131 relations: Amino acid, Anastrozole, Androgen receptor, Antiestrogen, AP-1 transcription factor, Apoptosis, Aromatase, Aromatase deficiency, Aromatase excess syndrome, Aromatase inhibitor, Bone, Brain, Breast, Breast cancer, C-terminus, Calcium, Calorie restriction, Carcinogenesis, Caveolin, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Chromosome, Clomifene, Coactivator (genetics), Colorectal cancer, Conjugated estrogens, Corepressor, Coumestrol, Daidzein, Diethylstilbestrol, DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA-binding domain, Efferent ducts, Elwood V. Jensen, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Endometrial cancer, Endometrium, Endothelium, Epidermal growth factor receptor, ER-X, Estetrol, Estradiol, Estriol, Estrogen, ..., Estrogen insensitivity syndrome, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrone, Ethamoxytriphetol, Ethinylestradiol, Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, Fulvestrant, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genetically modified organism, Genistein, Genotoxicity, Gestation, GPER, Gq-mER, Granulosa cell, GSK-3, Heart, Hormone, Hormone receptor, Hormone response element, Hypothalamus, ICI-164384, Immunohistochemistry, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Intracellular, Kidney, Lasker Award, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid bilayer, Lung, Mammary gland, Membrane estrogen receptor, Miroestrol, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mutation, N-terminus, Natural product, Nitric oxide, Nuclear receptor, Organic compound, Osteoporosis, Ovarian cancer, PELP-1, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phosphorylation, Phytoestrogens, Progesterone receptor, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Protein, Protein Data Bank, Protein dimer, Protein domain, Protein kinase B, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, Raloxifene, Receptor (biochemistry), Response element, Ribosomal s6 kinase, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Serine, Sex steroid, Sexual maturity, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sp1 transcription factor, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, STRN, Tamoxifen, Transactivation, Transcription (biology), Transcription coregulator, Transcription factor, Tyrosine kinase, University of Chicago, Uterine cancer. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anastrozole, sold under the brand name Arimidex among others, is a medication used in addition to other treatments for breast cancer.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatase deficiency is a very rare condition characterised by the extremely low or absence of the enzyme aromatase activity in the body.
Aromatase excess syndrome (AES or AEXS), also sometimes referred to as familial hyperestrogenism or familial gynecomastia, is a rare genetic and endocrine syndrome which is characterized by an overexpression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the estrogen sex hormones from the androgens, in turn resulting in excessive levels of circulating estrogens and, accordingly, symptoms of hyperestrogenism.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
In molecular biology Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae membranes and involved in receptor-independent endocytosis.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.
A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.
In the field of molecular biology, a corepressor is a substance that inhibits the expression of genes.
Coumestrol is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as coumestans.
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A DNA-binding domain (DBD) is an independently folded protein domain that contains at least one structural motif that recognizes double- or single-stranded DNA.
The efferent ducts (or efferent ductules or ductuli efferentes or ductus efferentes or vasa efferentia) connect the rete testis with the initial section of the epididymis.
Elwood Vernon Jensen (January 13, 1920 – December 16, 2012) was the Distinguished University Professor, George and Elizabeth Wile Chair in Cancer Research at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine's Vontz Center for Molecular Studies.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
ER-X is a membrane-associated receptor that is bound and activated by 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol and is a putative membrane estrogen receptor (mER).
Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism which is caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER) – specifically, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) – that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Ethamoxytriphetol (developmental code name MER-25) is a synthetic nonsteroidal antiestrogen that was studied clinically in the late 1950s and early 1960s but was never marketed.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor or FSH receptor (FSHR) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
Fulvestrant, sold under the brand name Faslodex among others, is a medication used to treat hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression as well as HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in combination with palbociclib in women with disease progression after endocrine therapy.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPER gene.
Gq-mER is a G protein-coupled receptor present in the hypothalamus that has not yet been cloned.
A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
ICI-164384, also known as N-n-butyl-N-methyl-11-(3,17β-dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-7α-yl)undecanamide, is a steroidal antiestrogen and a synthetic derivative of estradiol which is closely related to fulvestrant and was never marketed.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) are a group of receptors which bind estrogen.
Miroestrol is a phytoestrogen, a plant-derived chemical that mimics the biological activity of the hormone estrogen.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Proline-, glutamic acid- and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) also known as modulator of non-genomic activity of estrogen receptor (MNAR) and transcription factor HMX3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PELP1 gene.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene.
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Response elements are short sequences of DNA within a gene promoter region that are able to bind specific transcription factors and regulate transcription of genes.
In molecular biology, ribosomal s6 kinase (rsk) is a family of protein kinases involved in signal transduction.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1* is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP1 gene.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
Striatin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STRN gene.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcription coregulators are proteins that interact with transcription factors to either activate or repress the transcription of specific genes.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uterine cancer, also known as womb cancer, is any type of cancer that emerges from the tissue of the uterus.
ER subtypes, Estradiol receptor, Estrogen receptor modulators, Estrogen receptor negative, Estrogen receptor positive, Estrogen receptors, Oestrogen receptor, Receptors, estradiol, Receptors, estrogen.