315 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, A Song of Ice and Fire, Abbasid Caliphate, Abyssinian people, Achaemenid Empire, Acts of the Apostles, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Ahasuerus, Ahmed es-Sikeli, Alauddin Khalji, Alessandro Moreschi, Alexander the Great, Amur River, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Arsinoe IV of Egypt, Artabanus of Persia, Artaxerxes I of Persia, Artaxerxes III, Artoxares, Assyria, Asyut, Attalid dynasty, Çatalhöyük, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Babylonia, Bagoas, Bagoas (courtier), Balkans, Battle of Taginae, Beijing, Bible, Book of Esther, Book of Isaiah, Boston Corbett, Bureaucracy, Byzantine Empire, Cai Lun, Caldonia, Capital punishment, Carchemish, Castration, Castrato, Caucasus, Cen Hun, Chemical castration, Chenghua Emperor, Chrysaphius, Church History (Eusebius), ..., Civil service, Cleopatra, Concubinage, Confucianism, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Consul, Coromandel Coast, Courtier, Crime fiction, Cry to Heaven, Cube root, Cubicularius, Cybele, Darfur, Darius II, Darius III, Delhi Sultanate, Despotism, Devshirme, Diocletian, Dolmabahçe Palace, Domestic worker, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Edmund Andrews (surgeon), Effeminacy, Emasculation, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Eponym, Ernst Maass, Estrogen, Ethiopian eunuch, Etymologicum Magnum, Eusebius (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eustathius of Thessalonica, Eutropius (consul), Farinelli, Fellatio, Feng Yuxiang, Five Punishments, Floruit, Forbidden City, Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, Gabo Reform, Galli, Gang Bing, Gansu, Ganymedes (eunuch), Gao Lishi, Geoffrey Chaucer, George R. R. Martin, Gerardus Vossius, Giovanni Velluti (castrato), Giusto Fernando Tenducci, Goryeo, Goryeosa, Gospel of Matthew, Grand Secretariat, Guangdong, Hainan, Han dynasty, Hanafi, Harem, Hồ Xuân Hương, Heaven's Gate (religious group), Hebrew language, Hebrews, Henry Yule, Hermaphrodite, Hijra (South Asia), Hippocrates, Hipponax, Historiography, History of China, History of India, History of Liao, History of Thailand, History of the World, Part I, Hormone, House of Astiruwa, Huang Hao, Huế, Human Rights Watch, Ignatios of Constantinople, Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long, Iran, Irene of Athens, Islam in India, Istanbul, Jacob Cheung, Jason Goodwin, Jesus, Jia Xian, Jizya, John Wilkes Booth, Joseon, Joseph Bringas, Judar Pasha, Justinian I, Kama Sutra, Kandake, Khitan people, King James Version, Kingdom of Sicily, Kingsley Amis, Kizlar Agha, Konbaung dynasty, Kordofan, Lagash, Lampsacus, Lanzhou, Late antiquity, Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Lê dynasty, Lê Thánh Tông, Lê Văn Duyệt, Lý dynasty, Lý Thường Kiệt, Leo VI the Wise, Li Fuguo, Li Lianying, Li Lianying: The Imperial Eunuch, Li Si, Liao dynasty, Libido, List of Byzantine emperors, Litter (vehicle), Liu Jin, Longzhou County, Lucian, Luther Bible, Malacca Sultanate, Malik Kafur, Man, Martial, Mel Brooks, Miao people, Miao rebellions under the Ming dynasty, Ming dynasty, Ming Shilu, Ming treasure voyages, Mu'nis al-Muzaffar, Myanmar, Nanhai District, Narses, Nero, Nguyễn An, Nguyễn dynasty, Normans, Northwestern University, Nubians, Nullo (body modification), Odalisque, Old Testament, One Thousand and One Nights, Origen, Orion of Thebes, Ostrogoths, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Imperial Harem, Palace School, Paper, Penis removal, Persian Letters, Peter Abelard, Peter Remondino, Pharaoh, Philetaerus, Philip of Mahdia, Philip the Evangelist, Pingxiang, Guangxi, Pothinus, Potiphar and his wife, Prostate cancer, Ptolemy XII Auletes, Puberty, Puyi, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Qinzhou, Quảng Ninh Province, Rakhine State, Ray Huang, Recidivism, Regent, Religion, Renuka, Richard Francis Burton, River God, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Romanos II, Ryukyu Kingdom, Samson Rowlie, Samuel Finer, Sari, Seleucid Empire, Senesino, Septuagint, Seraglio, Sex reassignment surgery, Shalwar kameez, Sima Qian, Sin, Sistine Chapel, Skoptsy, Slavery, Solomon (Byzantine general), Song dynasty, Songhai Empire, South Korea, Sporus, Spymaster, Square root, Staurakios (eunuch), Sudan, Sui dynasty, Sumer, Sun Yaoting, Syro-Hittite states, Tang dynasty, Tarsus, Mersin, Ten Attendants, Terracotta Army, Tertullian, Testosterone, The Alteration, The American Journal of Medicine, The Canterbury Tales, The Janissary Tree, The King and I (TV series), The Persian Boy, Theodosius II, Theon Greyjoy, Theophylact of Ohrid, Third gender, Topkapı Palace, Toqto'a (Yuan dynasty), Transgender, Transsexual, Trần dynasty, Trần Thái Tông, Tribute, Tumu Crisis, Urdu, Varys, Vietnam, Vizier, Vulgate, Wang Zhen (eunuch), Wei Zhongxian, Wenchang, William Hugh Clifford Frend, William J. Robinson, Wu Rui, Xerxes I, Xuande Emperor, Yaqub Beg, Yazaman al-Khadim, Yishiha, Yongle Emperor, Yu Chao'en, Yuan dynasty, Yunnan, Zhao Gao, Zheng He. Expand index (265 more) » « Shrink index
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
A Song of Ice and Fire is a series of epic fantasy novels by the American novelist and screenwriter George R. R. Martin.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
Ahasuerus (Asouēros in the Septuagint; or Assuerus in the Vulgate; commonly transliterated Achashverosh; cf. 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 Xšayārša; اخشورش Axšoreš; Xerxes) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, as well as related legends and Apocrypha.
Ahmed es-Sikeli (احمد السقيلي), baptised a Christian under the name Peter, was a eunuch and kaid of the Diwan of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I. His story was recorded by his Christian contemporaries Romuald Guarna and Hugo Falcandus from Sicily and the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun.
ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent.
Alessandro Moreschi (11 November 1858 – 21 April 1922) was a castrato singer of the late 19th century and the only castrato to make solo recordings.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Arsinoë IV (Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 59 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, and queen and co-ruler of Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII from 48 BC – 47 BC, making her one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Artabanus of Persia (or Artabanus the Hyrcanian; Ἀρτάβανος) was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC – 464 BC).
Artaxerxes I (اردشیر یکم., 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, "whose rule (xšaça R. Schmitt.. Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012.; Artaxérxēs) was the fifth King of Persia from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the third son of Xerxes I. He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria. In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (μακρόχειρ Macrocheir; Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.
Artoxares (Old Persian *Artaxšara) (c. 465 BC - after 419 BC) was a Paphlagonian eunuch, who played a central role during the reigns of Artaxerxes I and Darius II of Persia.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (Complete Annals of Đại Việt) is the official historical text of the Lê Dynasty, that was originally compiled by the royal historian Ngô Sĩ Liên under the order of the Emperor Lê Thánh Tông and was finished in 1479.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bagoas (𐎲𐎦𐎡 Bagoi, Βαγώας Bagōas; died 336 BC) was a prominent Persian official who served as the vizier (Chief Minister) of the Achaemenid Empire until his death.
Bagoas (𐎲𐎦𐎡 Bagoi, Βαγώας Bagōas) was a eunuch in the court of the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BC.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
At the Battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in June/July 552, the forces of the Byzantine Empire under Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and paved the way for the temporary Byzantine reconquest of the Italian Peninsula.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
Thomas P. "Boston" Corbett (January 29, 1832 – presumed dead c. September 1, 1894) was a Union Army soldier who shot and killed President Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cai Lun (CE 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty.
"Caldonia" is a jump blues song, first recorded in 1945 by Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
A castrato (Italian, plural: castrati) is a type of classical male singing voice equivalent to that of a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cen Hun (died 280) was an official of the state of Eastern Wu during the late Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.
Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise.
The Chenghua Emperor (9 December 1447 – 9 September 1487), born Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, between 1464 and 1487.
Chrysaphius (Χρυσάφιος) was a eunuch at the Eastern Roman court, who became the chief minister of Theodosius II (r. 408–450).
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.
Cry to Heaven is a novel by American author Anne Rice published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1982.
In mathematics, a cube root of a number x is a number y such that y3.
Cubicularius, Hellenized as koubikoularios (κουβικουλάριος), was a title used for the eunuch chamberlains of the imperial palace in the later Roman Empire and in the Byzantine Empire.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
Darius II (Old Persian: Dārayavahuš), was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 404 or 405 BC.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).
A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edmund Andrews (April 22, 1824 – January 22, 1904) was an American doctor, a pioneer in surgery and medical education of the Western United States.
Effeminacy is the manifestation of traits in a boy or man that are more often associated with feminine nature, behavior, mannerism, style, or gender roles rather than with masculine nature, behavior, mannerisms, style or roles.
Emasculation of a human male is the removal of the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Ernst Maass (12 April 1856, in Kolberg – 11 November 1929, in Marburg) was a German classical philologist.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
The Ethiopian eunuch is a figure in the New Testament of the Bible.
Etymologicum Magnum (Ἐτυμολογικὸν Μέγα, Ἐtymologikὸn Mέga) (standard abbreviation EM, or Etym. M. in older literature) is the traditional title of a Greek lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople by an unknown lexicographer around 1150 AD.
Eusebius (died 361 AD) was a high-ranking officer of the Roman Empire, holding the position of praepositus sacri cubiculi for all the rule of Emperor Constantius II (337-361).
Eustathius of Thessalonica (or Eustathios of Thessalonike; Εὐστάθιος Θεσσαλονίκης; c. 1115 – 1195/6) was a Greek scholar and Archbishop of Thessalonica.
Eutropius (died 399) was a fourth-century Eastern Roman official.
Farinelli (24 January 170516 September 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi, celebrated Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of opera.
Fellatio (also known as fellation, and in slang as blowjob, BJ, giving head, or sucking off) is an oral sex act involving the use of the mouth or throat, which is usually performed by a person on the penis of another person.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
The Five Punishments was the collective name for a series of physical penalties meted out by the legal system of pre-modern Dynastic China.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
A Gallus (pl. Galli) was a eunuch priest of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis, whose worship was incorporated into the state religious practices of ancient Rome.
Gang Bing was a Chinese general and eunuch who served under the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Ganymedes (died 47 BC) was a eunuch in the court of Cleopatra VII who proved an able adversary of Julius Caesar.
Gao Lishi (684–762), formally the Duke of Qi (齊公), was a eunuch official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, becoming particularly powerful during Emperor Xuanzong of Tang's reign.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Gerrit Janszoon Vos (March or April 1577, Heidelberg – 19 March 1649, Amsterdam), often known by his Latin name Gerardus Vossius, was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian.
Giovanni Battista Velluti, colloquially "Giambattista" (28 January 1780 – 22 January 1861), was an Italian castrato.
Giusto Fernando Tenducci, sometimes called "il Senesino" (ca. 1736 – 25 January 1790), was a soprano (castrato) opera singer and composer, who passed his career partly in Italy but chiefly in Britain.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Goryeosa or History of Goryeo is the principal surviving history of Korea's Goryeo Dynasty.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Hồ Xuân Hương (胡春香; 1772–1822) was a Vietnamese poet born at the end of the Lê dynasty.
Heaven's Gate was an American UFO religious millenarian cult based in San Diego, California, founded in 1974 and led by Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1927–1985).
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hipponax (Ἱππῶναξ; gen.: Ἱππώνακτος), of Ephesus and later Clazomenae, was an Ancient Greek iambic poet who composed verses depicting the vulgar side of life in Ionian society in the sixth century BC.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The History of Liao, or Liao Shi (Liáo Shǐ), is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344.
History of Thailand concerns the history of the Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries.
History of the World, Part I is a 1981 American anthology comedy film written, produced, and directed by Mel Brooks.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The House of Astiruwa was the last known dynasty of rulers of Carchemish.
Huang Hao (240s–263) was a eunuch serving under Liu Shan, the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Imperial Citadel of Thang Long (Hoàng thành Thăng Long/皇城昇龍) is located in the centre of Hanoi, Vietnam.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jacob Cheung Chi-Leung is a Hong Kong film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor.
Jason Goodwin (born 1964) is an English writer and historian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jia Xian (ca. 1010–1070) was a Chinese mathematician from Kaifeng of the Song dynasty.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was the American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Bringas (Ὶωσῆφ Βρίγγας) was an important Byzantine eunuch official in the reigns of Emperor Constantine VII (r. 945–959) and Emperor Romanos II (r. 959–963), serving as chief minister and effective regent during the latter.
Judar Pasha (جؤذر باشا) was a Spanish military leader and the conqueror of the Songhai Empire.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.
Kandake, kadake or kentake, often Latinised as Candace (Κανδάκη), was the Meroitic language term for "queen" or possibly "royal woman".
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher.
The Kizlar Agha or Aga (قيزلر اغاسی, Kızlar Ağası, "Agha of the Girls"), formally the Agha of the House of Felicity (Arabic: Aghat Dar al-Sa'ada, Turkish: Darüssaade ağa), was the head of the eunuchs who guarded the Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Sultans in Constantinople.
The Konbaung dynasty (ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်), formerly known as the Alompra dynasty, or Alaungpaya dynasty, was the last dynasty that ruled Burma/Myanmar from 1752 to 1885.
Kordofan (كردفان) is a former province of central Sudan.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Lampsacus (translit) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
The Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty (the earlier Lê dynasty ruled only for a brief period (980–1009)), was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533).
Lê Thánh Tông (黎聖宗, 20 July 1442 – 30 January 1497) was the 5th emperor of Đại Việt during the Later Lê dynasty.
Lê Văn Duyệt (1763 or 1764 – 30 July 1832) was a Vietnamese general who helped Nguyễn Ánh—the future Emperor Gia Long—put down the Tây Sơn rebellion, unify Vietnam and establish the Nguyễn Dynasty.
The Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm: 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.
Lý Thường Kiệt (1019–1105) was a Vietnamese general and admiral during the Lý Dynasty in Vietnam.
Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
Li Fuguo (李輔國; 704 – November 8, 762), né Li Jingzhong (李靜忠), known from 757 to 758 as Li Huguo (李護國), formally Prince Chou of Bolu (博陸醜王), was a eunuch official during the reign of Emperor Suzong (Li Heng) of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Li Lianying (12 November 1848 – 4 March 1911) was a Chinese imperial eunuch who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
Li Lianying: The Imperial Eunuch, also known as The Last Eunuch, is a 1991 Chinese biographical film directed by Tian Zhuangzhuang.
Li Si (280 BCSeptember or October 208 BC) was a Chinese politician of the Qin dynasty, well known Legalist writer and politician, and notable calligrapher.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons.
Liú Jĭn (28 February 1451 – 25 August 1510) was a powerful Ming dynasty Chinese eunuch during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor (r. 1506–1521).
Longzhou County Zhuang: Lungzcouh Yen) is a county of southwestern Guangxi, China, bordering Cao Bằng province, Vietnam.
Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.
The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Malik Kafur (died 1316), also known as Taj al-Din Izz al-Dawla, was a prominent eunuch slave-general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji.
A man is a male human.
Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania (modern Spain) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
Mel Brooks (born Melvin Kaminsky; June 28, 1926) is an American actor, writer, producer, director, comedian, and composer.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Miao rebellions were a series of rebellions of the indigenous tribes of southern China against the Ming Dynasty.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ming Shilu contains the imperial annals of the Ming emperors (1368–1644).
The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.
Abū'l-Ḥasan Mu'nis (ابوالحسن مؤنس; 845/6–933), also commonly known by the surnames al-Muẓaffar (المظفر; "the Victorious") and al-Khadim (ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺩﻡ; "the Eunuch"), was the commander-in-chief of the Abbasid army from 908 to his death in 933 CE, and virtual dictator and king-maker of the Caliphate from 928 on.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nanhai District, is a district of Foshan, Guangdong, China.
Narses (also sometimes written Nerses; Նարսես; Ναρσής; 478–573) was, with Belisarius, one of the great generals in the service of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I during the Roman reconquest that took place during Justinian's reign.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nguyễn An (Sino-Vietnamese 阮安; died 1453), known in Chinese as Ruan An (pinyin) or Juan An (Wade-Giles), was a Ming dynasty eunuch, architect, and hydraulics specialist between the first and fifth decades of the 15th century.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
The term nullo (or smoothie) refers to an extreme body modification subculture made up mostly of men who have had their genitals (and sometimes also their nipples) surgically removed.
An odalisque (Odalık) was a chambermaid or a female attendant in a Turkish seraglio, particularly the court ladies in the household of the Ottoman sultan.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
One Thousand and One Nights (ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Orion of Thebes (died c. 460s) was a 5th-century grammarian of Thebes (Egypt), the teacher of Proclus the neo-Platonist, and of Eudocia, the wife of Emperor Theodosius II.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Imperial Harem (حرم همايون, Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household.
The Palace School (Enderun-i Hümayun Mektebi) was a special school inside of the innermost court of Topkapı Palace that provided the education for the servants of the Ottoman dynasty, who went on to staff the administrative elite of the Ottoman Empire.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
In ancient civilizations, the removal of the human penis was sometimes used to demonstrate superiority or dominance over an enemy.
Persian Letters (Lettres persanes) is a literary work, written in 1721, by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of two Persian noblemen, Usbek and Rica, who are traveling through France.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Peter Charles Remondino (1846December 10, 1926) was a physician, pro-circumcision advocate, first president of the San Diego Board of Health, and co-founder of San Diego’s first private hospital.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Philetaerus (Φιλέταιρος, Philetairos, c. 343 –263 BC) was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia.
Philip of Mahdia, of Greek origin, was the emir of Palermo, and successor of the great George of Antioch.
Saint Philip the Evangelist (Φίλιππος, Philippos) appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles.
Pingxiang (Bingzsiengz Si) is a county-level city in the municipal region of Chongzuo in southern China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Pothinus or Potheinos (early 1st century BC to 48 or 47 BC), a eunuch, was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Potiphar is a person known only from the Book of Genesis's account of Joseph.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónysos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos "Ptolemy New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother"; 117–51 BC) was a pharaoh of the ethnically Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinzhou (postal: Yamchow,, Jyutping: Jam1 zau1 (Canton) /Ham1 zau1 (Local)) is a prefecture-level city in Guangxi, China, lying on the Gulf of Tonkin and having an urban population of 433,000.
Quảng Ninh is a province along the northeastern coast of Vietnam.
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
Ray Huang (25 June 19188 January 2000) was a Chinese historian and philosopher.
Recidivism (from recidive and ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring", from re- "back" and cadō "I fall") is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been trained to extinguish that behavior.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Reṇukā/Renuga/Renu is a Hindu goddess worshipped predominantly in the Indian states of Karanataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.
River God is a novel by author Wilbur Smith.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.
Romanos (or Romanus) II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938 – 15 March 963) was a Byzantine Emperor.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
Samson Rowlie (died after 1577), was Chief Eunuch and Treasurer of Algiers during Ottoman rule.
Professor Samuel Edward Finer (22 September 1915 – 9 June 1993) was a political scientist and historian who was instrumental in advancing political studies as an academic subject in the United Kingdom, pioneering the study of UK political institutions.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Senesino (Traditional Tuscan pronunciation) (Francesco Bernardi) (31 October 1686 – 27 November 1758) was a celebrated Italian contralto castrato, particularly remembered today for his long collaboration with the composer George Frideric Handel.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
A seraglio or serail is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in an Ottoman household.
Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery, genital reconstruction surgery, gender-affirming surgery, or sex realignment surgery) is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
The Skoptsy (скопцы; singular скопец "castrate"; also transliterated as Skoptzy, Skoptzi, Skoptsi, Skopzi, Scoptsy, etc.) were a heretical sect, within the larger Spiritual Christianity movement in Tsarist Russia, best known for practicing castration of men and the mastectomy of women in accordance with their teachings against sexual lust.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Solomon (Σολόμων) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general from northern Mesopotamia, who distinguished himself as a commander in the Vandalic War and the reconquest of North Africa in 533–534.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Sporus was a young boy whom the Roman Emperor Nero supposedly favored, had castrated, and married.
A spymaster is the leader of a spy ring, run by a secret service.
In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.
Staurakios (or Stauracius) (Σταυράκιος; died on 3 June 800) was a Byzantine eunuch official, who rose to be one of the most important and influential associates of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens (r. 797–802).
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sun Yaoting (Traditional Chinese: 孫耀庭, Simplified Chinese: 孙耀庭, Hanyu Pinyin: Sūn Yàotíng, Wade-Giles: Sun Yao-t'ing; 29 September 1902 – 17 December 1996) was the last surviving imperial eunuch of Chinese history.
The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
The Ten Attendants, also known as the Ten Eunuchs, were a group of influential eunuch-officials in the imperial court of Emperor Ling (168–189 BC) in the Eastern Han dynasty of China.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Alteration is a 1976 alternative history novel by Kingsley Amis, set in a parallel universe in which the Reformation did not take place.
The American Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal and the official journal of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Janissary Tree is a historical mystery novel set in Istanbul in 1836, written by Jason Goodwin.
The King and I is a South Korean historical drama series that aired on SBS from August 27, 2007 to April 1, 2008 on Mondays and Tuesdays at 21:55.
The Persian Boy is a 1972 historical novel written by Mary Renault and narrated by Bagoas, a young Persian from an aristocratic family who is captured by his father's enemies, castrated, and sold as a slave to the king Darius III, who makes him his favorite.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theon Greyjoy is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones.
Theophylact (Θεοφύλακτος, Теофилакт; around 1055–after 1107) was a Greek archbishop of Ohrid and commentator on the Bible.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Toqto’a (ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠ Toqtogha; Cyrillic: Тогтох;; 1314－1356), also called "The Great Historian Tuotuo", was a Yuan official historian and the high-ranking minister of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều,.) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400.
Trần Thái Tông (birth name: Trần Cảnh, 17 July 1218 – 4 May 1277) was the first emperor of the Trần Dynasty, seated on the throne for 33 years (1226–58), being Grand Emperor for 19 years.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Varys is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Wáng Zhèn (王振) was the first Ming Dynasty eunuch with power in the court.
Wei Zhongxian (Xian of Suning 1568 – Pekin, December 12, 1627) was a Chinese court eunuch who lived in the late Ming dynasty.
Wenchang (postal: Mencheong) is a county-level city in the northeast of Hainan province, China.
William Hugh Clifford Frend (11 January 1916 – 1 August 2005) was an English ecclesiastical historian, archaeologist and Anglican priest.
William Josephus Robinson (December 8, 1867 – January 6, 1936) was an American physician, sexologist and birth control advocate.
Wu Rui was a Hainanese eunuch in 15th century Lê Dynasty Đại Việt (modern Vietnam) during Emperor Le Thanh Tong's rule at the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (182030 May 1877) was an adventurer of Tajik or Uzbek descent who was master of the Tarim Basin from 1865 to 1877.
Yazaman or Yazman, surnamed al-Khadim ("the eunuch") (died 23 October 891) was governor of Tarsus for the Abbasids and chief military leader in the Muslim borderlands with the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia (the ath-thughur ash-Shamiya) from 882 to his death in 891.
Yishiha (also Išiqa or Isiha Jurchen) (fl. 1409–1451) was a Jurchen eunuch in the service of the Ming dynasty emperors who carried out several expeditions down the Songhua and Amur Rivers during the period of Ming rule of Manchuria, and is credited with the construction of the only two Ming dynasty Buddhist temples ever built on the territory of present-day Russia.
The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
Yu Chao'en (魚朝恩) (722 – April 10, 770), formally the Duke of Han (韓公), was a eunuch official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhao Gao (died 207 BC) was an official of the Qin dynasty of China.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.