111 relations: Adolf Hitler, Albert Coppé, Allied plans for German industry after World War II, American University, André Philip, Édouard Bonnefous, Belgium, Benelux, Brussels, Carlo Schmid (German politician), Cartel, Charles de Gaulle, Coal, Coppé Authority, Council of the European Union, Customs union, CVCE.eu, Del Bo Authority, Directive (European Union), Electoral system, Energy Community, Energy policy of the European Union, Enlargement of the European Union, Europa (Web portal), Europe Day, European Atomic Energy Community, European Commission, European Communities, European Court of Justice, European Economic and Social Committee, European Economic Community, European Parliament, European Parliament election, 1979, European Union, Federation, Finet Authority, Flag of Europe, Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community, France, French Algeria, French Fifth Republic, French Fourth Republic, French–German enmity, Gaullism, Germany, Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, History of the European Union, History of the Ruhr, Inner Six, ..., Institutional seats of the European Union, Institutions of the European Union, International Authority for the Ruhr, International organization, Iron Curtain, Italy, Jean Monnet, Karl Arnold, Konrad Adenauer, Kurt Schumacher, Languages of the European Union, Legal person, Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Malvestiti Authority, Mayer Authority, Member state, Merger Treaty, Messina, Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, Monnet Authority, Monnet Plan, National Assembly (France), National interest, Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuclear power, Paul Finet, Paul Reynaud, Paul-Henri Spaak, Piero Malvestiti, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of the European Commission, President of the European Parliament, Price fixing, Prime Minister of France, Rally of the French People, Raymond Aron, RealPlayer, Regulation (European Union), René Mayer, Rinaldo Del Bo, Robert Schuman, Ruhr, Saar Protectorate, Schuman Declaration, Single market, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Steel, Strasbourg, Supranational union, Three pillars of the European Union, Treaty of Nice, Treaty of Paris (1951), Treaty of Rome, Ultranationalism, United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, United States of Europe, Washington, D.C., West Germany, World War II. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Albert Coppé (26 November 1911 in Bruges – 30 March 1999 in Tervuren) was a Belgian and European politician and economist.
The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany's industrial capacity.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
André Philip (28 June 1902 – 5 July 1970) was a SFIO member who served as an Interior Minister for the Free French during the Second World War.
Édouard Henri Jean Bonnefous (24 August 1907 – 24 February 2007) was a French politician.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Carlo Schmid (3 December 1896 – 11 December 1979) was a German academic and politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Coppé Authority was an interim High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1 March and 5 July 1967.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
The Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance de l'Europe (CVCE) is an interdisciplinary research and documentation centre dedicated to the European integration process.
The Del Bo Authority was the last High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1963 and 1967.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
The Energy Community, also referred to in the past as the Energy Community of South East Europe is an international organisation established between the European Union (EU) and a number of third countries to extend the EU internal energy market to Southeast Europe and beyond.
Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
Europe Day is the name of two annual observance days, 5 May by the Council of Europe and 9 May by the European Union which recognise the peace and prosperity within Europe both have achieved since their formation.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a consultative body of the European Union (EU) established in 1958.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The 1979 European elections were parliamentary elections held across all 9 (at the time) European Community member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Finet Authority was the third High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1958 and 1959.
The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).
The flag of the European Coal and Steel Community was a horizontal bicolour flag defaced with stars which represented the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) between 1958 (six years after the ECSC was founded) until 2002 when the Community was merged into the European Union (EU).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
French–German (Franco-German) enmity (Rivalité franco-allemande Deutsch–französische Erbfeindschaft) was the idea of unavoidably hostile relations and mutual revanchism between Germans and French people that arose in the 16th century and became popular with the Franco–Prussian War of 1870–1871.
Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and resting place of Harry S. Truman, the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), located on U.S. Highway 24 in Independence, Missouri.
The High Authority was the executive branch of the former European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent.
The actual boundaries of the Ruhr vary slightly depending on the source, but a good working definition is to define the Lippe and Ruhr as its northern and southern boundaries respectively, the Rhine as its western boundary, and the town of Hamm as the eastern limit.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
The seven institutions of the European Union (EU) are seated in four different cities, viz. Brussels, Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, rather than being concentrated in a single capital city.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
The International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR) was an international body established in 1949 by the Allied powers to control the coal and steel industry of the Ruhr Area in West Germany.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat.
Karl Arnold (21 March 1901 – 29 June 1958) was a German politician.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Kurt Ernst Carl Schumacher (13 October 1895 – 20 August 1952) was a German social democratic politician, who served as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1946 and was the first Leader of the Opposition in the West German Bundestag from 1949 until his death in 1952.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
The Malvestiti Authority was the fourth High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1959 and 1963.
The Mayer Authority was the second High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1955 and 1958.
A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization or of a federation or confederation.
The Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) was a European treaty which combined the three executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
The Monnet Authority was the first High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1952 and 1955.
The Monnet plan was proposed by French civil servant Jean Monnet after the end of World War II.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État ("reason of State"), is a country's goals and ambitions, whether economic, military, cultural or otherwise.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Paul Finet (1897–1965) was a Belgian politician who served in the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community and led the Finet Authority from 1958 to 1959.
Paul Reynaud (15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Piero Malvestiti (26 June 1899 – 5 November 1964) was an Italian politician who was a minister in successive governments in the 1940s and 1950s, a European Commissioner and President of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The President of the European Parliament presides over the debates and activities of the European Parliament.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Rally of the French People (French Rassemblement du Peuple Français or RPF) was a French political party, led by Charles de Gaulle.
Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.
RealPlayer, formerly RealAudio Player, RealOne Player and RealPlayer G2, is a cross-platform media player app, developed by RealNetworks.
A regulation is a legal act of the European Union that becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously.
René Mayer (4 May 1895, in Paris13 December 1972, in Paris) was a French Radical politician of the Fourth Republic who served briefly as Prime Minister during 1953.
Rinaldo Del Bo (or Dino Del Bo; 19 November 1916 – 16 January 1991) was an Italian politician who served in the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, serving as President of the body between 9 October 1963 and 1967 as the Del Bo Authority.
Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg-born French statesman.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.
The Schuman Declaration is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
Between 1993 and 2009, the European Union (EU) legally comprised three pillars.
The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.
The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
Ultranationalism is an "extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others", or simply "extreme devotion to one's own nation".
A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that would allow for greater participation and voice for Members of Parliament.
The United States of Europe, the European state, the European superstate, the European federation and Federal Europe are names used to refer to several similar hypothetical scenarios of the unification of Europe as a single sovereign federation of states (hence superstate), similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and science fiction and by political scientists, politicians, geographers, historians and futurologists.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Coal and Steel Community, Coal and Steel Union, Coal and Steel community, Coal and steel community, Coal and steel union, EGKS, European Coal & Steel Community, European Coal and Steel Committee, European Coal and Steel community, European Community of Coal and Steel, European coal and steel community, Montan Union, Montanunion.