206 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid Empire, Acheulean, Adab (city), Adiabene, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), Al-Busayrah, Al-Gharraf River, Al-Hasakah, Al-Hindiya, Al-Qurnah, Aleppo, Alexander the Great, Amaranthaceae, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Arabian ostrich, Arabic, Archaeological looting in Iraq, Archaeological site, Artemisia herba-alba, Artifact (archaeology), Assyria, Atatürk Dam, Baath Dam, Babylonia, Badia (region), Baghdad, Balikh River, Basra Governorate, Birecik, Birecik Dam, British Mandate for Mesopotamia (legal instrument), Byzantine Empire, City-state, Coat of arms of Iraq, Cultural heritage, Cuneiform script, Cylinder seal, Cyprinidae, Darius III, Deir ez-Zor, Depression (geology), Desert, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Dingir, Discharge (hydrology), Divinity, ..., Drainage basin, Early Muslim conquests, Eastern Anatolia Region, Ebla, Einkorn wheat, El Kowm (archaeological site), Elamite language, Emar, Embankment dam, Emmer, Eridu, Euphrates softshell turtle, Eurasian beaver, Evaporation, Farmer, Fertile Crescent, France, Fraxinus, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Gazelle, Gaziantep, Goat, Golden jackal, Grade (slope), Gray wolf, Habitat, Habuba Kabira, Haditha Dam, Halabiye, Halabiye Dam, Hammurabi, Hīt, Hindiya Barrage, Hittites, Homo erectus, Hunter-gatherer, Hurrian language, Iran, Iraq, Isin, Jemdet Nasr period, Jordan, Karasu (Euphrates), Karst, Kassites, Keban, Keban Dam, Khabur (Euphrates), Kish (Sumer), Kuwait, Lake Assad, Lake Habbaniyah, Lake Qadisiyah, Lake Tharthar, Lake Van, Larsa, Leopard, Lion, Logogram, Manbij, Mangar (fish), Mari, Syria, Medes, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian Marshes, Metres above sea level, Middle Assyrian Empire, Mitanni, Mosaic, Murat River, Mureybet, Natufian culture, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nevalı Çori, Nippur, Oak, Oat, Old Assyrian Empire, Old Persian, Onager, Ottoman Empire, Parthian Empire, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, Pastoralism, Persian Gulf, Pistacia, Platanus orientalis, Poa, Populus, Pottery, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Ramadi Barrage, Raqqa, Ras al-Ayn, Recreational fishing, Red fox, Remote sensing, Rescue archaeology, Reservoir, Riparian zone, Roman Empire, Rosaceae, Rye, Sajur River, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Seleucid Empire, Semitic languages, Shatt al-Arab, Sheep, Shuruppak, Sippar, Southeastern Anatolia Project, Soviet Union, Steppe, Stratum (linguistics), Subartu, Sumerian language, Survey (archaeology), Syria, Syriac language, Syrian brown bear, Tabqa Dam, Tamarix, Taurus Mountains, Tell Abu Hureyra, Tell Brak, Tell es-Sawwan, Tell Leilan, Tell Mashnaqa, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tigris, Tishrin Dam, Treaty of Lausanne, Trionychidae, Turkey, Ubaid period, UNESCO, United Kingdom, Upper Mesopotamia, Ur, Urbanism, Urfa, Uruk, Uruk period, Vegetation, Western Asia, Wild boar, William Willcocks, Woodland, World Bank, World War I, Zeugma, Commagene, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.
Adab or Udab (Sumerian: Adabki, spelled UD.NUNKI) was an ancient Sumerian city between Telloh and Nippur.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Al Akhbar (الأخبار, literally "The News") is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut.
Al-Busayrah (البصيرة) is a town in eastern Syria, administratively part of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate.
The Gharraf Canal, Shaṭṭ al-Ḥayy (Arabic: شط الحي), also known as Shaṭṭ al-Gharrāf (Arabic: شط الغرّاف) or the Hai river, is an ancient canal in Iraq that connects the Tigris at Kut al Amara with the Euphrates east of Nasiryah.
Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.
Al-Hindiya or Hindiya (الهندية) is a city in Iraq on the Euphrates River.
Al-Qurnah (Qurna) is a town in southern Iraq about 74 km northwest of Basra, within the town of Nahairat.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich that lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East until the mid-20th century.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archaeological looting in Iraq took place on the aftermath of the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Artemisia herba-alba, the white wormwood, is a perennial shrub in the genus Artemisia that grows commonly on the dry steppes of the Mediterranean regions in Northern Africa (Saharan Maghreb), Western Asia (Arabian Peninsula) and Southwestern Europe.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Atatürk Dam (Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
The Baath Dam (lit, Bendava Baas, Sekro d'Ba'ath) is a dam on the Euphrates, located upstream from the city of Raqqa in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Badia (also known as the Syrian steppe or Jordanian steppe) is a region of semi-arid, steppic rangeland in eastern Jordan and the central and southeastern parts of Syria.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balikh River (نهر البليخ) is a perennial river that originates in the spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus in Syria.
Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
Birecik (Greek and Latin: Birtha, Βίρθα; البيرة; Bêrecûg, بيره جك), also formerly known as Bir, Biré, Biradjik and during the Crusades as Bile, is a town and district of Şanlıurfa Province of Turkey, on the River Euphrates.
The Birecik Dam, one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, is located on the Euphrates River downstream of Atatürk Dam and upstream of Birecik town west of Province of Şanlıurfa in the southeastern region of Turkey.
The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted to Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
The coat of arms or state emblem of Iraq is a golden black eagle looking towards the viewer's left dexter. The eagle is the Eagle of Saladin associated with 20th-century pan-Arabism, bearing a shield of the Iraqi flag, and holding a scroll below with the Arabic words جمهورية العراق (Jumhuriyat Al-`Iraq or "Republic of Iraq").
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels).
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Dingir (usually transliterated DIĜIR) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in e.g. DInanna.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
El Kowm or Al Kawm is a circular, gap in the Syrian mountains that houses a series of archaeological sites.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Emar (modern Tell Meskene) is an archaeological site in Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam.
Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
Eridu (Sumerian:, NUN.KI/eridugki; Akkadian: irîtu; modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
The Euphrates softshell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus), also known as the Mesopotamian softshell turtle, is a species of softshell turtle in the family Trionychidae.
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
Gaziantep, previously and still informally called Antep (Այնթապ, Kurdish: Dîlok), is a city in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some east of Adana and north of Aleppo, Syria.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habuba Kabira (Tell Qanas) is the site of an Uruk settlement along the Euphrates in Syria, founded during the later part of the Uruk period.
The Haditha Dam (سد حديثة) or Qadisiya Dam is an earth-fill dam on the Euphrates, north of Haditha (Iraq), creating Lake Qadisiyah (Buhayrat al-Qadisiyyah).
Halabiye (حلبيّة, Latin/Greek: Zenobia, Birtha) is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Euphrates River in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria.
The Halabiye Dam (or Zalabiye Dam) is a proposed dam on the Euphrates in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
Hīt, also spelled Heet (هيت), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province.
The Hindiya Barrage is located on the Euphrates south of the town of Musayyib in Babil Governorate, Iraq.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Karasu (Turkish for 'black water') or Western Euphrates is a long river in eastern Turkey, one of the two sources of the Euphrates.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Keban is a town and district of Elazığ Province of Turkey.
The Keban Dam (Keban Barajı) is a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates, located in the Elazığ Province of Turkey.
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lake Assad (بحيرة الأسد, Buhayrat al-Assad) is a reservoir on the Euphrates in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.
Lake Habbaniyah is a lake located halfway between Ramadi and Fallujah near Al-Taqaddum (TQ) Air Base in Al Habbaniyah in Anbar Province, Iraq.
A man-made reservoir in Al-Anbar, Iraq, Lake Qadisiyah (بحيرة القادسية) sits on the north side of the Haditha Dam.
Lake Tharthar (also Therthar), and known in Iraq as Buhayrat ath-Tharthar (بحيرة الثرثار), is an artificial lake opened in 1956, situated 100 kilometers northwest of Baghdad between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
The mangar (Luciobarbus esocinus) is a large vulnerable species of ray-finned fish in the genus Luciobarbus, native to the drainage basins of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Mesopotamian Marshes or Iraqi Marshes are a wetland area located in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran and Kuwait.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
The Murat River or Eastern Euphrates (Murat Nehri, Արածանի Aratsani) is the major source of the Euphrates River.
Mureybet (مريبط) is a tell, or ancient settlement mound, located on the west bank of the Euphrates in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria.
The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Nevalı Çori (Nevali Çori) was an early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in Şanlıurfa Province, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
The onager (Equus hemionus), also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a species of the family Equidae (horse family) native to Asia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.
Platanus orientalis, the Old World sycamore, or Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to or more, and known for its longevity and spreading crown.
Poa is a genus of about 500 species of grasses, native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.
Ramadi Barrage is a two-section diversion dam on the Euphrates River adjacent (west) of Ramadi, Iraq.
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Ras al-Ayn (Raʾs al-ʿAyn, Resülayn, Serê Kaniyê, Rēš Aynā), also spelled Ras al-Ain, is a city in al-Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria, on the border with Turkey.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Rescue archaeology, sometimes called preventive archaeology, salvage archaeology, commercial archaeology, contract archaeology, or compliance archaeology, is state-sanctioned, for-profit archaeological survey and excavation carried out in advance of construction or other land development.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
The Sājūr River (نهر الساجور, Sayur Çayı) is a long river originating in Turkey and flowing into the Euphrates in Syria.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shuruppak (𒋢𒆳𒊒𒆠, "the healing place"), modern Tell Fara, was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 55 kilometres (35 mi) south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
Sippar (Sumerian:,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad.
The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people (2005) living in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
In archaeology, survey or field survey is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare, and often in excess of many km2).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus) is a relatively small subspecies of brown bear native to the Middle East.
The Tabqa Dam (سد الطبقة, Sadd al-Ṭabqa; Bendava Tebqa; Sekro d'Tabqa), or al-Thawra Dam as it is also named (سد الثورة, Sadd al-thawra, literally "Dam of the Revolution"), most commonly known as Euphrates Dam (سد الفرات, Sadd al-Furāt; Bendava Firatê; Sekro d'Frot), is an earthen dam on the Euphrates, located upstream from the city of Raqqa in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.
The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Tell Abu Hureyra (تل أبو هريرة) is an archaeological site in the Euphrates valley in modern Syria.
Tell Brak (Nagar, Nawar) was an ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Tell es-Sawwan is an important Samarran period archaeological site in Saladin Province, Iraq.
Tell Leilan is an archaeological site situated near the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur River basin in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria, a region formerly a part of ancient Assyria.
Tell Mashnaqa (تل مشنقة) is an archaeological site located on the Khabur River, a tributary to the Euphrates, about south of Al-Hasakah in northeastern Syria.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The Tishrin Dam (lit, Bendava Tişrîn, Sekro d'Teshrin) is a dam on the Euphrates, located east of Aleppo in Aleppo Governorate, Syria.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Trionychidae are a taxonomic family of a number of turtle genera commonly known as softshells.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment.
Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (Riha); Ուռհա Uṙha in Armenian, and known in ancient times as Edessa, is a city with 561,465 inhabitants in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Sir William Willcocks KCMG (27 September 1852 in India – 28 July 1932 in Cairo, Egypt) was a British civil engineer during the high point of the British Empire.
Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zeugma (Ζεῦγμα) is an ancient city of Commagene; located in modern Gaziantep Province, Turkey.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
Eufrat, Euphrat, Euphratean, Euphrates R., Euphrates River, Euphrates river, Euphrátēs, Euprates, Firat River, Froṯ, Fırat River, Nahr ul-Furāt, Prāṯ, Pu-rat-tu, River Euphrates, The Euphrates, The Euphrates River, Yeṗrat, Ευφράτης, Εὐφράτης, Եփրատ, פרת, الفرات, نهر الفرات, ܦܪܬ.