251 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetylene, Acrylonitrile, Acyl chloride, Addition reaction, Africa, Agrochemical, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkaline earth metal, Alkoxide, Alkylation, Aluminium oxide, Aluminosilicate, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Amide, Ammonia, Anesthetic, Anionic addition polymerization, Anprolene, Antifreeze, Antimony, Asia, Autoignition temperature, Aziridine, Barium hydroxide, Barium peroxide, BASF, Belgium, Binding energy, Bismuth, Boiling point, Bone tumor, Borane, Borirane, Boron trifluoride, Brazil, Breast cancer, Butyllithium, Calcium chloride, Calcium cyanide, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium nitrite, Calcium oxide, Canada, Carbanion, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, ..., Carbonate, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Catalysis, Cationic polymerization, Charles Adolphe Wurtz, Chemical formula, Chemical weapon, China, China Petrochemical Corporation, Choline, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Crown ether, Cyanohydrin, Detergent, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Diethyl ether, Diethylamine, Diethylene glycol, Dimethyl ether, Dioxolane, Disinfectant, Dispersant, Distillation, Dow Chemical Company, Eastern Europe, Electrolyte, Emulsion, Epoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethanolamine, Ether, Ethyl group, Ethylene, Ethylene carbonate, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene glycol dinitrate, Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, European Union, Exothermic process, Firefighting foam, Formaldehyde, Formosa Plastics Corp, Fractionating column, France, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fumigation, Fungicide, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Gas chromatography, Georg Bredig, Germany, Glycolic acid, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Grignard reaction, Halohydrin, Heat capacity, Heterocyclic compound, Hexachloroethane, Hot spot effect in subatomic physics, Hydride, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroiodic acid, Hydroxide, India, Indonesia, Ineos, Inert gas, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intraperitoneal injection, Iodic acid, Iodine, Iran, Iron(III) chloride, Isomer, Isomerization, Japan, Ketene, Kuwait, Leukocytosis, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lloyd Hall, Lowest published toxic dose, Lubricant, Magnesium hydroxide, Malaysia, Median lethal dose, Median toxic dose, Medication, Methane, Mexico, Moment of inertia, Mucous membrane, Mutagen, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Netherlands, NFPA 704, Nickel, Nitric acid, North America, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic substitution, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oil field, Organic compound, Organometallic chemistry, Paint thinner, Palladium, Perchloric acid, Periodic acid, Peroxy acid, Peroxybenzoic acid, Phenethyl alcohol, Phenolphthalein, Phosphonium, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus pentachloride, Phosphorus trichloride, Plasticizer, Platinum, Polyester, Polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polysorbate 20, Potassium hydroxide, Propane, Propene, Propylene oxide, Pulmonary edema, Pumice, Pyridine, Pyrolysis, Rectified spirit, Redox, Ring strain, Royal Dutch Shell, SABIC, Saudi Arabia, Scrubber, Silica gel, Silicate, Silicon carbide, Silver, Silver nitrate, Silver oxide, Singapore, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium iodide, Sodium nitrite, South Korea, Spain, Spice, Stripping (chemistry), Styrene, Subcutaneous injection, Sulfolane, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur mustard, Sulfuric acid, Sulfuryl chloride, Surface tension, Surfactant, Taiwan, Tetrahydrofuran, Textile, Thermal conductivity, Thermal decomposition, Thermobaric weapon, Thiirane, Thiocyanate, Thiourea, Tin(IV) chloride, Titanium(II) chloride, Titanium(III) chloride, Triethylene glycol, Triphenylphosphine, Turkey, Union Carbide, Unit operation, United Kingdom, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Venezuela, Vinyl alcohol, Viscosity, Western Europe, World War I, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,3-Propanediol, 1,4-Dioxane, 2-Butoxyethanol, 2-Chloroethanol. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the polymerization of vinyl monomers with strong electronegative groups.
Anprolene is a registered trade name for ethylene oxide that belongs to Andersen Sterilizers.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
Aziridines are organic compounds containing the aziridine functional group, a three-membered heterocycle with one amine group (-NH-) and two methylene bridges (--). The parent compound is aziridine (or ethylene imine), with molecular formula.
Barium hydroxide are chemical compounds with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x.
Barium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaO2.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Borirane is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula C2H4BH.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Butyllithium may refer to one of 5 isomeric organolithium reagents of which 3 are commonly used in chemical synthesis.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium cyanide also known as black cyanide,.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium nitrite is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Ca(NO2)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cationic polymerization is a type of chain growth polymerization in which a cationic initiator transfers charge to a monomer which then becomes reactive.
Charles Adolphe Wurtz (26 November 1817 – 10 May 1884) was an Alsatian French chemist.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Petrochemical Corporation or Sinopec Group is the world's largest oil refining, gas and petrochemical conglomerate, administered by SASAC for the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crown ethers are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups.
A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds in which a cyano and a hydroxy group are attached to the same carbon atom.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3CH2)2NH.
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Dioxolane is a heterocyclic acetal with the chemical formula (CH2)2O2CH2.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol, monoethanolamine, ETA, or MEA) is an organic chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene carbonate (sometimes abbreviated EC) is the organic compound with the formula (CH2O)2CO.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN,NGc), also known as nitroglycol, is a chemical compound a colorless, oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating ethylene glycol.
Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (January 15, 1817 – November 24, 1878) was an Austrian-German chemist.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Firefighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression.
Formosa Plastics Corporation is a Taiwanese plastics company based in Taiwan (formerly called "Formosa") that primarily produces polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins and other intermediate plastic products.
A fractionating column is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Georg Bredig (October 1, 1868, Glogau, Niederschlesien, Silesia Province – April 24, 1944, New York) was a German physical chemist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glycolic acid (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2CO2H), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
In organic chemistry a halohydrin (also a haloalcohol or β-halo alcohol) is a functional group in which a halogen and a hydroxyl are bonded to adjacent carbon atoms, which otherwise bear only hydrogen or hydrocarbyl groups (e.g. 2-chloroethanol, 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol).
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
Hexachloroethane, also known as perchloroethane (PCA), C2Cl6, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature with a camphor-like odor.
Hot spots in subatomic physics are regions of high energy density or temperature in hadronic or nuclear matter.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
INEOS is a privately owned multinational chemicals company headquartered in London, UK, and with registered offices in Lyndhurst, Hampshire, UK and London, United Kingdom.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Iodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white or off-white solid.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
A ketene is an organic compound of the form R′R″C.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lloyd Augustus Hall (June 19, 1894 – January 2, 1971) was an African American chemist, who contributed to the science of food preservation.
In toxicology, the Lowest published toxic dose (Toxic Dose Low, TDLo) is the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram) of a substance known to have produced signs of toxicity in a particular animal species.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
In toxicology, the median toxic dose (TD50) of a drug or toxin is the dose at which toxicity occurs in 50% of cases.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
A paint thinner is a solvent used to thin oil-based paints or clean up after their use.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
Periodic acid ("per-iodic") is the highest oxoacid of iodine, in which the iodine exists in oxidation state VII.
A peroxy acid (often spelled as one word, peroxyacid, and sometimes called peracid) is an acid which contains an acidic –OOH group.
Peroxybenzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CO3H.
Phenethyl alcohol, or 2-phenylethanol, is the organic compound that consists of a phenethyl group (C6H5CH2CH2) group attached to OH.
Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation.
The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.
Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of sorbitan before the addition of lauric acid.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
Propylene oxide is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3CHCH2O.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In organic chemistry, ring strain is a type of instability that exists when bonds in a molecule form angles that are abnormal.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
SABIC (Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation) is a Saudi diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers, and metals.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Stripping is a physical separation process where one or more components are removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Sulfolane (also tetramethylene sulfone, systematic name: 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is an organosulfur compound, formally a cyclic sulfone, with the formula (CH2)4SO2.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sulfuryl chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula SO2Cl2.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate a high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive.
Thiirane, more commonly known as ethylene sulfide, is the cyclic chemical compound with the formula C2H4S.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thiourea is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2.
Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4.
Titanium(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula TiCl2.
Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3.
Triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is a colorless odorless viscous liquid with molecular formula HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.
In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vinyl alcohol, also called ethenol (IUPAC name), is the simplest enol.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
1,3-Propanediol is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2OH)2.
1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.
2-Butoxyethanol is an organic compound with the chemical formula BuOC2H4OH (Bu.
2-Chloroethanol is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2Cl and the simplest chlorohydrin.