81 relations: Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Agonist, Androgen, Androstenedione, Aromatase, Biochemist, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Catechol estrogen, Chemical formula, Chemical structure, Cholesterol, Circulatory system, Combustion, Crystal, Cytochrome P450, Double bond, Edgar Allen, Edward Adelbert Doisy, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme, Estradiol, Estrane, Estrin (compound), Estriol, Estrogen, Estrogen conjugate, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrone (medication), Estrone glucuronide, Estrone sulfate, Excretion, Functional group, Germany, Glucuronidase, Gonad, Hormone therapy, Human serum albumin, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, In vivo, Injection (medicine), Intrinsic activity, Ketone, ..., Ligand (biochemistry), List of purification methods in chemistry, Liver, Mammary gland, Medication, Melting point, Menopause, Metabolic intermediate, Molecular mass, Natural product, Nobel Prize, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Potency (pharmacology), Powder, Pregnancy, Reversible reaction, Secretion, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Solid, Specific gravity, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Sulfotransferase, Tissue (biology), United States, Urine, Uterus, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 2-Hydroxyestrone, 4-Hydroxyestrone. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Edgar Allen (May 2, 1892 – February 3, 1943) was an American anatomist and physiologist.
Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 13, 1893 – October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrin (American English), or oestrin (British English), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene, is an estrane steroid.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen conjugate is a conjugate of an endogenous estrogen.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrone, sold under the brand names Estragyn, Kestrin, and Theelin among many others, is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone which has been used in menopausal hormone therapy and for other indications.
Estrone glucuronide, or estrone-3-D-glucuronide, is a conjugated metabolite of estrone.
Estrone sulfate (E1S), or estrone 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester and conjugate.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucuronidase may refer to several enzymes.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Purification in a chemical context is the physical separation of a chemical substance of interest from foreign or contaminating substances.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
A powder is a dry, bulk solid composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Sulfotransferases are transferase enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfo group from a donor molecule to an acceptor alcohol or amine.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
2-Hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-2,3-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone and estradiol.
4-Hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,4-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a minor metabolite of estrone and estradiol.
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one, 3-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one, Estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3-ol-17-one, Estratrienolone, Estron, Estrona, Estroni, Estronum, Foliculina, Follicular Hormone, Follicular hormone, Hydroxyketoestrin, Ketohydroxy-Estratriene, Ketohydroxyestrin, Ketohydroxyoestrin, Ketophydroxyestrin, Oestrone, Oxohydroxyestrin, Oxohydroxyoestrin, Theelin, Östron, Östrone, Œstrone.