152 relations: Alexandre Lamfalussy, Ardo Hansson, Banco de Portugal, Bank of England, Bank of Estonia, Bank of Finland, Bank of France, Bank of Greece, Bank of Italy, Bank of Latvia, Bank of Lithuania, Bank of Slovenia, Bank of Spain, Basel II, Benoît Cœuré, Bulgarian National Bank, Cabinet of Germany, Capital Requirements Directives, Carlos Costa (banker), Central bank, Central Bank of Cyprus, Central Bank of Ireland, Central Bank of Luxembourg, Central Bank of Malta, Chrystalla Georghadji, Collateral (finance), Commercial paper, Coop Himmelb(l)au, Council of the European Union, Court of Justice of the European Union, Credit rating, Credit risk, Croatian National Bank, Czech National Bank, Danièle Nouy, Danmarks Nationalbank, De Nederlandsche Bank, Deutsche Börse, Deutsche Bundesbank, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Economics, Economy of Germany, Erkki Liikanen, Euro, Euro banknotes, Euro coins, Euromoney, Europa (Web portal), European Banking Authority, European Commission, ..., European Council, European debt crisis, European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, European Financial Stability Facility, European Fiscal Compact, European Monetary Cooperation Fund, European Monetary Institute, European Parliament, European Parliament Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs, European Stability Mechanism, European System of Central Banks, European Systemic Risk Board, Eurosystem, Eurotower (Frankfurt am Main), Eurozone, Ewald Nowotny, Ex-ante, Executive Board of the European Central Bank, Fast Company (magazine), Federal Reserve Bank, Federal Reserve System, Financial Times, Financial Times Deutschland, Fitch Ratings, Foreign-exchange reserves, François Villeroy de Galhau, Frankfurt, Gentlemen's agreement, Germany, Goldman Sachs, Governing Council of the European Central Bank, Government debt, Großmarkthalle, Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, History of the euro, HuffPost, Hungarian National Bank, Ignazio Visco, Ilmārs Rimšēvičs, Institutions of the European Union, International Monetary Fund, Jacques Delors, Jürgen Stark, Jean-Claude Trichet, Jens Weidmann, José Manuel González-Paramo, Jozef Makúch, Julie Dickson, Klaas Knot, Luc Coene, Luis de Guindos, Luis María Linde, Maastricht Treaty, Mario Draghi, Mario Vella, Member state of the European Union, Monetary policy, Monetization, Money supply, Moody's Investors Service, Mortgage-backed security, National Bank of Belgium, National Bank of Poland, National Bank of Romania, National Bank of Slovakia, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, Open market operation, Ostend (Frankfurt am Main), Outright Monetary Transactions, Peter Praet, Philip R. Lane, Pierre Werner, President of the European Central Bank, President of the European Commission, Price stability, Quantitative easing, Repurchase agreement, Robert Reich, Sabine Lautenschläger, Seat of the European Central Bank, Single Supervisory Mechanism, Sirkka Hämäläinen, Solvency, Standard & Poor's, Sterilization (economics), Subprime mortgage crisis, Sveriges Riksbank, T2S, TARGET2, Term auction facility, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, The Wall Street Journal, Transparency International, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Rome, United States Treasury security, Vítor Constâncio, Wim Duisenberg, World Bank, Yannis Stournaras, Yves Mersch. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Baron Alexandre Lamfalussy (Hungarian:báró Lámfalussy Sándor, 26 April 1929 – 9 May 2015), was a Hungarian-born Belgian economist and central banker.
Ardo Hillar Hansson (born 15 July 1958 in Chicago) is an Estonian economist.
The Banco de Portugal (English: Bank of Portugal) is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.
The Bank of Finland (Suomen Pankki, Finlands Bank) is the central bank of Finland.
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).
The Bank of Greece (Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος, abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece.
Headquarters in Rome The Bank of Italy, known in Italian as Banca d'Italia, also known as Bankitalia, is the central bank of Italy and part of the European System of Central Banks.
The Bank of Latvia (Latvijas Banka) is the central bank of Latvia.
The Bank of Lithuania (Lietuvos Bankas) is the central bank of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Bank of Slovenia (Banka Slovenije) is the bank of issue and the central bank of the Republic of Slovenia.
The Bank of Spain (Banco de España), is the central bank of Spain.
Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, (now extended and partially superseded by Basel III), which are recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
Benoît Georges Cœuré (born 17 March 1969) is a French economist who was appointed to the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (ECB) in 2011.
The Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка, Balgarska narodna banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria with its headquarters in Sofia.
The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Capital Requirements Directives (CRD) for the financial services industry have introduced a supervisory framework in the European Union which reflects the Basel II and Basel III rules on capital measurement and capital standards.
Carlos da Silva Costa (born November 3, 1949 in Oliveira de Azeméis) is a Portuguese economist and the current governor of the Bank of Portugal since June 7, 2010.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Bank of Cyprus (Kεντρική Τράπεζα της Κύπρου Kıbrıs Merkez Bankası), is the central bank of the Republic of Cyprus, located in Nicosia.
The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
The Central Bank of Luxembourg (Banque centrale du Luxembourg, BCL) was founded in 1998, at the same time the European Central Bank was created, by laws dated 22 April and 23 December.
The Central Bank of Malta (Bank Ċentrali ta’ Malta) is the central bank of the Republic of Malta.
Chrystalla Georghadji (Famagusta, Cyprus, 13 July 1956) is the governor of the Central Bank of Cyprus (CBC) since 11 April 2014.
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
Commercial paper, in the global financial market, is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of not more than 364 days.
Coop Himmelb(l)au was founded by Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, and Michael Holzer in Vienna, Austria, in 1968, and is active in architecture, urban planning, design, and art.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.
The Croatian National Bank (Hrvatska narodna banka or HNB) is the central bank of the Republic of Croatia.
The Czech National Bank, (Česká národní banka, ČNB) is the central bank and financial market supervisor in the Czech Republic with its headquarters in Prague, and a member of the European System of Central Banks.
Danièle Nouy is the Chair of the Supervisory Board at the European Central Bank, where she has been since 1 January 2014.
Danmarks Nationalbank (National Bank of Denmark; in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Denmark.
De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) is the central bank of the Netherlands.
Deutsche Börse AG or the Deutsche Börse Group, is a marketplace organizer for the trading of shares and other securities.
The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The economy of Germany is a highly developed social market economy.
Erkki Antero Liikanen (born 19 September 1950) is a Finnish social democratic politician and the Governor of the Bank of Finland.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.
There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).
Euromoney is an English-language monthly magazine focused on business and finance.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) is an emergency funding programme reliant upon funds raised on the financial markets and guaranteed by the European Commission using the budget of the European Union as collateral.
The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) is a special purpose vehicle financed by members of the eurozone to address the European sovereign-debt crisis.
The Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union; also referred to as TSCG or more plainly the Fiscal Stability Treaty is an intergovernmental treaty introduced as a new stricter version of the Stability and Growth Pact, signed on 2 March 2012 by all member states of the European Union (EU), except the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom.
The European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF) was an institution and a fund established in 1973 by members of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) of the European Union (EU) to stabilise exchange rates.
The European Monetary Institute (EMI) was the forerunner of the European Central Bank (ECB), operating between 1994 and 1997.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is an intergovernmental organization located in Luxembourg City, which operates under public international law for all eurozone Member States having ratified a special ESM intergovernmental treaty.
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
The European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) was established on 16 December 2010 in response to the ongoing financial crisis.
The Eurosystem is the monetary authority of the eurozone, the collective of European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency.
Eurotower is a 40-storey, skyscraper in the Innenstadt district of Frankfurt, Germany.
Ewald Nowotny (born June 28, 1944, in Vienna) is an Austrian economist and social democratic politician and currently governor of Austria's central bank Oesterreichische Nationalbank and member of the European Central Bank (ECB)’s governing council.
The term ex-ante (sometimes written ex ante or exante) is a phrase meaning "before the event".
The Executive Board of the European Central Bank is the organ responsible for implementing monetary policy for the Eurozone in line with the guidelines and decisions taken by the Governing Council of the European Central Bank.
Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology, business, and design.
A Federal Reserve Bank is a regional bank of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The Financial Times Deutschland was a German-language financial newspaper based in Hamburg, Germany, published by Bertelsmann's Gruner + Jahr newspaper and magazine division.
Fitch Ratings Inc.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
François Villeroy de Galhau (born 24 February 1959) is a French central banker, Governor of the Bank of France since 1 November 2015.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
A gentlemen's agreement or gentleman's agreement is an informal and legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Governing Council of the European Central Bank is the main decision-making body of the European Central Bank (ECB) and has "sole responsibility" for formulating monetary policy in the Eurozone.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Großmarkthalle (Wholesale Market Hall), in Ostend (East End), Frankfurt am Main, was the city's main wholesale market, especially for fruit and vegetables.
The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an indicator of inflation and price stability for the European Central Bank (ECB).
The euro came into existence on 1 January 1999, although it had been a goal of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors since the 1960s.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
The Hungarian National Bank (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB)) is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
Ignazio Visco OMRI (born 21 November 1949) is an Italian economist and the current Governor of the Bank of Italy.
Ilmārs Rimšēvičs (born 30 April 1965) is a Latvian economist who has served as the governor of the central Bank of Latvia since 2001.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born 20 July 1925) is a French politician who served as the 8th President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995.
Jürgen Stark (born 31 May 1948 in Gau-Odernheim, Germany) is a German economist who has been a member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (ECB) from June 2006, but announced in September 2011 he would resign later that year.
Jean-Claude Trichet (born 20 December 1942) is a French economist who served as President of the European Central Bank from 2003 to 2011.
Jens Weidmann (born 20 April 1968) is a German economist, president of the Deutsche Bundesbank, and Chairman of the Board of the Bank for International Settlements.
José M. González-Páramo is Ph.D., M.Phil.
Jozef Makúch (born 26 August 1953 in Podhájska, Czechoslovakia) is the Governor of Národná banka Slovenska since 12 January 2010.
Julie Dickson, was the Superintendent of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions of Canada, from July 4, 2007 to June, 2014.
Klaas Henderikus Willem "Klaas" Knot (born 14 April 1967 in Bedum) is a Dutch economist and central banker, who is the current President of the Dutch central bank De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB).
Luc Coene (11 March 1947 – 5 January 2017) was a Belgian economist.
Luis de Guindos Jurado (born 16 January 1960) is a Spanish politician.
Luis María Linde de Castro (born May 15, 1945 in Madrid) is a Spanish economist and civil worker who has served as chairman of the Spanish Central Bank since June 11, 2012.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Mario Draghi (born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist serving as the President of the European Central Bank since 2011.
Mario Vella (Born 1953) is a major Maltese philosopher, economist and political theorist.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Monetization (also written monetisation) is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
A mortgage-backed security (MBS) is a type of asset-backed security that is secured by a mortgage or collection of mortgages.
The National Bank of Belgium (NBB; Nationale Bank van België, Banque nationale de Belgique, Belgische Nationalbank) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
The National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României, BNR) is the central bank of Romania and was established in April 1880.
National Bank of Slovakia (Národná banka Slovenska, NBS), is the central bank of Slovakia, which is a member of the European Union and the European System of Central Banks.
The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) is the central bank of Austria and, as such, an integral part of both the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and the Eurozone.
An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.
The Ostend is a city district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Outright Monetary Transactions ("OMT") is a program of the European Central Bank under which the bank makes purchases ("outright transactions") in secondary, sovereign bond markets, under certain conditions, of bonds issued by Eurozone member-states.
Peter Praet (born 20 January 1949 in Herchen near Eitorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) is executive board member and chief economist of the European Central Bank.
Philip Richard Lane (born 27 August 1969) is an Irish economist who has served as the Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland since November 2015.
Pierre Werner (29 December 1913 – 24 June 2002) was a Luxembourg politician in the Christian Social People's Party (CSV) who was Prime Minister from 1959 to 1974 and from 1979 to 1984.
The President of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank (ECB), the institution responsible for the management of the euro and monetary policy in the Eurozone of the European Union (EU).
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
Price stability is a goal of monetary and fiscal policy aiming to support sustainable rates of economic activity.
Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.
A repurchase agreement, also known as a repo, RP, or sale and repurchase agreement, is a transaction concluded on a deal date tD between two parties A and B: If positive interest rates are assumed, the repurchase price PF can be expected to be greater than the original sale price PN.
Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) is an American political commentator, professor, and author.
Sabine Lautenschläger (born 3 June 1964) is a German jurist and central banker.
The seat of the European Central Bank (ECB) is in Ostend (East End), Frankfurt.
The Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) is the name for the mechanism that grants the European Central Bank (ECB) a supervisory role to monitor the financial stability of banks based in participating nation states.
Sirkka Hämäläinen (born 8 May 1939 in Riihimäki) is a Finnish economist, former Governor of the Bank of Finland (1992–1998) and member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (1998–2003).
Solvency, in finance or business, is the degree to which the current assets of an individual or entity exceed the current liabilities of that individual or entity.
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
In macroeconomics, sterilization is action taken by a country's central bank to counter the effects on the money supply caused by a balance of payments surplus or deficit.
The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.
Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.
T2S (TARGET2-Securities) is a new European securities settlement engine which aims to offer centralised delivery-versus-payment (DvP) settlement in central bank funds across all European securities markets.
TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for the Eurozone, and is available to non-Eurozone countries.
The Term Auction Facility (TAF) is a temporary program managed by the United States Federal Reserve designed to "address elevated pressures in short-term funding markets." Under the program the Fed auctions collateralized loans with terms of 28 and 84 days to depository institutions that are "in generally sound financial condition" and "are expected to remain so over the terms of TAF loans." Eligible collateral is the same as that accepted for discount window loans and includes a wide range of financial assets.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
A United States Treasury security is an IOU from the US Government.
Vítor Manuel Ribeiro Constâncio, GCC, GCIH (born 12 October 1943) is a Portuguese economist who has served as Vice President of the European Central Bank since June 2010.
Willem Frederik "Wim" Duisenberg (9 July 1935 – 31 July 2005) was a Dutch Labour Party politician who served as the first President of the European Central Bank from 1998 to 2003.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Yannis (or Giannis) Stournaras (Γιάννης Στουρνάρας; born 10 December 1956), is a Greek economist who has been the Governor of the Bank of Greece since June 2014.
Yves Mersch (born 1 October 1949 in Luxembourg City) is a Luxembourgian jurist and lawyer who served as Governor of the Central Bank of Luxembourg from the bank's formation in 1998 until 2012 and as a member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank since 2012.
@ecb, Bank of Europe, Bank of the European Union, Central Bank of the European Union, ECB key, Europaische Zentralbank, European Bank, European Central Bank (ECB), Europäische Zentralbank, Európska centrálna banka, LTRO, National Bank of Europe, The European Central Bank, The European Central Bank (ECB).