58 relations: ACADM, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenarche, Aldosterone, Aldosterone synthase, Bile acid, Bile salt sulfotransferase, Bisphosphonate, Brown adipose tissue, Cerebellum, Cholesterol, Circadian clock, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, CYP17A1, Cytokine, Daidzein, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Endogeny (biology), Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen-related receptor, Fatty acid metabolism, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genistein, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Heart, Homeostasis, Insulin, Inverse agonist, Isoflavones, Kidney, Knockout mouse, Lactoferrin, Ligand (biochemistry), Macrophage, Mitochondrion, Myopathy, Nuclear receptor, Orphan receptor, Osteopontin, Osteoporosis, Oxidative phosphorylation, Phytoestrogens, PPARGC1A, Protein, Receptor (biochemistry), ..., Secretion, Skeletal muscle, Statin, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Thermogenesis, Thyroid hormone receptor, Transcription factor II B, XCT-790. Expand index (8 more) » « Shrink index
ACADM (acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain) is a gene that provides instructions for making an enzyme called acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase that is important for breaking down (degrading) a certain group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenarche is an early sexual maturation stage in some higher primates that in humans typically occurs at around 10-12 years of age and is responsible for pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bile salt sulfotransferase also known as hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) or sulfotransferase 2A1 (ST2A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT2A1 gene.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
The ERRs are orphan nuclear receptors, meaning the identity of their endogenous ligand has yet to be unambiguously determined.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
In biochemistry, an orphan receptor is a protein that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified.
Osteopontin (OPN), also known as bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1 or BNSP), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene (secreted phosphoprotein 1).
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.
Transcription factor II B (TFIIB) is a general transcription factor that is involved in the formation of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) and aids in stimulating transcription initiation.
XCT-790 is a potent and selective inverse agonist ligand of the estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα).