243 relations: -logy, A Theory of Justice, Acculturation, Act utilitarianism, Action (philosophy), Acts of the Apostles, Aesthetics, After Virtue, Alasdair MacIntyre, Altruism, Analytic philosophy, Anarchism, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek philosophy, Animal cognition, Animal law, Animal rights, Animal welfare, Anonymity, Anthropocentrism, Antihumanism, Apatheia, Aphorism, Applied ethics, Arbitration, Aristippus, Aristotle, Autoeroticism, Axiology, Axiom, BBC, Bernard Williams, Bioethics, Bioethics (journal), Biology, Biotechnology, Biotic ethics, Business ethics, Cambridge University Press, Carnegie Mellon University, Carol Gilligan, Charles Sanders Peirce, Cloning, Cognitivism (ethics), Common sense, Confucianism, Consequentialism, Contemporary ethics, Corporate social responsibility, Courage, ..., Cowardice, Crime, Culture, Cyrenaics, David Hume, David Shepherd Nivison, Declaration of Geneva, Declaration of Helsinki, Deductive reasoning, Descriptive ethics, Dharma, Duquesne University Press, Economics, Emmanuel Levinas, Encyclopedia of Ethics, Engineering ethics, Environmental ethics, Epictetus, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Equality of outcome, Essay, Ethical code, Ethical movement, Ethical naturalism, Ethics, Ethics in religion, Ethics of care, Ethos, Etiquette, Eudaimonia, Evolutionary psychology, Family, Filial piety, G. E. M. Anscombe, G. E. Moore, Gene therapy, Genealogy, Geoethics, Golden Rule, Good and evil, Greenwood Publishing Group, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Habit, Hackett Publishing Company, HarperCollins, Henry Sidgwick, Humanism, Humanities, Idiosyncrasy, Index of ethics articles, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Integrity, Intelligence, Is–ought problem, Jacques Derrida, Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, Jean Baudrillard, Jeremy Bentham, John Dewey, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Joxe Azurmendi, Joy, Judith Martin, Just war theory, Justice, Knowledge, Law, Linda Elder, List of life sciences, Logical positivism, Louis Althusser, Machine ethics, Macmillan Publishers, Martha Nussbaum, Marxism, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McGraw-Hill Education, Medical ethics, Medicine, Meta-ethics, Michel Foucault, Miguel A. De La Torre, Moderation, Modern Moral Philosophy, Moral character, Moral development, Moral luck, Moral psychology, Moral realism, Moral responsibility, Morality, Mozi, Naturalistic fallacy, Nel Noddings, Neuroethics, Nicomachean Ethics, Non-cognitivism, Norm (philosophy), Normative ethics, Ontology, Open University, Open-question argument, Outline of ethics, Outline of machine learning, Oxford University Press, Panayot Butchvarov, Paul R. Ehrlich, PDF, Peer review, Personhood, Peter Kropotkin, Peter Singer, Philosopher, Philosophy, Philosophy (journal), Philosophy of mind, Plagiarism, Pleasure, Political freedom, Political science, Politics, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Postmodernity, Practical Ethics, Practical philosophy, Pragmatism, Prejudice, Primary care ethics, Principia Ethica, Professional ethics, Psychological egoism, Psychology, Publication bias, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalism, Recklessness (psychology), Revealed preference, Robert C. Solomon, Roland Barthes, Rule utilitarianism, Rushworth Kidder, Sam Harris, Science of morality, Secular ethics, Self-knowledge (psychology), Sexual ethics, Simon Blackburn, Sinology, Situated ethics, Situational ethics, Social norm, Society, Sociobiology, Socrates, Speciesism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, State consequentialism, Stoicism, Structuralism, Suffering, SUNY Press, Temple University Press, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Cambridge History of China, The Moral Landscape, Theory of justification, Truth value, University of Chicago Press, University of Lausanne, University Press of Kentucky, Utilitarianism, Value (ethics), Value judgment, Value theory, Vice, Virtue, Virtue ethics, Voting, Wealth, Western philosophy, Wildlife conservation, Wiley-Blackwell, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, William Frankena, William James, World Scientific, Wrongdoing, Zygmunt Bauman. Expand index (193 more) » « Shrink index
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that a person's act is morally right if and only if it produces the best possible results in that specific situation.
In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
After Virtue is a book on moral philosophy by Alasdair MacIntyre.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
Animal law is a combination of statutory and case law in which the nature legal, social or biological of nonhuman animals is an important factor.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
Anonymity, adjective "anonymous", is derived from the Greek word ἀνωνυμία, anonymia, meaning "without a name" or "namelessness".
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism (or anti-humanism) is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition.
Apatheia (ἀπάθεια; from a- "without" and pathos "suffering" or "passion"), in Stoicism, refers to a state of mind in which one is not disturbed by the passions.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts.
Aristippus of Cyrene (Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Autoeroticism is the practice of becoming sexually stimulated through internal stimuli.
Axiology (from Greek ἀξία, axia, "value, worth"; and -λογία, -logia) is the philosophical study of value.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Bioethics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell in association with the International Association of Bioethics.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Biotic ethics (also called life-centered ethics) is a branch of ethics that values not only species and biospheres, but life itself.
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Carol Gilligan (born November 28, 1936) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences express propositions and can therefore be true or false (they are truth-apt), which noncognitivists deny.
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Ethics is, in general terms, the study of right and wrong.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business) is a type of international private business self-regulation.
Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.
Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good, and of help to others or oneself in a time of need — it is the opposite of courage.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics (Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí) were a sensual hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BCE, supposedly by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Shepherd Nivison (January 17, 1923 – October 16, 2014) was an American Sinologist and scholar known for his publications on late imperial and ancient Chinese history, philology, and philosophy, and his 40 years as a professor at Stanford University.
The Declaration of Geneva (Physician's Pledge) was adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association at Geneva in 1948, amended in 1968, 1983, 1994, editorially revised in 2005 and 2006 and amended in 2017.
The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Duquesne University Press, founded in 1927, is a publisher that is part of Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Emmanuel Levinas (12 January 1906 – 25 December 1995) was a French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry who is known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology.
The Encyclopedia of Ethics is a scholarly work with the original focus on ethical theory.
Engineering ethics is the field of applied ethics and system of moral principles that apply to the practice of engineering.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story.
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions.
The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).
Ethical naturalism (also called moral naturalism or naturalistic cognitivistic definism) is the meta-ethical view which claims that: Reductive naturalism.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethics involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
The ethics of care (alternatively care ethics or EoC) is a normative ethical theory that holds that moral action centers on interpersonal relationships and care or benevolence as a virtue.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001), usually cited as G. E. M.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Geoethics is the branch of ethics which relates to the interaction of human activity with our physical world in general, and with the practice of the Earth sciences in particular.
The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. is an academic publishing house based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).
This Index of ethics articles puts articles relevant to well-known ethical (right and wrong, good and bad) debates and decisions in one place - including practical problems long known in philosophy, and the more abstract subjects in law, politics, and some professions and sciences.
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jadranka Skorin-Kapov (born as Jadranka Boljunčić in Pula, Croatia in 1955) is a professor at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in the, and with affiliated positions in the and the.
Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.
The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.
Judith Martin (née Perlman; born September 13, 1938), better known by the pen name Miss Manners, is an American journalist, author, and etiquette authority.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Linda Elder is an American educational psychologist, author and president of the Foundation for Critical Thinking.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Machine ethics (or machine morality, computational morality, or computational ethics) is a part of the ethics of artificial intelligence concerned with the moral behavior of artificially intelligent beings.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Miguel A. De La Torre (born 6 October 1958) is a professor of Social Ethics and Latinx Studies at Iliff School of Theology, a scholar-activist, author, and an ordained Southern Baptist minister.
Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes.
"Modern Moral Philosophy" is an article on moral philosophy by G. E. M. Anscombe, originally published in the journal Philosophy, vol.
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.
Moral Development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood.
Moral luck describes circumstances whereby a moral agent is assigned moral blame or praise for an action or its consequences even if it is clear that said agent did not have full control over either the action or its consequences.
Moral psychology is a field of study in both philosophy and psychology.
Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
In philosophical ethics, the term "naturalistic fallacy" was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica.
Nel Noddings (born January 19, 1929) is an American feminist, educationalist, and philosopher best known for her work in philosophy of education, educational theory, and ethics of care.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether naturalistic (e.g. pleasure) or supernatural (e.g. God's command).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics: Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to machine learning: Machine learning – subfield of computer sciencehttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1116194/machine-learning (more particularly soft computing) that evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panayot Butchvarov (Bulgarian: Панайот Бъчваров; born April 2, 1933, in Sofia, Bulgaria) is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Iowa.
Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
Personhood is the status of being a person.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy is the scholarly journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity.
Practical Ethics (1979; second edition 1993; third edition 2011) is an introduction to applied ethics by bioethical philosopher Peter Singer.
The division of philosophy into a practical philosophy and a theoretical discipline has its origin in Aristotle's moral philosophy and natural philosophy categories.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.
Primary care ethics is the study of the everyday decisions that primary care clinicians make, such as: how long to spend with a particular patient, how to reconcile their own values and those of their patients, when and where to refer or investigate, how to respect confidentiality when dealing with patients, relatives and third parties.
Principia Ethica is a 1903 book by the British philosopher G. E. Moore, in which Moore insists on the indefinability of "good" and provides an exposition of the naturalistic fallacy.
Professional ethics encompass the personal, and corporate standards of behavior expected by professionals.
Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by self-interest, even in what seem to be acts of altruism.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Recklessness (also called unchariness) is disregard for or indifference to the dangers of a situation or for the consequences of one's actions, as in deciding to act without stopping to think beforehand.
Revealed preference theory, pioneered by economist Paul Samuelson, is a method of analyzing choices made by individuals, mostly used for comparing the influence of policies on consumer behavior.
Robert C. Solomon (September 14, 1942 – January 2, 2007) was an American professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught for more than 30 years.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance".
Rushworth Moulton Kidder (May 8, 1944 – March 5, 2012) was an author, ethicist, and professor.
Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, neuroscientist, critic of religion, blogger, and podcast host.
The science of morality may refer to various forms of ethical naturalism grounding morality in rational, empirical consideration of the natural world.
Secular ethics is a branch of moral philosophy in which ethics is based solely on human faculties such as logic, empathy, reason or moral intuition, and not derived from supernatural revelation or guidance—the source of ethics in many religions.
Self-knowledge is a term used in psychology to describe the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?".
Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Situated ethics, often confused with situational ethics, is a view of applied ethics in which abstract standards from a culture or theory are considered to be far less important than the ongoing processes in which one is personally and physically involved, e.g. climate, ecosystem, etc.
Situational ethics or situation ethics takes into account the particular context of an act when evaluating it ethically, rather than judging it according to absolute moral standards.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Speciesism involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Mohist consequentialism, also known as state consequentialism, is a consequentialist ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how it contributes to the basic goods of a state, through social order, material wealth, and population growth.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Temple University Press is a university press founded in 1969 that is part of Temple University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (1995; second edition 1999) is a dictionary of philosophy published by Cambridge University Press and edited by Robert Audi.
The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.
The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values is a book by Sam Harris published in 2010.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Lausanne (UNIL, French: Université de Lausanne) in Lausanne, Switzerland was founded in 1537 as a school of theology, before being made a university in 1890.
The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
A value judgment (or value judgement) is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, based in Waterloo, Ontario, is a publisher of scholarly writing and is part of Wilfrid Laurier University.
William Klaas Frankena (June 21, 1908 – October 22, 1994) was an American moral philosopher.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
A wrong (from Old English wrang – crooked) is an act that is illegal or immoral.
Zygmunt Bauman (19 November 1925 – 9 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist and philosopher.
Ehtics, Ethic, Ethical, Ethical demand, Ethical imperative, Ethical issues, Ethical philosophy, Ethical standard, Ethical standards, Ethical system, Ethical theories, Ethical theory, Ethics (philosophy), Ethikos, Military ethics, Moral Philosophy, Moral community, Moral philosopher, Moral philosophers, Moral philosophy, Moral questions, Philosophical ethics, Philosophy of morality, Postmodern ethics, Right (ethics), Right Thing, Right and Wrong, Right and wrong, Soldiers Ethics, Un-ethical, Unethical.