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# Euler's criterion

In number theory Euler's criterion is a formula for determining whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo a prime. [1]

## Coprime integers

In number theory, two integers and are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime (also written co-prime) if the only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1.

## Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.

## Euler–Jacobi pseudoprime

In number theory, an odd integer n is called an Euler–Jacobi probable prime (or, more commonly, an Euler probable prime) to base a, if a and n are coprime, and where \left(\frac\right) is the Jacobi symbol.

## Fermat's little theorem

Fermat's little theorem states that if is a prime number, then for any integer, the number is an integer multiple of.

## Finite field

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Lagrange's theorem (number theory)

In number theory, Lagrange's theorem is a statement named after Joseph-Louis Lagrange about how frequently a polynomial over the integers may evaluate to a multiple of a fixed prime.

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## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

## Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

## Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

## Parity (mathematics)

In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.

## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers.