 in Īslīce parish, Bauska municipality, Courland, modern Latvia – July 29, 1942 in Perm, Russia) was a Latvian general.

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Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion

The Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion (Kuperjanovi jalaväepataljon) is a battalion of the Estonian Land Forces.

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Lake Lubāns

Lake Lubāns is a lake in Latvia (in Latvian: Lubāns, Lubānas ezers or Lubāna ezers).

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Lake Peipus

Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.

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Land reform

Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Latvian Riflemen

Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.

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Latvian War of Independence

The Latvian War of Independence (Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally, "Latvia's freedom struggles"), sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvijas atbrīvošanas karš, "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the newly proclaimed Republic of Latvia was invaded by Soviet Russia, and the signing of the Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty on 11 August 1920.

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Liepāja

Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.

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Limbaži

Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.

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Lithuanian Wars of Independence

The Lithuanian Wars of Independence, also known as the Freedom Struggles (Laisvės kovos), refer to three wars Lithuania fought defending its independence at the end of World War I: with Bolshevik forces (December 1918 – August 1919), Bermontians (June 1919 – December 1919), and Poland (August 1920 – November 1920).

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Luga River

The Luga River is a river in Novgorodsky and Batetsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Luzhsky, Volosovsky, Slantsevsky, and Kingiseppsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast of Russia.

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Machine gun

A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.

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Maidla, Juuru Parish

Maidla is a village in Juuru Parish, Rapla County in northwestern Estonia.

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Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Mebibyte

The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Monterey, California

Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.

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Names in Marble

Names in Marble (Nimed marmortahvlil) is an Estonian war novel written by Albert Kivikas.

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Narva

Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.

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Narva River

The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.

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Nikolai Yudenich

Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.

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Northwestern Army (Russia)

The Northwestern Army was a White Army that operated in the Pskov Governorate, Estonia and Latvia during the Russian Civil War from 1919 to 1920.

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Oskars Kalpaks

Oskars Kalpaks (6 January 1882–6 March 1919) was the commander of 1st Latvian Independent Battalion, also known as "Kalpaks Battalion".

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Otto Strandman

Otto August Strandman (– 5 February 1941) was an Estonian politician, who served as Prime Minister (1919) and State Elder of Estonia (1929–1931).

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Pavel Bermondt-Avalov

Pavel Rafalovich Bermon(d)t-Avalov (Avalishvili) (Павел Рафалович Бермон(д)т-Авалов) (4 March 1877 – 27 January 1974) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord.

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Pechory

Pechory (Печо́ры; Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town and the administrative center of Pechorsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Petseri County

Petseri County (Petserimaa) was a county of Estonia established in 1918.

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Pskov

Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

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Pskov Oblast

Pskov Oblast (Пско́вская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the west of the country.

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Pytalovo

Pytalovo (Пыта́лово; Pitalova) is a town and the administrative center of Pytalovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Utroya River (a tributary of the Velikaya), southwest of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Rüdiger von der Goltz

Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz (8 December 1865 – 4 November 1946) was a German army general during the First World War.

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Rūjiena

Rūjiena (Rujen; Ruhja) is a town in Latvia, seat of the homonym municipality, in the northern Vidzeme.

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Rear admiral

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.

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Richard Gustav Borgelin

Captain Richard Gustav Borgelin (10 February 1887, Herning, Denmark – 8 December 1966, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Danish officer and company commander of the Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps (DBAC) in 1919 during the Estonian and Latvian War of Independence.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Salacgrīva

Salacgrīva (is a town in the northern part of Vidzeme's region, Latvia. The centre of the area surrounding Salacgriva is the mouth of Salaca River, and the town's name literally means "Mouth of Salaca" in Latvian. It is famous for hosting Positivus Festival every July since 2007 for 3 days attracting thousands of tourists. The distance from Salacgriva to the capital of Latvia - Riga is 103 km, to Limbaži – 50 km, to Valmiera – 95 km. Export of timber, wood-working industry, food production and trade are the most important factors in the economy of Salacgriva.

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Santa Barbara, California

Santa Barbara (Spanish for "Saint Barbara") is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California.

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Seda, Latvia

Seda is a town in Latvia founded in 1952.

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Setomaa

Setomaa (Сетумаа, Setomaa) is a region south of Lake Peipus and inhabited by the Seto people.

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Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the proto-Soviet Union into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia.

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Straupe

Straupe is a village in the Pārgauja municipality of Latvia.

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Swedes

Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Tapa, Estonia

Tapa is a town in Tapa Parish, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia.

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Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)

Tartu Peace Treaty (Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu is a peace treaty between Estonia and Soviet Russia signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Valga, Estonia

Valga (Walk) is a town in southern Estonia and the capital of Valga County.

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Valmiera

Valmiera (Wolmar; Wolmar see other names) is the largest city of the historical Vidzeme region, Latvia, with a total area of.

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Vaps Movement

Vaps Movement, (Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Keskliit, later Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Liit, vabadussõjalased, or colloquially vapsid, a single member of this movement was called vaps) the Union of Participants in the Estonian War of Independence was founded as an Estonian association of veterans of the Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920).

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Vastseliina

Vastseliina (Vahtsõliina) is a small borough (alevik) in Vastseliina Parish, Võru County in southeastern Estonia.

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Velikaya River

The Velikaya is a river in Novosokolnichesky, Pustoshkinsky, Sebezhsky, Opochetsky, Pushkinogorsky, Ostrovsky, Palkinsky, and Pskovsky Districts of Pskov Oblast, as well as in the city of Pskov in Russia.

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Vidzeme

Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.

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Viktor Puskar

Viktor Puskar VR I/1 (in Viljandi – 12 April 1943 in Tartu) was an Estonian military commander (Colonel) during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Virumaa

Virumaa (Vironia; Low German: Wierland; Old Norse: Virland) is a former independent county in Ancient Estonia.

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Walter Cowan

Admiral Sir Walter Henry Cowan, 1st Baronet, KCB, DSO & Bar, MVO (11 June 1871 – 14 February 1956), known as Tich Cowan, was a British Royal Navy admiral who saw service in both World War I and World War II; in the latter he was one of the oldest British servicemen on active duty.

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War of Independence Victory Column

The Cross of Liberty and the Monument to the War of Independence (Vabadussõja võidusammas) is located in Freedom Square, Tallinn, Estonia.

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West Russian Volunteer Army

The West Russian Volunteer Army or Bermontians was an army in the Baltic provinces of the former Russian Empire during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.

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White movement

The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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1st Division (Estonia)

The 1st Division was one of the three Estonian divisions created during the Estonian War of Independence, which was active till the Soviet occupation of Estonia.

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2nd Division (Estonia)

The 2nd Division, was one of the three Estonian divisions created during the Estonian War of Independence, which was active till the Soviet occupation of Estonia.

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3rd Division (Estonia)

The 3rd Division of the Estonian Army, was one of the three Estonian divisions created during the Estonian War of Independence, which was active till the Soviet occupation of Estonia.

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6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 6th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army, formed twice.

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7th Army (RSFSR)

The 7th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which existed between November 1918 and February 1920.

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Redirects here:

Defense of Petrograd, Estonian Freedom War, Estonian Liberation War, Estonian war of independence, German evacuation of Tallinn (1918).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_War_of_Independence

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