164 relations: A History of Vector Analysis, Absolute value, Acceleration, Addition, Additive inverse, Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, Affine space, Algebraic operation, Angle, Angular acceleration, Angular momentum, Angular velocity, Applied mathematics, Area, Array data structure, Arrow, Associative property, August Ferdinand Möbius, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Banach space, Basis (linear algebra), Bivector, Calculus, Car, Caret, Cartesian coordinate system, Chain rule, Clifford algebra, Commutative property, Complex number, Coordinate system, Coordinate vector, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Cross product, Cylindrical coordinate system, Del, Derivative, Determinant, Differential geometry, Dimensional analysis, Dimensionless quantity, Directional derivative, Displacement (vector), Distance, Distributive property, Dot product, Edwin Bidwell Wilson, Einstein notation, Electric field, Elements of Dynamic, ..., Engineering, Equipollence (geometry), Equivalence class, Equivalence relation, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Euler angles, Exterior algebra, Field (mathematics), Force, Four-vector, Fraktur, Function (mathematics), Function space, German language, Giusto Bellavitis, Gradient, Hermann Grassmann, Hilbert space, Imaginary unit, Index notation, Inertial frame of reference, Inner product space, Integral, Invertible matrix, James Clerk Maxwell, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Kelvin, Law of cosines, Length, Letter case, Level of measurement, Line segment, Linear independence, Magnetic field, Magnitude (mathematics), Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Matthew O'Brien (mathematician), Metre, Minkowski space, MIT Press, Momentum, Multiplication, Newton (unit), Newton's laws of motion, Norm (mathematics), Normal (geometry), Null vector, Orientation (geometry), Orientation (vector space), Origin (mathematics), Orthogonality, Parallel (geometry), Parallelepiped, Parallelogram, Parametric equation, Parity (physics), Participle, PDF, Perpendicular, Peter Tait (physicist), Physics, Plane (geometry), Point (geometry), Position (vector), Proportionality (mathematics), Pseudoscalar, Pseudovector, Pure mathematics, Pythagorean theorem, Quaternion, Radius, Real line, Real number, Relative direction, Right-hand rule, Rotation, Rotation formalisms in three dimensions, Rotation matrix, Row and column vectors, Seven-dimensional cross product, Special relativity, Speed, Spherical coordinate system, Standard basis, Subtraction, Symmetry, Tangent space, Tangential and normal components, Tensor, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Theory of relativity, Thermodynamics, Tilde, Torque, Transformation matrix, Transpose, Trigonometric functions, Tuple, Unit vector, Vector algebra, Vector Analysis, Vector bundle, Vector calculus, Vector field, Vector notation, Vector projection, Vector space, Vector-valued function, Velocity, Wheel, William Kingdon Clifford, William Rowan Hamilton. Expand index (114 more) »

## A History of Vector Analysis

A History of Vector Analysis (1967) is a book on the history of vector analysis by Michael J. Crowe, originally published by the University of Notre Dame Press.

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## Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

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## Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

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## Addition

Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Additive inverse

In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.

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## Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant

Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant (23 August 1797, Villiers-en-Bière, Seine-et-Marne – 6 January 1886, Saint-Ouen, Loir-et-Cher) was a mechanician and mathematician who contributed to early stress analysis and also developed the unsteady open channel flow shallow water equations, also known as the Saint-Venant equations that are a fundamental set of equations used in modern hydraulic engineering.

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## Affine space

In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments.

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## Algebraic operation

In mathematics, a basic algebraic operation is any one of the traditional operations of arithmetic, which are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to an integer power, and taking roots (fractional power).

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## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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## Angular acceleration

Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity.

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## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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## Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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## Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.

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## Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

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## Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

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## Arrow

An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.

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## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

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## August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius (17 November 1790 – 26 September 1868) was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

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## Augustin-Louis Cauchy

Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE (21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including: mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.

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## Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.

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## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

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## Bivector

In mathematics, a bivector or 2-vector is a quantity in exterior algebra or geometric algebra that extends the idea of scalars and vectors.

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## Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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## Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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## Caret

The caret is an inverted V-shaped grapheme.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Chain rule

In calculus, the chain rule is a formula for computing the derivative of the composition of two or more functions.

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## Clifford algebra

In mathematics, a Clifford algebra is an algebra generated by a vector space with a quadratic form, and is a unital associative algebra.

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## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

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## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

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## Covariance and contravariance of vectors

In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.

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## Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

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## Cylindrical coordinate system

A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis, the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction, and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis.

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## Del

Del, or nabla, is an operator used in mathematics, in particular in vector calculus, as a vector differential operator, usually represented by the nabla symbol ∇.

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## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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## Determinant

In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.

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## Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

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## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

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## Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

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## Directional derivative

In mathematics, the directional derivative of a multivariate differentiable function along a given vector v at a given point x intuitively represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function, moving through x with a velocity specified by v. It therefore generalizes the notion of a partial derivative, in which the rate of change is taken along one of the curvilinear coordinate curves, all other coordinates being constant.

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## Displacement (vector)

A displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P. It quantifies both the distance and direction of an imaginary motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point.

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## Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

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## Distributive property

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from boolean algebra and elementary algebra.

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## Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.

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## Edwin Bidwell Wilson

Edwin Bidwell Wilson (April 25, 1879 – December 28, 1964) was an American mathematician and polymath.

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## Einstein notation

In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Elements of Dynamic

Elements of Dynamic is a book published by William Kingdon Clifford in 1878.

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## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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## Equipollence (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, equipollence is a binary relation between directed line segments.

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## Equivalence class

In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation) defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes.

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## Equivalence relation

In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

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## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

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## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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## Euler angles

The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.

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## Exterior algebra

In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction used in geometry to study areas, volumes, and their higher-dimensional analogs.

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## Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

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## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Four-vector

In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.

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## Fraktur

Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.

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## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

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## Function space

In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets.

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## German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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## Giusto Bellavitis

Giusto Bellavitis (22 November 1803 – 6 November 1880) was an Italian mathematician, senator, and municipal councilor.

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## Gradient

In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

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## Hermann Grassmann

Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.

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## Hilbert space

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

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## Imaginary unit

The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.

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## Index notation

In mathematics and computer programming, index notation is used to specify the elements of an array of numbers.

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## Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

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## Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

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## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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## Invertible matrix

In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate) if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication.

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## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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## Josiah Willard Gibbs

Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Law of cosines

In trigonometry, the law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula or cosine rule) relates the lengths of the sides of a triangle to the cosine of one of its angles.

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## Length

In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

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## Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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## Level of measurement

Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.

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## Line segment

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints.

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## Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be.

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## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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## Magnitude (mathematics)

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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## Matthew O'Brien (mathematician)

Matthew O'Brien (1814–1855) was an Irish mathematician.

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## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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## Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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## MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

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## Newton (unit)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.

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## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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## Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

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## Normal (geometry)

In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.

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## Null vector

In mathematics, given a vector space X with an associated quadratic form q, written, a null vector or isotropic vector is a non-zero element x of X for which.

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## Orientation (geometry)

In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies.

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## Orientation (vector space)

In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.

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## Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

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## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

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## Parallel (geometry)

In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.

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## Parallelepiped

In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning).

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## Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

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## Parametric equation

In mathematics, a parametric equation defines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters.

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## Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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## Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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## Perpendicular

In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).

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## Peter Tait (physicist)

Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 – 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist and early pioneer in thermodynamics.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

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## Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

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## Position (vector)

In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point P in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin O. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight-line from O to P. The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus.

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## Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

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## Pseudoscalar

In physics, a pseudoscalar is a quantity that behaves like a scalar, except that it changes sign under a parity inversion such as improper rotations while a true scalar does not.

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## Pseudovector

In physics and mathematics, a pseudovector (or axial vector) is a quantity that transforms like a vector under a proper rotation, but in three dimensions gains an additional sign flip under an improper rotation such as a reflection.

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## Pure mathematics

Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.

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## Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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## Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

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## Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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## Real line

In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.

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## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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## Relative direction

The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.

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## Right-hand rule

In mathematics and physics, the right-hand rule is a common mnemonic for understanding orientation conventions for the vector cross product in three dimensions.

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## Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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## Rotation formalisms in three dimensions

In geometry, various formalisms exist to express a rotation in three dimensions as a mathematical transformation.

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## Rotation matrix

In linear algebra, a rotation matrix is a matrix that is used to perform a rotation in Euclidean space.

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## Row and column vectors

In linear algebra, a column vector or column matrix is an m × 1 matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single column of m elements, Similarly, a row vector or row matrix is a 1 × m matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single row of m elements Throughout, boldface is used for the row and column vectors.

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## Seven-dimensional cross product

In mathematics, the seven-dimensional cross product is a bilinear operation on vectors in seven-dimensional Euclidean space.

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## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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## Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

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## Spherical coordinate system

In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.

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## Standard basis

In mathematics, the standard basis (also called natural basis) for a Euclidean space is the set of unit vectors pointing in the direction of the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system.

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## Subtraction

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

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## Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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## Tangent space

In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold facilitates the generalization of vectors from affine spaces to general manifolds, since in the latter case one cannot simply subtract two points to obtain a vector that gives the displacement of the one point from the other.

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## Tangential and normal components

In mathematics, given a vector at a point on a curve, that vector can be decomposed uniquely as a sum of two vectors, one tangent to the curve, called the tangential component of the vector, and another one perpendicular to the curve, called the normal component of the vector.

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## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

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## The Feynman Lectures on Physics

The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".

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## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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## Tilde

The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

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## Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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## Transformation matrix

In linear algebra, linear transformations can be represented by matrices.

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## Transpose

In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal, that is it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix denoted as AT (also written A′, Atr, tA or At).

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## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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## Tuple

In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.

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## Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

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## Vector algebra

In mathematics, vector algebra may mean.

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## Vector Analysis

Vector Analysis is a textbook by Edwin Bidwell Wilson, first published in 1901 and based on the lectures that Josiah Willard Gibbs had delivered on the subject at Yale University.

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## Vector bundle

In mathematics, a vector bundle is a topological construction that makes precise the idea of a family of vector spaces parameterized by another space X (for example X could be a topological space, a manifold, or an algebraic variety): to every point x of the space X we associate (or "attach") a vector space V(x) in such a way that these vector spaces fit together to form another space of the same kind as X (e.g. a topological space, manifold, or algebraic variety), which is then called a vector bundle over X.

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## Vector calculus

Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.

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## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

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## Vector notation

Vector notation is a commonly used mathematical notation for working with mathematical vectors, which may be geometric vectors or members of vector spaces.

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## Vector projection

The vector projection of a vector a on (or onto) a nonzero vector b (also known as the vector component or vector resolution of a in the direction of b) is the orthogonal projection of a onto a straight line parallel to b. It is a vector parallel to b, defined as where a_1 is a scalar, called the scalar projection of a onto b, and b̂ is the unit vector in the direction of b. In turn, the scalar projection is defined as where the operator · denotes a dot product, |a| is the length of a, and θ is the angle between a and b. The scalar projection is equal to the length of the vector projection, with a minus sign if the direction of the projection is opposite to the direction of b. The vector component or vector resolute of a perpendicular to b, sometimes also called the vector rejection of a from b, is the orthogonal projection of a onto the plane (or, in general, hyperplane) orthogonal to b. Both the projection a1 and rejection a2 of a vector a are vectors, and their sum is equal to a, which implies that the rejection is given by.

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## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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## Vector-valued function

A vector-valued function, also referred to as a vector function, is a mathematical function of one or more variables whose range is a set of multidimensional vectors or infinite-dimensional vectors.

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## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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## Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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## William Kingdon Clifford

William Kingdon Clifford FRS (4 May 1845 – 3 March 1879) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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## William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

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## Redirects here:

3D vector, 3d vector, Bound vector, Component (vector), Direction vector, Euclid vector, Euclidean vectors, Euclidian vector, Free vector, Geometric vector, Magnitude of resultant vector, Physical vector, Relative vector, Spacial vector, Spatial vector, Three-vector, Triangle law, Vector (classical mechanics), Vector (geometric), Vector (geometry), Vector (physics), Vector (spatial), Vector addition, Vector component, Vector components, Vector direction, Vector methods (physics), Vector quantity, Vector subtraction, Vector sum.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector