235 relations: Adipose tissue, Adolescence, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adult, Agonist, Alcohol, Amenorrhea, Androstenedione, Animal, Antioxidant, Apoptosis, Aromatase, Aromaticity, Artery, Atrophy, Bast fibre, Benzoic acid, Bile duct, Binding selectivity, Biological life cycle, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Blood vessel, Body shape, Bone, Brain, Breast, Breast development, Capillary, Catechol estrogen, Cell (biology), Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Childbirth, Cholestasis, Cholesterol, Coagulation, Collagen, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Coronary arteries, Crustacean, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, ..., Cytoplasm, DNA repair, DNA replication, Double bond, Edgar Allen, Edward Adelbert Doisy, Elasticity (physics), Endometriosis, Endometrium, Enterohepatic circulation, Enzyme, Epidermis, Epiphyseal plate, ER-X, ERx, Ester, Estetrol, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol benzoate, Estradiol cypionate, Estradiol glucuronide, Estradiol palmitate, Estradiol stearate, Estradiol sulfate, Estradiol valerate, Estrane, Estriol, Estrogen, Estrogen conjugate, Estrogen ester, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrone, Estrous cycle, Ethinylestradiol, Eukaryote, Eunuch, Fat, Feces, Feedback, Female, Fibroblast, Fish, Follicular phase, Functional group, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Genomics, Germ cell, Germany, Glucuronidation, Gonad, Gonadotropin, GPER, Gq-mER, Greek language, Ground substance, Growth hormone, Gynoid fat distribution, Hemodynamics, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Hormone response element, Human height, Human serum albumin, Human skin, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Implantation (human embryo), In vitro, Insect, Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Intramuscular injection, Intravaginal administration, JAMA (journal), Keratinocyte, Kidney, Klinefelter syndrome, League of Nations, Leiomyoma, Leydig cell, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipoidal estradiol, Lipoprotein, List of estrogen esters, Liver, London, Luteal phase, Luteinizing hormone, Mammal, Mammary gland, Medical laboratory, Medication, Membrane estrogen receptor, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Morphology (biology), Myometrium, Nasal administration, Neuroprotection, Nuclear receptor, Nucleic acid sequence, Oocyte, Oophorectomy, Oral administration, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Ovarian follicle, Ovary, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Oxytocin receptor, Perseus Project, Pharmacodynamics, Placenta, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Precocious puberty, Prediction interval, Pregnancy, Prenatal development, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Protein, Puberty, Reaction intermediate, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Reference ranges for blood tests, Ring (chemistry), Schering AG, Scientist, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Secretion, Semen, Semen analysis, Semisynthesis, Sertoli cell, Sex chromosome, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual maturity, Sexual reproduction, Side chain, Skin, Species, Sperm, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Subcutaneous injection, Subdermal implant, Sublingual administration, Suidae, Sulfation, Symptom, Testicle, Testosterone, Tissue (biology), Tissue hydration, Topical medication, Total synthesis, Trans woman, Transcription (biology), Transdermal, United States, Urine, Uterus, Vagina, Vaginal bleeding, Vertebrate, Vulva, Wrinkle, Xeroderma, 17α-Estradiol, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 2-Hydroxyestradiol. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Human body shape is a complex phenomenon with sophisticated detail and function.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P4502C8 (abbreviated CYP2C8), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Edgar Allen (May 2, 1892 – February 3, 1943) was an American anatomist and physiologist.
Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 13, 1893 – October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
ER-X is a membrane-associated receptor that is bound and activated by 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol and is a putative membrane estrogen receptor (mER).
ERx is a putative membrane estrogen receptor (mER) of which little is currently known.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estradiol benzoate, sold under the brand name Progynon-B among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in veterinary medicine.
Estradiol cypionate, sold under the brand name Depo-Estradiol among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estradiol glucuronide, or estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide, is a conjugated metabolite of estradiol.
Estradiol palmitate (brand name Esmopal), or estradiol monopalmitate, also known as estradiol 17β-hexadecanoate, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester – specifically, the C17β palmitate ester of estradiol.
Estradiol stearate (brand name Depofollan), or estradiol octadecanoate, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester – specifically, the C17β stearate ester of estradiol.
Estradiol sulfate (E2S), or 17β-estradiol 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester.
Estradiol valerate, sold under the brand names Progynova, Progynon Depot, and Delestrogen among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen conjugate is a conjugate of an endogenous estrogen.
An estrogen ester is an ester of an estrogen, generally of estradiol but also and alternatively of estrone or estriol.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPER gene.
Gq-mER is a G protein-coupled receptor present in the hypothalamus that has not yet been cloned.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Ground substance is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix except for fibrous materials such as collagen and elastin.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Gynoid fat refers to the body fat that forms around the hips, breasts and thighs.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis, cholestasis of pregnancy, jaundice of pregnancy, and prurigo gravidarum, is a medical condition in which cholestasis occurs during pregnancy.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%).
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lipoidal estradiol (LE2) is the variety of endogenous C17β long-chain fatty acid esters of estradiol which are formed as metabolites of estradiol.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
This is a list of estrogen esters, or ester prodrugs of estrogens.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) are a group of receptors which bind estrogen.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
Oophorectomy (from Greek ᾠοφόρος, ōophóros, 'egg-bearing' + ἐκτομή, ektomḗ, 'a cutting out of') is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
In statistical inference, specifically predictive inference, a prediction interval is an estimate of an interval in which a future observation will fall, with a certain probability, given what has already been observed.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
In chemistry, a ring is an ambiguous term referring either to a simple cycle of atoms and bonds in a molecule or to a connected set of atoms and bonds in which every atom and bond is a member of a cycle (also called a ring system).
Schering AG was a research-centered German multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Wedding, Berlin, which operated as an independent company from 1851 to 2006.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
A subdermal implant refers to a body modification that is placed underneath the skin, therefore allowing the body to heal over the implant and creating a raised design.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Suidae is a family of artiodactyl mammals which are commonly called pigs, hogs or boars.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system, often the uterus.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
17α-Estradiol (17α-E2), or 17-epiestradiol, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17α-diol, is a minor and weak endogenous steroidal estrogen that is related to 17β-estradiol (better known simply as estradiol).
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-2,3,17β-triol, is an endogenous steroid, catechol estrogen, and metabolite of estradiol, as well as a positional isomer of estriol.
17 beta estradiol, 17-beta estradiol, 17-beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-oestradiol, 17β-Estradiol, 17β-estradiol, Beta-estradiol, Dihydrofolliculin, Dihydrofolliculine, Dihydrotheelin, Dihydroxyestrin, E2 classical pathway, Estradial, Estradiol-17beta, Estratriendiol, Estratrienediol, Estrodial, Estrodiol, Oestradiol, Oestradiol-17beta, Oestridol, Œstradiol.