189 relations: Aftenposten, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antoinette Sandbach, Argentina, Associated Press, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bengt Rabaeus, Bern, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bouvet Island, Brazil, Brexit, Brussels, Canada, Canada–European Free Trade Association Free Trade Agreement, Carnation Revolution, Central European Free Trade Agreement, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Chile, Citizens’ Rights Directive, CNBC, Colombia, Coordinated Universal Time, Costa Rica, Council of the European Union, Croatia, Customs union, Demilitarized zone, Denmark, Ecuador, EEA and Norway Grants, EFTA Court, Egypt, Enlargement of the European Union, Espen Barth Eide, Euro-Mediterranean free trade area, Europe, European Atomic Energy Community, European Commission, European Communities, European Court of Justice, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, ..., European Free Trade Association Surveillance Authority, European Neighbourhood Policy, European Single Market, European Union, European Union Association Agreement, European Union Customs Union, European Union free trade agreements, European Union law, European Union value added tax, Eurostat, Eurozone, Faroe Islands, Finland, Frank Edward Figgures, Free trade areas in Europe, Free-trade area, French language, Geary–Khamis dollar, Geneva, Georgia (country), German language, Golden Hall (Stockholm City Hall), Guatemala, Gulf Cooperation Council, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hoyvík Agreement, Iceland, Iceland–European Union relations, Icelandic króna, Icelandic language, India, Indonesia, Inner Six, International Monetary Fund, International organization, Isle of Man, ISO 4217, Israel, Italian language, Johann Schneider-Ammann, John Coulson (diplomat), Jonas Gahr Støre, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kåre Bryn, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Malaysia, Mauritius, Member state of the European Union, Mercosur, Mexico, Microstates and the European Union, Minister of Foreign Affairs (Norway), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norway), Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Multiple citizenship, Myanmar, Namibia, Nordic countries, Norway, Norwegian European Communities membership referendum, 1972, Norwegian European Union membership referendum, 1994, Norwegian krone, Norwegian language, Oman, Oslo, Pakistan, Palestinian National Authority, Panama, Paraguay, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Per Kleppe, Peru, Peter I Island, Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, Philippines, Politics of Norway, Portugal, Qatar, Queen Maud Land, Regional organization, Republic of Macedonia, Reykjavík, Romansh language, Russia, Sami languages, Samnaun, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Schengen Agreement, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Southern African Customs Union, Sovereign state, Stephen Hammond, Stephen Kinnock, Stockholm, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Swiss franc, Swiss referendums, 1992, Swiss referendums, 2001, Switzerland, Switzerland–European Union relations, Tariff, Thailand, The Daily Telegraph, The unity of the Realm, Trade association, Trade bloc, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United States dollar, Uruguay, Vaduz, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Europe, Western European Time, Western Sahara, 1995 enlargement of the European Union, 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Antoinette Geraldine Mackeson-Sandbach (born 15 February 1969), known as Antoinette Sandbach, is a Conservative Party politician who was elected as the Member of Parliament for Eddisbury in Cheshire at the 2015 general election.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bengt Rabaeus (4 May 1917 – July 2010) was a Swedish diplomat.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada–European Free Trade Association Free Trade Agreement is a free trade agreement between Canada and the European Free Trade Association (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein).
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between non-EU countries, members of which are now mostly located in Southeastern Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (also sometimes called the "Free Movement Directive") defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the member states of the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The EEA Grants and Norway Grants are the financial contributions of Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein towards the reduction of economic and social disparities in the European Economic Area (EEA) and to strengthen bilateral relations with 16 EU and EEA Member States in Northern, Central and Southern Europe.
The Court of Justice of the European Free Trade Association States (more commonly known as the EFTA Court) is a supranational judicial body responsible for the three EFTA members who are also members of the European Economic Area (EEA): Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Espen Barth Eide (born 1 May 1964 in Oslo) is a Norwegian politician and political scientist.
The European Union-Mediterranean Free Trade Area (EU-MED FTA, EMFTA), also called the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area or Euromed FTA, is based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) monitors compliance with the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) in Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway; the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) States which are a part of the EEA Agreement, allowing them to participate in the Internal Market of the European Union.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
The European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs) and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European Union value added tax (or EU VAT) is a value added tax on goods and services within the European Union (EU).
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Sir Frank Edward Figgures KCB CMG (5 March 1910 – 27 November 1990) was a British civil servant, noted as the first secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association from 1960 to 1965.
At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Golden Hall (Gyllene Salen) is a banqueting hall in Stockholm City Hall.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hoyvík Agreement is a free trade agreement between the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iceland is heavily integrated into the European Union via the European Economic Area and the Schengen Agreement, but it is not a member state.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Johann Niklaus Schneider-Ammann (born Schneider; 18 February 1952) is a Swiss businessman and a politician.
Sir John Coulson (13 September 1909 – 15 November 1997) was a British diplomat who was ambassador to Sweden and secretary-general of EFTA.
Jonas Gahr Støre (born 25 August 1960) is a Norwegian politician and the leader of the Labour Party and the Leader of the Opposition.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kåre Bryn (born 12 March 1944) is a Norwegian diplomat.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
There are a number of microstates in Europe.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs (norske utanriksministeren) is a councilor of state and chief of the Norway's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norwegian (Bokmål): Det kongelige Utenriksdepartement; Norwegian (Nynorsk): Det kongelege Utanriksdepartement) is the foreign ministry of the Kingdom of Norway.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A referendum on whether Norway should join the European Community was held on 25 September 1972.
A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Norway on 27 and 28 November 1994.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Per Andreas Hildte Kleppe (born 13 April 1923 in Oslo) is a Norwegian economist and politician for the Labour Party.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.
The Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme (PIC/S) are two international instruments between countries and pharmaceutical inspection authorities.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The politics of Norway take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.
Regional organizations (ROs) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Samnaun (Samignun) is a high Alpine village and a valley at the eastern end of Switzerland and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Stephen William Hammond (born 4 February 1962) is a British Conservative Party politician and former UK Government Minister.
Stephen Nathan Kinnock (born 1 January 1970) is a British Labour Party politician who was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Aberavon at the United Kingdom general election, 2015.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Fifteen referendums were held in Switzerland during 1992.
Eleven referendums were held in Switzerland during 2001.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The relations between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) are framed by a series of bilateral treaties whereby the Swiss Confederation has adopted various provisions of European Union law in order to participate in the Union's single market, without joining as a member state.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The term "the unity of the Realm" (Rigsfællesskabet, RigsenhedenSee "Nationale symboler i Det Danske Rige".) refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark.
A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry.
A trade block is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein and also the seat of the national parliament.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).
The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.