17 relations: Coprime integers, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Euler–Jacobi pseudoprime, Fermat's little theorem, Finite field, Integer, Lagrange's theorem (number theory), Legendre symbol, Leonhard Euler, Modular arithmetic, Number theory, Oxford University Press, Parity (mathematics), Prime number, Quadratic reciprocity, Quadratic residue, Springer Science+Business Media.
In number theory, two integers and are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime (also written co-prime) if the only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1.
The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.
In number theory, an odd integer n is called an Euler–Jacobi probable prime (or, more commonly, an Euler probable prime) to base a, if a and n are coprime, and where \left(\frac\right) is the Jacobi symbol.
Fermat's little theorem states that if is a prime number, then for any integer, the number is an integer multiple of.
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
In number theory, Lagrange's theorem is a statement named after Joseph-Louis Lagrange about how frequently a polynomial over the integers may evaluate to a multiple of a fixed prime.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers.
In number theory, an integer q is called a quadratic residue modulo n if it is congruent to a perfect square modulo n; i.e., if there exists an integer x such that: Otherwise, q is called a quadratic nonresidue modulo n. Originally an abstract mathematical concept from the branch of number theory known as modular arithmetic, quadratic residues are now used in applications ranging from acoustical engineering to cryptography and the factoring of large numbers.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.