212 relations: Achilles, Adria, Adriatic Sea, Alps, Anatolia, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Roman architecture, Ancient Rome, Antefix, Anticlides, Apennine Mountains, Apotropaic magic, Archaeology of Northern Europe, Archaic Greece, Arezzo, Artemis, Attic Greek, Atys of Lydia, Aulos, Axe, Battle of Alalia, Battle of Cumae, Bolsena, Bucchero, Campania, Capua, Carl Darling Buck, Carrara marble, Carthage, Cel (goddess), Celts, Central Europe, Cerveteri, Chiefdom, Chimera of Arezzo, Chiusi, Cicero, Cithara, City-state, Classical architecture, Copper, Cornell University, Corsica, Cortona, Creative Commons, Crotales, Cumae, ..., Curia, CyArk, Deity, Demaratus of Corinth, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysus, Divinity, Epitaph, Etruria, Etruscan cities, Etruscan coins, Etruscan language, Etruscan mythology, Etruscan vase painting, Fanum Voltumnae, Fasces, Ferrous metallurgy, Fresco, Fufluns, Gaul, Gauls, Gens, Giuliano Bonfante, Gorgon, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Helios, Herodotus, Hiero I of Syracuse, Homer, Horace, Iguvine Tablets, Imbros, Immanence, Indo-European languages, Iron Age, Ischia, Italian Peninsula, Italic languages, Juno (mythology), Khan Academy, LacusCurtius, Language isolate, Laran, Larissa Bonfante, Latin, Latium, Lazio, Lega dei popoli, Leinth, Lemnian language, Lemnos, Liber Linteus, Lictor, List of ancient peoples of Italy, Livy, Lydia, Lyre, Magistrate, Magna Graecia, Maris (mythology), Mediterranean Sea, Menrva, Metalworking, Minerva, Mitochondrial DNA, Monarchy, Natural History (Pliny), Near East, Necropolis, Neolithic, Noricum, Numa Pompilius, Oligarchy, Palatine Hill, Pan (god), Patroclus, Pelasgians, Perugia, Phocaea, Piracy, Pliny the Elder, Po Valley, Political alliance, Politics, Polybius, Polytheism, Pomerium, Pons Sublicius, Populonia, Pottery of ancient Greece, Prehistory, Proto-Indo-European religion, Punic language, Raetia, Regalia, Republic, Rhaetian language, Rhaetian people, Roman Empire, Roman Kingdom, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Roman temple, Roman tribe, Roman–Etruscan Wars, Rome, Romulus and Remus, Rusellae, Samnites, Sarcophagus, Sardinia, Sea Peoples, Selvans, Sovereign state, Spain, Spina, SPQR, Stele, Strabo, Syncope (phonology), Syracuse, Sicily, Syrinx, Tages, Tarchon, Tarquinia, Thalna, The New York Times, Thessaly, Thucydides, Tiber, Timpani, Tinia, Tintinnabulum (Ancient Rome), Treccani, Tribal chief, Troy, Tumulus, Turan (mythology), Turms, Tuscany, Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenians, Tyrrhenus, Tyrsenian languages, Umbri, Umbria, Umbrian language, University of Ferrara, Upper Paleolithic, Vegoia, Veii, Vetulonia, Vicus Tuscus, Villanovan culture, Vindelici, Volsinii, Volterra, Vulci, Western culture, Wikisource. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Adria is a town and comune in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
An antefix (from Latin antefigere, to fasten before) is a vertical block which terminates the covering tiles of a tiled roof.
Anticlides of Athens (or Anticleides) lived after the time of Alexander the Great, and is frequently referred to by later writers.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune or averting the evil eye.
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy, capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Atys (Ἄτυς) is a legendary figure of the 2nd millennium BC who is attested by Herodotus to have been an early king of Lydia, then probably known as Maeonia.
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
The naval Battle of Alalia took place between 540 BC and 535 BC off the coast of Corsica between Greeks and the allied Etruscans and Carthaginians.
The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BC between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae against the Etruscans.
Bolsena is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Viterbo in northern Lazio on the eastern shore of Lake Bolsena.
Bucchero is a class of ceramics produced in central Italy by the region's pre-Roman Etruscan population.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
Carl Darling Buck (October 2, 1866 – February 8, 1955), born in Bucksport, Maine, was an American philologist.
Carrara marble is a type of white or blue-grey marble of high quality, popular for use in sculpture and building decor.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cel was the Etruscan goddess of the earth.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
The Chimera of Arezzo is regarded as the best example of ancient Etruscan artwork.
Chiusi (Etruscan: Clevsin; Umbrian: Camars; Ancient Greek: Klysion, Κλύσιον; Latin: Clusium) is a town and comune in province of Siena, Tuscany, Italy.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The cithara or kithara (translit, cithara) was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
Crotales, sometimes called antique cymbals, are percussion instruments consisting of small, tuned bronze or brass disks.
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one.
CyArk is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization located in Oakland, California, United States.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Demaratus (Δημάρατος), frequently called Demaratus of Corinth, was the father of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth King of Rome, and the grandfather or great-grandfather of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last Roman king.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honoring a deceased person.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Etruscan cities are those that shared a common Etruscan language and culture even though they were independent city-states.
Like the Egyptians, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, the Etruscans were rather slow to adopt the invention of coinage.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
Etruscan vase painting was produced from the 7th through the 4th centuries BC, and is a major element in Etruscan art.
The Fanum Voltumnae (‘shrine of Voltumna’) was the chief sanctuary of the Etruscans; fanum means a sacred place, a much broader notion than a single temple.
Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
In Etruscan mythology, Fufluns (or Puphluns) was a god of plant life, happiness, wine, health, and growth in all things.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
Giuliano Bonfante (Milan, 6 August 1904 – Rome, 9 September 2005) was an Italian linguist and expert on the language of the Etruscans and other Italic peoples.
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hieron I (Ἱέρων Α΄; usually Latinized Hiero) was the son of Deinomenes, the brother of Gelon and tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily from 478 to 467 BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The Iguvine Tablets, also known as the Eugubian Tablets or Eugubine Tables, are a series of seven bronze tablets from ancient Iguvium (modern Gubbio), Italy.
Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.
LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
In Etruscan mythology, Laran was the god of war.
Larissa Bonfante (born March 27, 1931, in Naples, Italy) is an Italian-American classicist, Professor of Classics emerita at New York University and an authority on Etruscan language and culture.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
In ancient Italy, the Etruscan "Lega dei popoli" (League of the peoples) was a league comprising several towns — usually, but not necessarily, twelve — located in the areas that today are known as Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Leinth is an Etruscan deity.
The Lemnian language was a language spoken on the island of Lemnos in the 6th century BC.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
The Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis (Latin for "Linen Book of Zagreb", also rarely known as Liber Agramensis, "Book of Agram") is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book, dated to the 3rd century BCE.
A lictor (possibly from ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium.
This list of ancient peoples living in Italy summarises groupings existing before the Roman expansion and conquest.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Maris (or Mariś) was an Etruscan god often depicted as an infant or child and given many epithets, including Mariś Halna, Mariś Husrnana ("Maris the Child"), and Mariś Isminthians.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menrva (also spelled Menerva) was an Etruscan goddess of war, art, wisdom, and medicine.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Πάτροκλος, Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.
The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Phocaea, or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, Phókaia; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.
A political alliance, also referred to as a political coalition, political bloc, is an agreement for cooperation between different political parties on common political agenda, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds, or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the voting system or for government formation after elections.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.
The Pons Sublicius is the earliest known bridge of ancient Rome, spanning the Tiber River near the Forum Boarium ("cattle forum") downstream from the Tiber Island, near the foot of the Aventine Hill.
Populonia or Populonia Alta (Etruscan: Pupluna, Pufluna or Fufluna, all pronounced Fufluna; Latin: Populonium, Populonia, or Populonii) today is a frazione of the comune of Piombino (Tuscany, central Italy).
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Rhaetian or Rhaetic (Raetic) was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times.
The Raeti (spelling variants: Rhaeti, Rheti or Rhaetii; Ancient Greek: Ῥαιτοί: transcription Rhaitoí) were a confederation of Alpine tribes, whose language and culture may have derived, at least in part, from the Etruscans.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
A tribus, or tribe, was a division of the Roman people, constituting the voting units of a legislative assembly of the Roman Republic.
The Roman–Etruscan Wars were a series of wars fought between ancient Rome (including both the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic) and the Etruscans, from the earliest stages of the history of Rome.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.
Rusellae, situated in the archaeological area of Roselle, was an important ancient town of Etruria (roughly modern Tuscany), and subsequently of ancient Rome, which survived until the Middle Ages before being abandoned.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
In Etruscan mythology, Selvans was god of the woodlands, cognate with Roman Silvanus.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spina was an Etruscan port city, established by the end of the 6th century BCE, on the Adriatic at the ancient mouth of the Po, south of the lagoon which would become the site of Venice.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
In classical Greek mythology, Syrinx (Greek Σύριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity.
Tages was a founding prophet of Etruscan religion who is known from reports by Latin authors of the late Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
In Etruscan mythology, Tarchon and his brother, Tyrrhenus, were culture heroes who founded the Etruscan League of twelve cities, the Dodecapoli.
Tarquinia, formerly Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy known chiefly for its outstanding and unique ancient Etruscan tombs in the widespread necropoli or cemeteries which it overlies, for which it was awarded UNESCO World Heritage status.
In Etruscan religion and myth, Thalna was a divine figure usually regarded as a goddess of childbirth.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
Timpani or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion family.
Tinia (also Tin, Tinh, Tins or Tina) was the god of the sky and the highest god in Etruscan mythology, equivalent to the Roman Jupiter and the Greek Zeus.
In ancient Rome, a tintinnabulum (less often tintinnum) was a wind chime or assemblage of bells.
The Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (Italian for "Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts"), best known as Treccani for its developer Giovanni Treccani or Enciclopedia Italiana, is an Italian-language encyclopaedia.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Turan was the Etruscan goddess of love, fertility and vitality and patroness of the city of Velch.
In Etruscan religion, Turms (usually written as 𐌕𐌖𐌓𐌌𐌑 Turmś in the Etruscan alphabet) was the equivalent of Roman Mercury and Greek Hermes, both gods of trade and the messenger god between people and gods.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek: Τυρρηνοί Turrhēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic: Τυρσηνοί Tursēnoi; Doric: Τυρσανοί Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.
In Etruscan mythology, Tyrrhenus (in Τυρρηνός) was one of the founders of the Etruscan League of twelve cities, along with his brother Tarchon.
Tyrsenian (also Tyrrhenian), named after the Tyrrhenians (Ancient Greek, Ionic: Τυρσηνοί, Tursēnoi), is a hypothetical extinct family of closely related ancient languages proposed by Helmut Rix (1998), that consists of the Etruscan language of central Italy, the Raetic language of the Alps, and the Lemnian language of the Aegean Sea.
The Umbri were Italic peoples of ancient Italy.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.
The University of Ferrara (Università degli Studi di Ferrara) is the main university of the city of Ferrara in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Vegoia (Etruscan: Vecu) is a nymph and/or sibyl within the Etruscan religious framework who is responsible for writing some parts of their large and complex set of sacred books, of initiating the Etruscan people to the arts, originating the rules and rituals of land marking, and presiding over the observance, respect and preservation of boundaries.
Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.
Vetulonia, formerly called Vetulonium (Etruscan Vatluna), was an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, the site of which is probably occupied by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the name of Colonnata and Colonna di Buriano: the site is currently a frazione of the comune of Castiglione della Pescaia, with some 400 inhabitants.
Vicus Tuscus ("Etruscan Street" or "Tuscan Street") was an ancient street in the city of Rome, running southwest out of the Roman Forum between the Basilica Julia and the Temple of Castor and Pollux towards the Forum Boarium and Circus Maximus via the west side of the Palatine Hill and Velabrum.
The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by the Etruscan civilization.
The Vindelici were a Celtic people in antiquity.
Volsinii or Vulsinii (Etruscan: Velzna or Velusna; Greek: Ouolsinii, Ὀυολσίνιοι; Ὀυολσίνιον), is the name of two ancient cities of Etruria, one situated on the shore of Lacus Volsiniensis (modern Lago di Bolsena), and the other on the Via Clodia, between Clusium (Chiusi) and Forum Cassii (Vetralla).
Volterra is a walled mountaintop town in the Tuscany region of Italy of which its history dates to before the 7th century BC and has substantial structures from the Etruscan, Roman, and Medieval periods.
Vulci or Volci was a rich and important Etruscan city (in Etruscan, Velch or Velx, depending on the romanization used).
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
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Ancient Etruscans, Etrurian civilisation, Etrurian civilization, Etrurians, Etrusc, Etrusca, Etruscan Civilization, Etruscan Confederation, Etruscan bronze, Etruscan civilisation, Etruscan civilization/Archive 1, Etruscan culture, Etruscan literature, Etruscan people, Etruscans, Etrusci, Etrusco, Etruscs, History of the Etruscans, Hypotheses and theories for Etruscian origin, Hypothesis and theories for Etruscian origin, Rasenna, Romans and Etruscans, The Etruscans, Tyrrhi.