123 relations: Acetal, Acid, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Aliphatic compound, Alkane, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyl, Aluminium chloride, Amide, Anesthetic, Anionic addition polymerization, Anise, Anisole, Aromaticity, Aryl, Atom, Base (chemistry), BASF, Boiling point, Boron tribromide, Boron trifluoride, Brevetoxin, Bromide, Bromobenzene, Carbohydrate, Catalysis, Cetane number, Chemical compound, Ciguatoxin, Concentration, Cosmetics, Crown ether, Debye, Dehydration reaction, Diesel engine, Diethyl ether, Diethyl ether peroxide, Dimethoxyethane, Dimethyl ether, Dinoflagellate, Dow Chemical Company, DuPont, Electronegativity, End-group, Epoxide, Essential oil, Ester, Ethylene oxide, ..., Explosive material, Formaldehyde, Functional group, Furan, Grignard reaction, Halide, Haloalkane, Hemiacetal, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydroiodic acid, Hydroxy group, Invista, Iodide, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Ketone, Leaving group, Lewis acids and bases, Lignin, Magnesium, Markovnikov, Medication, Meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid, Metal, Methoxy group, Methoxyethane, Molar mass, Molecule, Nucleophilic substitution, Onium compound, Organic acid anhydride, Organic compound, Organic peroxide, Organic reaction, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Paraformaldehyde, Perfume, Peroxy acid, Phase-transfer catalyst, Phenol, Phenols, Picometre, Poly(p-phenylene oxide), Polyethylene glycol, Polymer, Polyol, Polyoxymethylene, Polyphenyl ether, Polypropylene glycol, Polytetrahydrofuran, Project Gutenberg, Properties of water, Propylene oxide, Protecting group, Reactivity (chemistry), Reducing agent, Refrigerant, Ring-opening polymerization, Smokeless powder, SN2 reaction, Sodium hydroxide, Solvent, Step-growth polymerization, Substituent, Sulfonate, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrahydropyran, Ullmann condensation, Valence bond theory, Van der Waals force, Williamson ether synthesis, 1,4-Dioxane. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the polymerization of vinyl monomers with strong electronegative groups.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.
Anisole, or methoxybenzene, is an organic compound with the formula CH3OC6H5.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Boron tribromide, BBr3, is a colorless, fuming liquid compound containing boron and bromine.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromobenzene is an aryl halide, C6H5Br.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin '''CTX1B''' Ciguatoxins are a class of toxic polycyclic polyethers found in fish that cause ciguatera.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Crown ethers are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethyl ether peroxides are a class of organic peroxides that slowly form in diethyl ether upon storage under air, light, or in the presence of metal by autoxidation.
Dimethoxyethane, also known as glyme, monoglyme, dimethyl glycol, dimethyl ether, dimethyl cellosolve, and DME, is a colorless, aprotic, and liquid ether that is used as a solvent, especially in batteries.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
End groups are an important aspect of polymer synthesis and characterization.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Invista, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, United States, is the world's largest integrated fiber, resin and intermediates company.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Markovnikov (Марковников) is a Russian masculine surname, which originates from морковь (carrot); its feminine counterpart is Markovnikova.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) is a peroxycarboxylic acid used widely as an oxidant in organic synthesis.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A methoxy group is the functional group consisting of a methyl group bound to oxygen.
Methoxyethane, also known as ethyl methyl ether, is an ethyl group with a bonded methoxy.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
In chemistry, an onium ion, is a cation formally obtained by the protonation of mononuclear parent hydride of a pnictogen (group 15 of the periodic table), chalcogen (group 16), or halogen (group 17).
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraformaldehyde (PFA) is the smallest polyoxymethylene, the polymerization product of formaldehyde with a typical degree of polymerization of 8–100 units.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
A peroxy acid (often spelled as one word, peroxyacid, and sometimes called peracid) is an acid which contains an acidic –OOH group.
In chemistry, a phase-transfer catalyst or PTC is a catalyst that facilitates the migration of a reactant from one phase into another phase where reaction occurs.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Poly(p-phenylene oxide) or poly(p-phenylene ether) (PPE) is a high-temperature thermoplastic.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as acetal, polyacetal, and polyformaldehyde, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability.
Phenyl ether polymers are a class of polymers that contain a phenoxy and/or a thiophenoxy group as the repeating group in ether linkages.
Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer of propylene glycol.
Polytetrahydrofuran, also called poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol or poly(tetramethylene oxide), is a chemical compound with formulanOH2 or HO-(-(CH2)4O-)n-H. It can be viewed as a polymer of tetrahydrofuran, or as the polyether derived from 1,4-butanediol.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Propylene oxide is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3CHCH2O.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
In polymer chemistry, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is a form of chain-growth polymerization, in which the terminal end of a polymer chain acts as a reactive center where further cyclic monomers can react by opening its ring system and form a longer polymer chain (see figure).
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Step-growth polymerization refers to a type of polymerization mechanism in which bi-functional or multifunctional monomers react to form first dimers, then trimers, longer oligomers and eventually long chain polymers.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
A sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
Tetrahydropyran (THP) is the organic compound consisting of a saturated six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
The Ullmann condensation or Ullmann ether synthesis is a variation of the Ullmann reaction, in which a phenol is coupled to an aryl halide to create a diaryl ether in the presence of a copper compound, named after Fritz Ullmann.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and a deprotonated alcohol (alkoxide).
1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.
Alkoxyalkane, Aryl ether, Diaryl ether, Ether (chemistry), Ether bond, Ether group, Etherification, Ethers, Ethers, cyclic, O-alkylation, Oleum dulci vitrioli, Organic ether, Polyether, Polyethers, Primary ether, Secondary ether, Sweet oil of vitriol, Tertiary ether.