113 relations: Abessive case, Ablative case, Accusative case, Adessive case, Ado Grenzstein, Age of Enlightenment, Agglutinative language, Allative case, American Journal of Political Science, Ancient Greek, Anton thor Helle, BABEL Speech Corpus, Back vowel, Baltic Germans, Bengt Gottfried Forselius, Bulgarian language, Close back unrounded vowel, Close vowel, Close-mid back unrounded vowel, Close-mid central unrounded vowel, Comitative case, Declension, Dialect, Elative case, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Essive case, Estonia, Estonian Braille, Estonian literature, Estonian orthography, Estonian War of Independence, Estonians, Estonica, Ex nihilo, Finnic languages, Finnish language, First language, French language, Front vowel, Fusional language, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Grammatical gender, Grapheme, Hanseatic League, High German languages, Hiiumaa, ..., Hungarian language, Illative case, Inessive case, Institute of the Estonian Language, Jaan Kaplinski, Jaan Kross, Johannes Aavik, Karelian language, Kristjan Jaak Peterson, Lake Peipus, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Language family, Language planning, Latin, Latin script, Lääne County, Lingua franca, Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Mid vowel, Middle Low German, Midwest Political Science Association, New Testament, Nominative case, Northeastern coastal Estonian, Object (grammar), Official language, Open vowel, Orthography, Palgrave Macmillan, Partitive case, Pärnu, Pärnu County, Põlva, Püssi, Perestroika, Phoneme, Proper noun, Reformation, Roundedness, Russian language, Saaremaa, Sami languages, Seto dialect, Shore, South Estonian, Soviet Union, Standard German, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Swedish language, Tallinn, Tartu, Telicity, Terminative case, Translative case, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Tartu, Uralic languages, Võro language, Vietnamese language, Voiceless glottal fricative, Vowel harmony, World War II. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or), caritive and privative (abbreviated) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
In Uralic languages, such as Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian, the adessive case (abbreviated; from Latin adesse "to be present") is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "on".
Ado Grenzstein, pseudonym A. Piirikivi (February 5, 1849 - April 20, 1916) was an Estonian journalist, writer and teacher, brother of Tõnis Grenzstein.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
The American Journal of Political Science is a journal published by the Midwest Political Science Association.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anton thor Helle (in Tallinn – in Jüri; also Anton Thorhelle, Anton torHelle, Anton thorHelle or Anthonij Torhelle) was the translator of the first Bible in Estonian in 1739, and the first Estonian grammar.
The BABEL speech corpus is a corpus of recorded speech materials from five Central and Eastern European languages.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
Bengt Gottfried Forselius (ca 1660, Harju-Madise, Harju County, Swedish Estonia – November 16, 1688, Baltic Sea) was a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier.
The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Elative (abbreviated; from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative case with the basic meaning "out of".
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The essive case, or similaris case (abbreviated) is one example of a grammatical case, an inflectional morphological process by which a form is altered or marked to indicate its grammatical function.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Estonian language.
Estonian literature (eesti kirjandus) is literature written in the Estonian language (c. 1,100,000 speakers) The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
Estonica is a comprehensive encyclopædia on topics relating to Estonia, particularly the culture and history of Estonia.
Ex nihilo is a Latin phrase meaning "out of nothing".
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Illative (abbreviated; from Latin illatus "brought in") is, in the Finnish language, the Estonian language, the Lithuanian language, and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "into (the inside of)".
Inessive case (abbreviated; from Latin inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case.
The Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut) is the language regulator of the Estonian language.
Jaan Kaplinski (born 22 January 1941 in Tartu) is an Estonian poet, philosopher, and culture critic.
Jaan Kross (19 February 1920 – 27 December 2007) was an Estonian writer.
Johannes Aavik (in Randvere, Laimjala Parish, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire – 18 March 1973 in Stockholm) was an Estonian philologist and Fennophile who played a significant role in the modernization and development of the Estonian language.
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.
Kristian Jaak Peterson (Riga –, Riga) also known as Christian Jacob Petersohn, was an Estonian poet, commonly regarded as a herald of Estonian national literature and the founder of modern Estonian poetry.
Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lääne County (Lääne maakond), or Läänemaa (literally "Western land"; Wiek, Rotalia), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
The Midwest Political Science Association (MPSA) is a professional association of political science scholars and students in the United States.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Northeastern coastal dialect (Estonian: kirderannikumurre) is a dialect (or dialect group) of the Estonian language.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The partitive case (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity".
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Pärnu County (Pärnu maakond), or Pärnumaa (Kreis Pernau), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Põlva is a town in southeastern Estonia, the capital of Põlva County, and the centre of Põlva Parish.
Püssi is a town in Lüganuse Parish, Ida-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia, with a population of 1,783.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Seto (seto kiil´; setu keel) is a dialect of South Estonian spoken by 12,549 people.
A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake.
South Estonian is spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, encompassing the Tartu, Mulgi, Võro and Seto varieties.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
In linguistics, telicity (from the Greek, meaning "end" or "goal") is the property of a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being complete in some sense.
In morphology, the terminative case (abbreviated) is a case specifying a limit in space and time and also to convey the goal or target of an action.
The translative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X".
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.