135 relations: Addiction, Aerobic exercise, Affect (psychology), Affective neuroscience, Agonist, Alcohol (drug), Alprazolam, Amobarbital, Amphetamine, Anandamide, Ancient Greek, Anhedonia, Anxiolytic, Apnea, Areca catechu, Areca nut, Arecaidine, Arecoline, Asphyxia, Autoerotic fatality, Barbiturate, Behavioral addiction, Benzodiazepine, Bipolar disorder, Brain, Caffeine, Calcium hydroxide, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabis, Carl Wernicke, Cause (medicine), Cerebral hypoxia, Choking game, Clonazepam, Cocaine, Codeine, Contentment, Depressant, Designer drug, Disinhibition, Dopamine, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic pathways, Dose–response relationship, Drug overdose, Dynorphin, Dysphoria, Endocannabinoid system, Erotic asphyxiation, ..., Ethosuximide, Euphorbia, Euphoria (disambiguation), Euphoric (disambiguation), Euthymia (medicine), Fasting, Fentanyl, Flunitrazepam, GABA analogue, GABA reuptake inhibitor, Gabapentin, Glossary of psychiatry, Glucocorticoid, Grandiosity, Happiness, Harris Isbell, Heroin, Hope, Human sexual response cycle, Hyperthymic temperament, Hyperventilation, Hypomania, Insular cortex, Interictal dysphoric disorder, Intravenous therapy, Ketamine, Laughter, Long-distance running, Mania, MDMA, Mental disorder, Mesolimbic pathway, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Migraine, Mood disorder, Morphine, Multiple sclerosis, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Nasal administration, Neurological disorder, Neuropeptide, Neuropsychiatry, Nicotine, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nitrous oxide, Nucleus accumbens, Opioid peptide, Opposite (semantics), Oxycodone, Parasympathomimetic drug, Partial agonist, Pentobarbital, Perampanel, Phenethylamine, Pleasure, Popular Science, Pregabalin, Pressure of speech, Prodrome, Psychoactive drug, Recreational drug use, Reinforcement, Reward system, Robert S. Woodworth, Romance (love), Scholarly approaches to mysticism, Secobarbital, Sense of wonder, Side effect, Sigmund Freud, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Strangling, Striatum, Synthetic cannabinoids, Temporal lobe, Terminal illness, Tetrahydrocannabinol, The Boston Globe, The Journal of Psychology, The New World of English Words, Thomas Laycock (physiologist), Trace amine, Well-being. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone or sodium amytal) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Areca catechu is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arecaidine is a bio-active alkaloid in areca nuts.
Arecoline is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu).
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Autoerotic fatalities are accidental deaths that occur during sexual self-stimulation when an apparatus, device or prop that is being employed to enhance pleasure causes the death.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
Cause, also known as etiology and aetiology, is the reason or origination of something.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
The choking game (also known as the fainting game and a wide variety of slang terms) refers to intentionally cutting off oxygen to the brain with the goal of inducing temporary loss of consciousness and euphoria.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Contentment is a mental or emotional state of satisfaction maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
Erotic asphyxiation or breath control play is the intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for the purposes of sexual arousal.
Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
Euphoria is an emotional and mental state defined as a sense of great elation and well being.
Euphoric may refer to.
Euthymia is defined as a normal, tranquil mental state or mood.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) (the IUPAC of which is 4-aminobutanoic acid).
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
This glossary covers terms found in the psychiatric literature; the word origins are primarily Greek, but there are also Latin, French, German, and English terms.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Grandiosity refers to an unrealistic sense of superiority, a sustained view of oneself as better than others that causes the narcissist to view others with disdain or as inferior, as well as to a sense of uniqueness: the belief that few others have anything in common with oneself and that one can only be understood by a few or very special people.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
Harris Isbell, M.D. (June 7, 1910 – December 23, 1994) was the director of research for the NIMH Addiction Research Center at the Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky from 1945 to 1963.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hope is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.
The human sexual response cycle is a four-stage model of physiological responses to sexual stimulation, which, in order of their occurrence, are the excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasmic phase and resolution phase.
Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an exceptionally positive mood and disposition.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
Interictal dysphoric disorder (IDD) is a mood disorder sometimes found in patients with epilepsy, at a prevalence rate of approximately 17%.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.
Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres (5 miles).
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pentobarbital (INN, AAN, BAN, USAN) or pentobarbitone (former AAN and BAN) is a short-acting barbiturate.
Perampanel (sold under the trade name Fycompa) is an antiepileptic drug developed by Eisai Co. that is used in addition to other drugs to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures for people older than 12 years.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Pressure of speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener.
In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Robert Sessions Woodworth (October 17, 1869 – July 4, 1962) was an American academic psychologist of the first half of the twentieth century.
Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.
Scholarly approaches to mysticism include typologies of mysticism and the explanation of mystical states.
Secobarbital sodium (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, and subsequently by other companies as described below, under the brand name Seconal) is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the United States.
A sense of wonder is an intellectual and emotional state frequently invoked in discussions of science fiction.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied is a bimonthly double-blind, peer-review psychology journal published by Taylor & Francis.
The New World of English Words, or, a General Dictionary is a dictionary compiled by Edward Phillips and first published in London in 1658.
Prof Thomas Laycock FRSE FRCPE (1812 – 21 September 1876) was an English physician and neurophysiologist who was a native of Bedale near York.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.