204 relations: Acne, Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Ancient Greek, Androgen, Androstenediol, Androstenedione, Anti-inflammatory, Antithrombin, Aromatase, Aromatase deficiency, Aromatase excess syndrome, Bile, Binding protein, Binge eating, Biotransformation, Bisphenol A, Body hair, Body odor, Body shape, Bone, Bone density, Bone resorption, Brain, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast development, Breastfeeding, Cadmium, Catechol estrogen, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Cell membrane, Cholesterol, Coagulation, Cognition, Conjugated estrogens, Connective tissue, Corpus luteum, Cortisol, Coumestrol, CYP17A1, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1, Daidzein, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydrogenation, Diethylstilbestrol, Diffusion, ..., Edward Adelbert Doisy, Emmenin, Endocrine disruptor, Endogeny (biology), Endometrium, Enzyme, Epiphyseal plate, Era, Estetrol, Estradiol, Estradiol benzoate, Estrane, Estriol, Estriol glucuronide, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen insensitivity syndrome, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrogen-dependent condition, Estrone, Estrone sulfotransferase, Estrous cycle, Ethinylestradiol, Excretion, Factor IX, Factor VII, Factor X, Female, Fertility, Fluvoxamine, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Follicular phase, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Gene expression, Generally recognized as safe and effective, Genetic disorder, Genistein, Glucuronidation, Glucuronosyltransferase, Gonadotropin, GPER, Granulosa cell, Greek language, Growth hormone, High-density lipoprotein, Hip, Hormonal contraception, Hormone replacement therapy, Hormone response element, Human hair growth, Human height, Human serum albumin, Human sexual activity, Hydroxylation, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypogonadism, Hypothalamus, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Kidney, Lactation, Libido, Limb (anatomy), Lipid, List of steroid abbreviations, Liver, Lordosis behavior, Low-density lipoprotein, Luteal phase, Luteinizing hormone, Man, Medication, Melanin, Membrane estrogen receptor, Menarche, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Mental health, Metabolism, Metalloestrogen, Miroestrol, Mycoestrogen, Natural environment, Osteoporosis, Ovarian follicle, Ovary, Over-the-counter drug, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Pancreas, Perseus Project, Phytoestrogens, Placenta, Plasma protein binding, Plasmin, Platelet, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Postpartum period, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Pregnancy, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progynon, Prolactin, Prostate cancer, Protein, Puberty, Pubic hair, Pulmonary alveolus, Regulation of gene expression, Reproductive system, Secondary sex characteristic, Secretion, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Shampoo, Skin, Sodium in biology, Sperm, Spirometry, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Sulfation, Testosterone, The New York Times, Theca interna, Thrombin, Tissue (biology), Trans woman, Triglyceride, Urine, Uterus, Vagina, Vaginal lubrication, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Verbal memory, Woman, Xenoestrogen, Zearalenone, 16α-Hydroxy-DHEA, 16α-Hydroxyestrone, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 2-Hydroxyestradiol, 2-Hydroxyestrone, 27-Hydroxycholesterol, 3α-Androstanediol, 3β-Androstanediol, 4-Hydroxyestradiol, 4-Hydroxyestrone, 7-Keto-DHEA, 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA, 7β-Hydroxyepiandrosterone. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatase deficiency is a very rare condition characterised by the extremely low or absence of the enzyme aromatase activity in the body.
Aromatase excess syndrome (AES or AEXS), also sometimes referred to as familial hyperestrogenism or familial gynecomastia, is a rare genetic and endocrine syndrome which is characterized by an overexpression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the estrogen sex hormones from the androgens, in turn resulting in excessive levels of circulating estrogens and, accordingly, symptoms of hyperestrogenism.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
A binding protein is any protein that acts as an agent to bind two or more molecules together.
Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
Human body shape is a complex phenomenon with sophisticated detail and function.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Coumestrol is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as coumestans.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene.
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 13, 1893 – October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist.
Emmenin was an orally active formulation of estrogen that was developed by James Collip at Ayerst and introduced in Canada in 1930 and the United States in 1934.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.
Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol benzoate, sold under the brand name Progynon-B among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in veterinary medicine.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estriol glucuronide (E3G), or oestriol glucuronide, also known as estriol monoglucuronide, as well as estriol 16α-β-D-glucosiduronic acid, is a natural, steroidal estrogen and the glucuronic acid (β-D-glucopyranuronic acid) conjugate of estriol.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism which is caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER) – specifically, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) – that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
An estrogen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of estrogenic activity in the body.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrone sulfotransferase (EST), also known as estrogen sulfotransferase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of an unconjugated estrogen like estrone into a sulfated estrogen like estrone sulfate.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1.
Factor VII (blood-coagulation factor VIIa, activated blood coagulation factor VII, formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade.
Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart–Prower factor, is an enzyme of the coagulation cascade.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Generally recognized as safe and effective (abbreviated as GRASE, GRAS/E, or GRAS/GRAE) is designation for certain old drugs that do not require prior approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in order to enter the United States marketplace because they are generally recognized as safe and effective by medical professionals.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPER gene.
A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the lips, palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis (Greek lordōsis, from lordos "bent backward") or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and felines.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A man is a male human.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) are a group of receptors which bind estrogen.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metalloestrogens are a class of inorganic xenoestrogens which can affect the gene expression of human cells responding to estrogen.
Miroestrol is a phytoestrogen, a plant-derived chemical that mimics the biological activity of the hormone estrogen.
Mycoestrogens are estrogens produced by fungi.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Progynon was an orally active formulation of estrogen that was developed by Adolf Butenandt at Schering and introduced in Germany in 1928.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH) to produce androstenedione, which via a few steps, gives the granulosa the precursor for estrogen manufacturing.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Verbal memory is a term used in cognitive psychology that refers to memory of words and other abstractions involving language.
A woman is an adult female human being.
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen.
Zearalenone (ZEN), also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium and Gibberella species.
16α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (16α-hydroxy-DHEA or 16α-OH-DHEA) is an endogenous metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-2,3,17β-triol, is an endogenous steroid, catechol estrogen, and metabolite of estradiol, as well as a positional isomer of estriol.
2-Hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-2,3-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone and estradiol.
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-HC) is an endogenous oxysterol with multiple biological functions, including activity as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) (a mixed, tissue-specific agonist-antagonist of the estrogen receptor (ER)) and as an agonist of the liver X receptor (LXR).
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,4,17β-triol, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a minor metabolite of estradiol.
4-Hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,4-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a minor metabolite of estrone and estradiol.
7-Ketodehydroepiandrosterone (7-keto-DHEA), also known as 7-oxoprasterone, is a steroid produced by metabolism of the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
7α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-hydroxy-DHEA; 7α-OH-DHEA), also known as 3β,7α-dihydroxyandrost-4-ene-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and a major metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that is formed by CYP7B1 (steroid 7α-hydroxylase) in tissues such as the prostate gland and by CYP3A4 in the liver.
7β-Hydroxyepiandrosterone (7β-OH-EPIA), also known as 5α-androstan-3β,7β-diol-17-one, is an endogenous androgen, estrogen, and neurosteroid that is produced from dehydroepiandrosterone and epiandrosterone.
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