98 relations: Acid, Air conditioning, Alkali metal, Antifreeze, Azeotropic distillation, Base (chemistry), Boron trifluoride, Carbon dioxide, Carbonyl group, Catalysis, Caterpillar, Central nervous system, Charles Adolphe Wurtz, Chemical equation, Chemical reaction, Colligative properties, Convective heat transfer, Corrosion, Deicing, Denatonium, Desiccant, Diethylene glycol, Dimethyl oxalate, Diol, Dioxolane, Dissection, Dynamite, Ethanol, Ethylene, Ethylene carbonate, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene oxide, Explosive material, Fluid, Formaldehyde, Galleria mellonella, Geothermal heat pump, Geothermal heating, Glycerol, Glycolic acid, Gut flora, Heat capacity, Henan, High production volume chemicals, Hydrate, Hydration reaction, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Inner Mongolia, ..., Intermolecular force, Isophorone, Isopropyl alcohol, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Lactic acid, Lethal dose, Methane clathrate, Miscibility, Nitrogen, Oligomer, OMEGA process, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Oxalic acid, P-Toluenesulfonic acid, Personal computer, PH, Plastic bottle, Plastics industry, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene terephthalate, Potassium hydroxide, Preservative, Propylene glycol, Protecting group, Raoult's law, Redox, Reflux, Resin, Royal Dutch Shell, Shoe polish, Soft drink, South Charleston, West Virginia, Teratology, Triethylene glycol, Union Carbide, Vaccine, Vapor pressure, Water, Water well, Windshield, World War I, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dioxane, 2-Chloroethanol. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
In chemistry, azeotropic distillation is any of a range of techniques used to break an azeotrope in distillation.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Adolphe Wurtz (26 November 1817 – 10 May 1884) was an Alsatian French chemist.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (under trade names such as BITTERANT-b, BITTER+PLUS, Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium saccharide (BITTERANT-s), is the most bitter chemical compound known, with bitterness thresholds of 0.05 ppm for the benzoate and 0.01 ppm for the saccharide.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O.
Dimethyl oxalate is the organic compound with the formula (CH3O2C)2.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dioxolane is a heterocyclic acetal with the chemical formula (CH2)2O2CH2.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene carbonate (sometimes abbreviated EC) is the organic compound with the formula (CH2O)2CO.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Galleria mellonella, the greater wax moth or honeycomb moth, is a moth of the family Pyralidae.
A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground.
Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating some applications.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycolic acid (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2CO2H), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
High production volume chemicals, also referred to as HPV chemicals, are produced or imported into the United States in quantities of 1 million pounds or 500 tons per year.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
Isophorone is an α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketone.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
The OMEGA process ("Only MEG Advantage") is a process by Shell Global Solutions that is used to produce ethylene glycol from ethylene.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
p-Toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA or pTsOH) or tosylic acid (TsOH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO3H.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic.
The plastics industry manufactures polymer materials — commonly called plastics — and offers services in plastics important to a range of industries, including packaging, building and construction, electronics, aerospace, and transportation.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
Raoult's law (law) is a law of thermodynamics established by French chemist François-Marie Raoult in 1887.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Shoe polish (or boot polish) is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish, shine, and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, and restore, maintain and improve their appearance.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
South Charleston is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, United States The population was 13,450 at the 2010 census.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is a colorless odorless viscous liquid with molecular formula HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH.
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
The windshield (North America) or windscreen (Commonwealth English) of an aircraft, car, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.
2-Chloroethanol is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2Cl and the simplest chlorohydrin.
1,2-Dihydroxyethane, 1,2-etandiol, 1,2-ethanediol, Dihydroxyalcohol, Ethan-1,2-diol, Ethandiol, Ethane-1,2-diol, Ethanediol, Ethylene Glycol, Ethylene alcohol, Ethylene glycols, Ethyleneglycol, Mono Ethylene Glycol, Monoethylene glycol.