158 relations: Alaska, Algae, Amazon River, Amur River, Anoxic waters, Aquatic sill, Bacteria, Barnegat Bay, Barrier island, Bay, Bay mud, Benthic zone, Bioaccumulation, Biofilm, Bird migration, Black-tailed godwit, Brackish water, British Columbia, Burrow, Chesapeake Bay, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation, Coastal fish, Columbia River Estuary, Creek (tidal), Dead zone (ecology), Deforestation, Delaware Bay, Detritus, Diatom, Dinoflagellate, Drakes Estero, Ecosystem, Ems Dollart Region, Epoch (geology), Estuarine acidification, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Eutrophication, Fault (geology), Firth, Fish, Fjord, Fresh water, Freshwater inflow, Furan, Galveston Bay, Geography of New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, Geomorphology, Gippsland Lakes, Gironde estuary, Glacier, ..., Golden Horn, Great Bay (New Hampshire), Greenland, Gulf Coast of the United States, Gulf of Ob, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Habitat destruction, Hampton Roads, Hàn River, Head of tide, Heavy metals, Holocene, Hudson River, Humber, Hydrocarbon, Hypoxia (environmental), Iceland, Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá estuary lagoon complex, Indian River Lagoon, Inundation, Invertebrate, Lagoa dos Patos, Lagoon, Lagoon Mirim, Laguna Madre (United States), Lake Borgne, Lake Merritt, Lake Pontchartrain, Land degradation, Landslide, Liman (landform), List of estuaries of England, List of estuaries of South Africa, List of waterways, Long Island Sound, Longshore drift, Marine debris, Mattole River, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mississippi River, Mobile Bay, Moraine, Mudflat, Narragansett Bay, National Estuarine Research Reserve, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nature (journal), New Jersey, North Carolina, Orange River, Osmoconformer, Osmoregulation, Overfishing, Overgrazing, Oxygen saturation, Oyster, Pamlico Sound, Pesticide, Phenol, Phytoplankton, Pollution, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Port Jackson, Predation, Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Puget Sound, Radionuclide, Raritan River, Río de la Plata, Region of freshwater influence, River delta, River mouth, Sacramento River, Salinity, Salmon, San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay, San Joaquin River, Sea trout, Seawater, Sediment, Sedimentation, Severn Estuary, Shannon Estuary, Shell growth in estuaries, Soil erosion, Spencer Gulf, Spit (landform), Surface runoff, Tampa Bay, Tectonics, Texas, Thames Estuary, The Wash, Tidal bore, Tidal prism, Tide, Trends (journals), Trophic state index, Turbidity, United Kingdom, Unterelbe, Volcano, Washington (state), Western Scheldt, Wetland, Yenisei Gulf. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
An aquatic sill (or an oceanic sill) is a sea floor (or lake floor) barrier of relatively shallow depth restricting water movement between oceanic basins.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Barnegat Bay is a small brackish arm of the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 42 miles (67.2 km) long, along the coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States.
Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a large, long-legged, long-billed shorebird first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) is a private, nonprofit organization that was created in 1971.
Coastal fish, also called inshore fish or neritic fish, inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf.
The Columbia River Estuary is an estuary and a bay on the Oregon–Washington border and the Pacific Coast of the United States.
A tidal creek, tidal channel, or estuary is the portion of a stream that is affected by ebb and flow of ocean tides, in the case that the subject stream discharges to an ocean, sea or strait.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Drakes Estero is an expansive estuary in the Point Reyes National Seashore of Marin County on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States, approximately northwest of San Francisco.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The Ems Dollart Region (EDR), established in 1977, is a cross-border organisation located in the northern Dutch-German border area.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
Estuarine acidification happens when the pH balance of water in coastal marine ecosystems, specifically those of estuaries, decreases.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal on ocean sciences, with a focus on coastal regions ranging from estuaries up to the edge of the continental shelf.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Firth is a word in the Scots and English languages used to denote various coastal waters in Scotland and even a strait.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Environmental flows can be broken down into instream flow, freshwater inflow, and outflow, as shown in the depiction below.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
Galveston Bay is the seventh largest estuary in the United States, located along the upper coast of Texas.
The New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, also known as the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, is in the Mid-Atlantic states of New Jersey and New York on the East Coast of the United States.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
The Gippsland Lakes are a network of lakes, marshes and lagoons in east Gippsland, Victoria, Australia covering an area of about.
The Gironde is a navigable estuary (often falsely referred to as a river), in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne just downstream of the centre of Bordeaux.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
Great Bay is a tidal estuary located in Strafford and Rockingham counties in eastern New Hampshire, United States.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
The Gulf of Ob (also known as Ob Bay) (О́бская губа́, Obskaya guba) is a bay of the Arctic Ocean, located in Northern Russia at the mouth of the Ob River.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
The Hàn River (Sông Hàn, or Hàn giang) is a river located in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Head of tide or tidal limit is the farthest point upstream where a river is affected by tidal fluctuations, or where the fluctuations are less than a certain amount.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá estuary lagoon complex (Complexo Estuarino Lagunar de Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá) is a stretch of interconnected coastal estuaries and lagoons that extends southwest from Iguape in the south of São Paulo past Cananéia, São Paulo to Paranaguá, Paraná.
The Indian River Lagoon is a grouping of three lagoons: the Mosquito Lagoon, the Banana River, and the Indian River, on the Atlantic Coast of Florida; it is the most biodiverse lagoon ecosystem in the Northern Hemisphere and is home to more than 10,000 species of plants and animals.
Inundation (from the Latin inundatio, flood) is both the act of intentionally flooding land that would otherwise remain dry, for military, agricultural, or river-management purposes, and the result of such an act.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Lagoa dos Patos (English: Ducks' Lake) is the largest lagoon in Brazil and the largest barrier-lagoon in South America.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Lagoon Mirim (Portuguese) or Merín (Spanish) is a large estuarine lagoon which extends from southern Rio Grande do Sul state in Brazil into eastern Uruguay.
The Laguna Madre is a long, shallow, hypersaline lagoon along the western coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Nueces, Kenedy, Kleberg, Willacy and Cameron Counties in Texas, United States.
Lake Borgne is a lagoon of the Gulf of Mexico in southeastern Louisiana.
Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown.
Lake Pontchartrain (Lac Pontchartrain) is a brackish estuary located in southeastern Louisiana in the United States.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Liman defined in Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Russian (Лиман) and Romanian (liman) the enlarged estuaries formed as lagoons at the widening mouth of one or several rivers, where flow is blocked by a bar of sediments, as the Dniester Liman or the Razelm liman; a liman can be maritime (the bar being created by the current of a sea) or fluvial (the bar being created by the flow of a bigger river at the confluence).
The following is a list of estuaries in England.
This is a list of estuaries in South Africa.
This is a list of waterways, defined as navigable rivers, canals, estuaries, lakes, or firths.
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of Bronx County, New York City, southern Westchester County, and Connecticut to the north, and the North Shore of Long Island, to the south.
Longshore drift is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast parallel to the shoreline, which is dependent on oblique incoming wind direction.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
The Mattole River is a river on the north coast of California, that flows northerly, then westerly into the Pacific Ocean.
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering 147 mi2 (380 km2), 120.5 mi2 (312 km2) in Rhode Island.
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 28 protected areas established by partnerships between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and coastal states.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Orange River (from Afrikaans/Dutch: Oranjerivier) is the longest river in South Africa and the Orange River Basin extends extensively into Namibia and Botswana to the north.
Osmoconformers are marine organisms that maintain an internal environment that is osmotic to their external environment.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Pamlico Sound in North Carolina in the US is the largest lagoon along the North American East Coast, extending long and 24 to 48 km (15 to 20 miles) wide.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park is a protected area of the Philippines located about north of the city centre of Puerto Princesa, Palawan, and which contains the Puerto Princesa Underground River.
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U.S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States.
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI), a term coined by Prof.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river flows into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean.
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly through California.
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California.
The San Joaquin River is the longest river of Central California in the United States.
Sea trout is the common name usually applied to anadromous (or sea-run) forms of brown trout (Salmo trutta), and is often referred to as Salmo trutta morpha trutta.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
The Severn Estuary (Môr Hafren) is the estuary of the River Severn, the longest river in Great Britain.
The Shannon Estuary (Inbhear na Sionainne) is a large estuary where the River Shannon flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
Shell growth in estuaries is an aspect of marine biology that has attracted a number of scientific research studies.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
The Spencer Gulf is the westernmost of two large inlets on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia, facing the Great Australian Bight.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and shallow estuary connected to the Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida, comprising Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, Old Tampa Bay, Middle Tampa Bay, and Lower Tampa Bay.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The Wash is a largely rectangular bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire.
A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current.
A tidal prism is the volume of water in an estuary or inlet between mean high tide and mean low tide,Luketina, D. 1998.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
Trophic State Index (TSI) is a classification system designed to rate bodies of water based on the amount of biological activity they sustain.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Unterelbe (lit. Underelbe) or, in English often the Lower Elbe, names to the lower reaches of the river Elbe in Germany swayed by the tides.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Western Scheldt (Westerschelde) in the province of Zeeland in the southwestern Netherlands, is the estuary of the Scheldt river.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The Yenisei Gulf (Енисейский залив, Yeniseiskiy Zaliv) is a large and long estuary through which the lower Yenisei River flows into the Kara Sea.