153 relations: Amdo, American Journal of Human Genetics, An Lushan, An Lushan Rebellion, Archaeology of China, Baarins, Baiyue, Barbarian, Bouyei people, Bronze Age, Cantonese people, Chang'an, China proper, Christopher I. Beckwith, Dai people, Daur people, Di (Five Barbarians), Dian Kingdom, Dian Lake, Dingling, Dungan people, Dunhuang, Emperor Taizong's campaign against the Western Regions, Emperor Wu of Han, Ethnic group, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnography, Ethnonym, Exonym and endonym, Five Barbarians, Four Barbarians, Fujian, Gansu, Göktürks, Genghis Khan, Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guanzhong, Guizhou, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Hebei, Hebrews, Heilongjiang, Historical linguistics, History of China, History of the Jews in China, Hmong people, Hotan, ..., Huaxia, Hui people, Indo-European migrations, Inner Mongolia, Iranian peoples, Iranian religions, Israelites, Jews, Jie people, Jilin, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jingpo people, K. C. Wu, Kaifeng, Kam people, Kashgar, Kazakhstan, Khitan people, Kingdom of Khotan, Koreans, Koreans in China, Kucha, Kumo Xi, Kushan Empire, Kyrgyzstan, Lahu people, Lake Baikal, Li Baoyu, Li people, Li Zicheng, Liaoning, List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, Luoyang, Manchu people, Manchuria, Manichaeism, Maonan people, Miao people, Ming dynasty, Mizhi County, Mohe people, Mongolia, Mongols, Mulao people, Nakhi people, Ningxia, Northern and Southern dynasties, Northern Vietnam, Northern Wei, Oracle bone, Pinyin, Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Protectorate of the Western Regions, Qiang (historical people), Qiang people, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qocho, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rouran Khaganate, Russia, Russians, Saka, Shaanxi, Shang dynasty, Shanxi, Shiwei, Shule Kingdom, Siberia, Sichuan, Silk Road, Sogdia, Sui people, Tai peoples, Tajikistan, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Tarim Basin, Tarim mummies, Tibet, Tibetan people, Tiele people, Tocharians, Translation, Transliteration, Tungusic peoples, Turpan, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, Uzbekistan, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Xinjiang, Yanhuang, Yelang, Yellow River, Yi people, Yuezhi, Yugur, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Zhuang people, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
The archaeology of China is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the region's civilizations.
The Baarin are a Southern Mongol subgroup.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman";; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Cantonese people are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in southern mainland China.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
The Dai people (Kam Mueang:; Thai: ไท; Shan: တႆး; Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰ) are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan, China), but by extension can apply to groups in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar when Dai is used to mean specifically Tai Yai, Lue, Chinese Shan, Tai Dam, Tai Khao or even Tai in general.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
The Di (Old Chinese: *tˁij) were an ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples that overran northern China during the Jin Dynasty (265–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
The Dian Kingdom was an ancient kingdom established by the Dian people, an ancient group of indigenous non-Chinese metalworking tribes that inhabited around the Dian Lake plateau of central northern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn period until the Eastern Han dynasty.
Dianchi Lake (Chinese: 滇池, Diānchí), also known as Lake Dian and Kunming Lake (昆明湖, Kūnmínghú), is a large lake located on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau close to Kunming, Yunnan, in southern China.
The Dingling were an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.
Four Barbarians was a derogatory Chinese term for various ancient non-Chinese peoples bordering ancient China, namely, the Dongyi 東夷 "Eastern Barbarians", Nanman 南蠻 "Southern Barbarians", Xirong 西戎 "Western Barbarians", and Beidi 北狄 "Northern Barbarians".
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Some historical Chinese characters for non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs, where the racial insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
Huaxia is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jié (Middle Chinese) were members of a small tribe in North China in the 4th century.
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jingpo people are an ethnic group who are the largest subset of the Kachin peoples, which largely inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province of China and India's Arunachal Pradesh, which is claimed by China.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
The Dong people, also known as Kam people (endonym), a Kam–Sui people of southern China, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranic Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with citizenship of the People's Republic of China, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, with a total of roughly 2.3 million people, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.
Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.
The Kumo Xi (Xu Elina-Qian, p.296b called the Xi since the Sui dynasty (581-618 AD)), also Tatabi, were a Mongolic steppe people located in current northeast China from 207 AD to 907 AD.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The Lahu people (Lahu: Ladhulsi / Kawzhawd; La Hủ) are an ethnic group of China and Mainland Southeast Asia.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Li Baoyu (李抱玉) (703 – April 15, 777), né An Chongzhang (安重璋), known for some time as An Baoyu (安抱玉), formally Duke Zhaowu of Liang (涼昭武公), was an ethnic SogdianHoward, Michael C., Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies, the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel, McFarland & Company, 2012, p. 135.
The Li (黎; pinyin: Lí) or Hlai are an ethnic group, the vast majority of whom live off the southern coast of mainland China on Hainan Island, where they are the largest minority ethnic group.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The Maonan (Maonan: Anan, translates to local people) people are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mizhi County is a county of Yulin, Shaanxi, China.
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mulao (own name: Mulam) people are an ethnic group.
The Nakhi or Nashi (endonym: ¹na²khi) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
Northern Vietnam (Miền Bắc) is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640–c.790) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin.
The Protectorate of the Western Regions was an imperial administration imposed by Han China – between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE – on many smaller and previously independent states, which were known in China as the "Western Regions"). "Western Regions" referred mostly to areas west of Yumen Pass, especially the Tarim Basin. These areas were later regarded as Altishahr (southern Xinjiang, excluding Dzungaria). Previously, "western regions" was used more generally in regard to Central Asia and sometimes even included parts of South Asia. The protectorate was the first direct rule by a Chinese government of the area.Yu 2003, 57-59 It comprised various vassal protectorates, under the nominal authority of a Chief Protector of the Western Regions, appointed by the Han court.
Qiang was a name given to various groups of people at different periods in ancient China.
The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Rouran Khaganate, Ruanruan, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shiwei was an umbrella term for the Food (or Work or Catastrophe) Council Mongols and Tungusic peoples that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach.
The Shule Kingdom (Chinese: 疏勒) was an Indo-European oasis kingdom of the Taklamakan Desert that was on the Northern Silk Road, in the historical Western Regions of what is now Xinjiang in Northwest China.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Sui people (autonym: ai33 sui33), also spelled as Shui people, are an ethnic group living mostly in Guizhou Province, China.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BCE to the first centuries BCE.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The Tiele (Turkic *Tegreg " Carts"), also transliterated Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.
The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Wuhuan (Old Chinese: ʔˤa ɢʷˁar, Mongol romanization:Uhuan) were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yanhuang or Yan Huang (Chinese language: t, s, p Yán Huáng) was the name of an ethnic group of ancient China who inhabited the Yellow River basin area.
Yelang, initially known as Zangke, was a conglomeration of non-Chinese agricultural tribes first described in the 3rd century BC that inhabited in what is now western Guizhou province, China.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo) are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
The Yugurs, or Yellow Uyghurs, as they are traditionally known, are a Turkic and Mongolicgroup and one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.