44 relations: Al Achsasi al Mouakket, Arabic, Arcturus, Asterism (astronomy), Astronomical spectroscopy, Bayer designation, Binary star, Boötes, Bright Star Catalogue, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Chinese language, Constellation, Double star, Durchmusterung, Dwarf star, Flamsteed designation, Galactic Disc, Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Helium, Henry Draper Catalogue, Hipparcos, IAU Working Group on Star Names, International Astronomical Union, Iron, Latin, Latinisation of names, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, Main sequence, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Neck (Chinese constellation), Orbital period, Red giant, Sirius, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog, Solar mass, Solar radius, Speckle imaging, Star catalogue, Star system, Subgiant, Tau Boötis, Upsilon Boötis, Venus, Washington Double Star Catalog.
Muḥammad al-Akhṣāṣī al-Muwaqqit (محمد الاخصاصي الموقت) was an Egyptian astronomer whose calendarium and catalogue of stars, al-Durrah al-muḍīyah fī al-ʻamāl al-shamsīyah ("Pearls of brilliance upon the solar operations"), was written at Cairo about 1650.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In observational astronomy, an asterism is a popular known pattern or group of stars that are recognised in the night sky.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
Boötes is a constellation in the northern sky, located between 0° and +60° declination, and 13 and 16 hours of right ascension on the celestial sphere.
The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.
The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.
In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.
A dwarf star is a star of relatively small size and low luminosity.
A Flamsteed designation is a combination of a number and constellation name that uniquely identifies most naked eye stars in the modern constellations visible from southern England.
The Galactic Disc is a component of disc galaxies, such as spiral galaxies and lenticular galaxies.
The Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars is a modern star catalogue of stars located within 25 parsecs (81.54 ly) of the Earth.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) established a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) in May 2016 to catalog and standardize proper names for stars for the international astronomical community.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The following two lists include all the known stars and brown dwarfs that are within of the Sun, or were/will be within in the astronomically near past or future.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Neck mansion (亢宿, pinyin: Kàng Xiù) is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog is an astrometric star catalogue.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy.
Image:Zeta_bootis_short_exposure.png|Typical short-exposure image of a binary star (Zeta Bootis in this case) as seen through atmospheric seeing.
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
A subgiant is a star that is brighter than a normal main-sequence star of the same spectral class, but not as bright as true giant stars.
Tau Boötis, Latinized from τ Boötis, is an F-type main-sequence star approximately 51 light-years away in the constellation of Boötes.
Upsilon Boötis (υ Boötis) is a single, orange-hued star in the northern constellation of Boötes.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Washington Double Star Catalog, or WDS, is a catalog of double stars, maintained at the United States Naval Observatory.