182 relations: Algerian War, Anthem of Europe, Apportionment in the European Parliament, Aranese dialect, Auditor's report, Basque language, Belgian franc, Belgium, Benelux, Border control, Brussels, Brussels and the European Union, Budget of the European Union, Budgetary treaties of the European Communities, Catalan language, CE marking, Charles de Gaulle, Château of Val-Duchesse, Citizenship of the European Union, Common Agricultural Policy, Common European Home, Common external tariff, Common Fisheries Policy, Commonwealth of Nations, Consent procedure, Consumer protection, Cooperation procedure, Council of Europe, Council of the European Union, Customs union, Danish krone, Danish language, David R. Henderson, Delors Commission, Denmark, Deutsche Mark, Dutch guilder, Dutch language, East Germany, Economic and monetary union, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Economic integration, Economic union, Economy of the European Union, Edward Heath, English language, Enlargement of the European Union, Environmental law, Europa (Web portal), European Atomic Energy Community, ..., European Coal and Steel Community, European Commission, European Commissioner, European Communities, European Council, European Court of Auditors, European Court of Justice, European Currency Unit, European Customs Information Portal, European Economic Area, European Free Trade Association, European institutions in Strasbourg, European integration, European Parliament, European Parliament election, 1979, European Political Community, European Single Market, European Union, European Union competition law, European Union law, European Union legislative procedure, European Unit of Account, Executive (government), Federalisation of the European Union, Federalism, Flag of Europe, France, Francisco Franco, Francoist Spain, French franc, French language, French Parliament, Galician language, Gentlemen's agreement, Georges Pompidou, German language, German reunification, Germany, Greece, Greek drachma, Greek language, Hallstein Commission, High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, History of the European Communities (1958–72), History of the European Communities (1973–93), Illegal immigration, Immigration policy, Inner Six, Institutional seats of the European Union, Institutions of the European Union, Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom, Intergovernmental organization, International trade, Irish language, Irish pound, Italian language, Italian lira, Italy, Jean Monnet, Jean Rey (politician), Kingdom of the Netherlands, Languages of the European Union, Legal person, Liberty Fund, Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg compromise, Luxembourgish, Luxembourgish franc, Maastricht Treaty, Manchester University Press, Member state of the European Union, Merger Treaty, Messina Conference, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minister (government), National flag, Netherlands, Nicola Acocella, Norway, Norway–European Union relations, Norwegian European Communities membership referendum, 1972, Nuclear power, Ohlin Report, Paul-Henri Spaak, Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters, Portugal, Portuguese escudo, Portuguese language, Pound sterling, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of France, President of the European Commission, Regional organization, Republic of Ireland, Right of asylum, Roy Jenkins, Schengen Agreement, Single European Act, Single market, Snake in the tunnel, Social policy, Sovereignty, Spaak Committee, Spaak Report, Spain, Spanish language, Spanish peseta, Standardization, State (polity), Strasbourg, Supranational union, Supreme court, Taxpayer, The Hague, Three pillars of the European Union, Trans-European Networks, Transport in Europe, Travel visa, Treaties of the European Union, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Nice, Treaty of Paris (1951), Treaty of Rome, Trojan Horse, Turkey, United Kingdom, Voting in the Council of the European Union, West Germany. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
"Anthem of Europe" is the anthem of the Council of Europe and the European Union.
The apportionment of seats within the European Parliament to each member state of the European Union is set out by the EU treaties.
Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
The auditor's report is a disclaimer thereof, issued by either an internal auditor or an independent external auditor as a result of an internal or external audit, as an assurance service in order for the user to make decisions based on the results of the audit.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Belgian franc (Franc belge, Belgische frank, Belgischer Franken) was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Brussels in Belgium is considered the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union within its European Quarter.
The European Union has a budget to pay for policies carried out at European level (such as agriculture, assistance to poorer regions, trans-European networks, research, some overseas development aid) and for its administration, including a parliament, executive branch, and judiciary that are distinct from those of the member states.
The Budgetary treaties of the European Communities were two treaties in the 1970s amending the Treaty of Rome in respects to powers over the Community budget.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
The Château of Val-Duchesse (Château de Val-Duchesse, Kasteel van Hertoginnedal) is a mansion and estate situated in the municipality of Auderghem in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
The "Common European Home" was a concept created and espoused by former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.
A common external tariff must be introduced when a group of countries forms a customs union.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The consent procedure (formerly assent procedure) is one of the special legislative procedures of the European Union.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
The cooperation procedure (formally known as the Article 252 procedure) was one of the principal legislative procedures of the European Community, before the entrance into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.
The Delors Commission was the administration of Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
An economic and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) with a monetary union.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration.
An economic union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a common market with a customs union.
The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms and according to purchasing power parity (PPP).
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
A European Commissioner is a member of the 28-member European Commission.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The Court of Auditors (European Court of Auditors, ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
The European Customs Information Portal (ECIP) is an importing and exporting service provided by the EU for business operators of the member states of the European Union.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
There are a range of European institutions in Strasbourg (France), the oldest of which dates back to 1815.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The 1979 European elections were parliamentary elections held across all 9 (at the time) European Community member states.
The European Political Community (EPC) was proposed in 1952 as a combination of the existing European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the proposed European Defence Community (EDC).
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.
The European Unit of Account (EUA) was a unit of account used in the European Communities from 1975 to 1979, when it was replaced at parity by the European Currency Unit, in turn replaced at parity in 1999 by the euro.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Federalisation of the European Union is the institutional process by which the European Union (EU) is transformed from a confederation (a union of sovereign states) towards a federation (a single federal state with a central government, consisting of a number of partially self-governing federated states).
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
A gentlemen's agreement or gentleman's agreement is an informal and legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Term: 1958–1962 Party: CD --> The Hallstein Commission is the European Commission that held office from 7 January 1958 to 30 June 1967.
The High Authority was the executive branch of the former European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
The history of the European Communities between 1958 and 1972 saw the early development of the European Communities.
Between 1973 and 1993 the European Communities saw the first enlargement of the Communities and increasing integration under the Delors Commission leading to the creation of the European Union in 1993.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of people across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
The seven institutions of the European Union (EU) are seated in four different cities, viz. Brussels, Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, rather than being concentrated in a single capital city.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
The Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom was held in Brussels and started on 26 June 1956 with a session in the Grand Salon of the Belgian Foreign Ministry.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish pound (punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The lira (plural lire) was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat.
Jean Rey (15 July 1902 – 19 May 1983) was a Belgian politician who served as the 2nd President of the European Commission from 1967 to 1970.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
The Luxembourg Compromise (or "Luxembourg Accord") was an agreement reached in January 1966 to resolve the "empty chair crisis" which had caused a stalemate within European Economic Community.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The Luxembourgish franc (more commonly Luxembourg Franc or LUF, franc luxembourgeois, Lëtzebuerger Frang, Luxemburger Franken) was the currency of Luxembourg between 1854 and 1999 (except during the period 1941-44).
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
The Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) was a European treaty which combined the three executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure.
The Messina Conference of 1955 was a meeting of the the six member states of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nicola Acocella (born 3 July 1939) is an Italian economist and academic, Emeritus Professor of Economic Policy since 2014.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Although the Kingdom of Norway is not a member state of the European Union (EU), it is closely associated with the Union through its membership in the European Economic Area (EEA), by virtue of being a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), one of the historically two dominant western European trade blocs.
A referendum on whether Norway should join the European Community was held on 25 September 1972.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
The Ohlin Report was a report drafted by a group of experts of the International Labour Organization led by Bertil Ohlin in 1956.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC) was the third of the three pillars of the European Union (EU).
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese escudo is the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
Regional organizations (ROs) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British Labour Party, SDP and Liberal Democrat politician, and biographer of British political leaders.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
The snake in the tunnel was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Spaak Committee was an Intergovernmental Committee set up by the Foreign Ministers of the six Member States of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) as a result of the Messina Conference of 1955.
The Spaak Report or Brussels Report on the General Common Market is the report drafted by the Spaak Committee in 1956.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
A taxpayer is a person or organization (such as a company) subject to a tax on income.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Between 1993 and 2009, the European Union (EU) legally comprised three pillars.
The Trans-European Networks (TEN) were created by the European Union by Articles 154-156 of the Treaty of Rome (1957), with the stated goals of the creation of an internal market and the reinforcement of economic and social cohesion.
Transport in Europe provides for the movement needs of over 700 million people and associated freight.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty establishing the European Defence Community is an unratified treaty signed on 27 May 1952 by the six 'inner' countries of European integration; West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.
The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The procedures for voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the European Union.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Common Europe, Common Market, Communauté Economique Européenne, Community Pillar, Community pillar, E.E.C., EEC, Eec, European Common Market, European Community, European Community pillar of the European Union, European community, The European Community, The European Community within the Union.