283 relations: ACP–EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, Act of Parliament, Alcide De Gasperi, Alexander Stubb, Alexis Tsipras, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, Altiero Spinelli, American Journal of Political Science, Antonio Tajani, Apportionment in the European Parliament, Archive of European Integration, Atlantic Ocean, Édith Cresson, Barroso Commission, Basque language, Belgian Federal Parliament, Bicameralism, Bill (law), Bodies of the European Union, Bogusław Liberadzki, Brussels, Brussels and the European Union, Budget of the European Union, Budgetary treaties of the European Communities, Bulgarian language, Bureau of the European Parliament, Cambridge University Press, Capital city, Caroline Lucas, Catalan language, Cecilia Malmström, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Cinderella, Citizenship of the European Union, Civil disobedience, Committee, 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The ACP–EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly was created to bring together the elected representatives of the European Union (the Members of the European Parliament) and the elected representatives of the African, Caribbean and Pacific states ("ACP countries") that have signed the Cotonou Agreement.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party.
Cai-Göran Alexander Stubb (born 1 April 1968) is a Finnish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Finland from 2014 to 2015.
Alexis Tsipras (Αλέξης Τσίπρας,; born 28 July 1974) is a Greek politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Greece since 2015.
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE; Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour l'Europe, ADLE) is a transnational alliance between two European political parties, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (formerly known as the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party) and the European Democratic Party.
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group (ALDE) is the liberal–centrist political group of the European Parliament.
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE Party) is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe.
Altiero Spinelli (31 August 1907 – 23 May 1986) was an Italian Communist politician, political theorist and European federalist.
The American Journal of Political Science is a journal published by the Midwest Political Science Association.
Antonio Tajani (born 4 August 1953) is an Italian politician who has served as President of the European Parliament since January 2017.
The apportionment of seats within the European Parliament to each member state of the European Union is set out by the EU treaties.
The (AEI) is an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Édith Cresson (born Édith Campion, 27 January 1934) is a French politician.
The Barroso Commission was the European Commission in office from 22 November 2004 until 31 October 2014.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
The main bodies of the European Union are.
Bogusław Liberadzki (pronounced; born 12 September 1948 in Sochaczew) is a Polish economist and politician.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Brussels in Belgium is considered the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union within its European Quarter.
The European Union has a budget to pay for policies carried out at European level (such as agriculture, assistance to poorer regions, trans-European networks, research, some overseas development aid) and for its administration, including a parliament, executive branch, and judiciary that are distinct from those of the member states.
The Budgetary treaties of the European Communities were two treaties in the 1970s amending the Treaty of Rome in respects to powers over the Community budget.
The Bureau of the European Parliament is responsible for matters relating to the budget, administration, organisation and staff.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Caroline Patricia Lucas (born 9 December 1960) is a British politician, and since 2 September 2016, Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, with Jonathan Bartley.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Anna Cecilia Malmström (born 15 May 1968) is a Swedish politician who has served as European Commissioner for Trade since 2014.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.
Cinderella (Cenerentola, Cendrillon, Aschenputtel), or The Little Glass Slipper, is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression and triumphant reward.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation.
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions.
In the European Union, the Conference of Presidents is a governing body of the European Parliament.
Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance de l'Europe (CVCE) is an interdisciplinary research and documentation centre dedicated to the European integration process.
In European Union law, a decision is a legal instrument which is binding upon those individuals to which it is addressed.
Degressive proportionality is an approach to the allocation (between regions, states or other subdivisions) of seats in a legislature or other decision-making body.
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Dimitrios Papadimoulis (Δημήτρης Παπαδημούλης; born 21 March 1955) is a Greek politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) as a member of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously.
An early day motion (EDM), in the Westminster system, is a motion, expressed as a single sentence, tabled by Members of Parliament that formally calls for debate "on an early day".
East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The eighth European Parliament was elected in the 2014 elections and will last until the 2019 elections.
Election monitoring is the observation of an election by one or more independent parties, typically from another country or a non-governmental organization (NGO), primarily to assess the conduct of an election process on the basis of national legislation and international election standards.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
The Espace Léopold (French, commonly used in English) or (Dutch) is the complex of parliament buildings in Brussels (Belgium) housing the European Parliament, a legislative chamber of the European Union.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Concours or EU concours is a recruitment competition and examination to select staff to all institutions of the European Union.
EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat) is a trans-national body of 150 Parliamentarians from Europe and Latin America.
The Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly (EMPA), established in Naples on 3 December 2003 by decision of the Ministerial Conference of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, was the most recent institution of the Barcelona Process.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The Europarl Corpus is a corpus (set of documents) that consists of the proceedings of the European Parliament from 1996 to the present.
Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD or EFD2) is a populist Eurosceptic political group in the European Parliament.
Europe of Nations and Freedom (Europe des nations et des libertés, ENL) is a political group in the European Parliament launched on 15 June 2015.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Charlemagne Youth Prize, sometimes shortened Charlemagne Youth Prize, is a prize that since 2008 has been annually awarded by the European Parliament and the foundation of the original Charlemagne Prize to young people who have contributed towards the process of European integration.
The European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) is a European Union mechanism aimed at increasing direct democracy by enabling "EU citizens to participate directly in the development of EU policies", introduced with the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007.
In 2008, the European Parliament introduced the European Citizen's prize.
The European Civil Service is a generic term applied to all staff serving the institutions and agencies of the European Union (EU).
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
A European Commissioner is a member of the 28-member European Commission.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) is a Eurosceptic and anti-federalist political group in the European Parliament.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The Court of Auditors (European Court of Auditors, ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the European Union (EU).
The European Green Party (EGP), sometimes referred to as European Greens, is the European political party that operates as a federation of political parties across Europe supporting green politics.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union, based in the Salvador de Madariaga Building in Strasbourg.
The Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Budgets (BUDG) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament that is responsible for protecting civil liberties and human rights, including those of minorities, as listed in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
The Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) is a committee of the European Parliament dealing with institutional matters such as the Treaties of the European Union and the Parliament's rules of procedure.
The Committee on Culture and Education (CULT) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Development (Commission du développement, DEVE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament responsible for promoting, implementing and monitoring the development and cooperation policy of the European Union, notably talks with developing countries; aid to developing countries; and promotion of democratic values, good governance and human rights in developing countries.
The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Fisheries (PECH) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET, after the French name "Affaires étrangères"), previously called Political Affairs, is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on International Trade (INTA) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Petitions (PETI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Regional Development (REGI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) is a committee of the European Parliament.
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU), divided into constituencies.
The 1979 European elections were parliamentary elections held across all 9 (at the time) European Community member states.
Two member states of the European Union held elections to the European Parliament in 2007.
From 22 to 25 May 2014, elections to the European Parliament were held in the European Union.
The next Elections to the European Parliament are expected to be held in 23–26 May 2019.
The Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament.
The Subcommittee on Security and Defence (SEDE) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament.
The European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) is the in-house research department and think tank of the European Parliament.
The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party.
The European People's Party group (EPP Group) is the political group in the European Parliament consisting of deputies (MEPs) from the member parties of the European People's Party (EPP).
The European Political Community (EPC) was proposed in 1952 as a combination of the existing European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the proposed European Defence Community (EDC).
A European political party (formally, a political party at European level; informally a Europarty) is a type of political party organisation operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.
The European Union Special Representatives (EUSR) are emissaries of the European Union with specific tasks abroad.
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE-NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament, established in 1995.
Evelyne Gebhardt (born 19 January 1954) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Extraordinary rendition, also called irregular rendition or forced rendition, is the U.S. government-sponsored abduction and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one country to another that has predominantly been carried out by the United States government with the consent of other countries.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The founding fathers of the European Union are 11 men officially recognised as major contributors to European unity and the development of what is now the European Union.
Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician, twice foreign minister of the Berlusconi cabinets (in 2002-2004 and 2008-2011) and once European Commissioner in the first Barroso Commission (2004-2008).
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German-speaking electoral college is one of three constituencies of the European Parliament in Belgium.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
The Greens-European Free Alliance (Greens-EFA) is the political group in the European Parliament containing green, regionalist and left-wing nationalist political parties.
Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt (born 11 April 1953) is a Belgian politician who has served as the Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Belgium since 2009.
Hans-Gert Pöttering (born 15 September 1945) is a German conservative politician (CDU, European People's Party), and was the President of the European Parliament from January 2007 to July 2009.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
In legislatures, a hemicycle is a semicircular, or horseshoe-shaped, debating chamber (plenary chamber), where deputies (members) sit to discuss and pass legislation.
Charles Henry Plumb, Baron Plumb,, known as Henry, (born 27 March 1925) is a British farmer who went into politics as a leader of the National Farmers Union.
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (abbreviated HR or HR/VP, the latter reflecting the vice presidency of the Commission) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU).
Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (Identité, tradition, souveraineté, ITS, stylized its) was a far-right political group in the European Parliament which was composed of 23 MEPs from European parties during the 6th term.
Ildikó Pelczné Gáll (née Gáll; born on 2 May 1962 in Szikszó) is a Hungarian politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Hungary.
The seven institutions of the European Union (EU) are seated in four different cities, viz. Brussels, Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, rather than being concentrated in a single capital city.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
Intergroups are formed of Members of the European Parliament from any political group and any committee, with a view to holding informal exchanges of views on particular subjects and promoting contact between Members and civil society.
"Ioan Pascu" redirects here.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
Jacques Santer (born 18 May 1937) is a Luxembourg politician who served as the 9th President of the European Commission from 1995 to 1999.
Jean Denise Lambert (born Jean Denise Archer; 1 June 1950 in Orsett, Essex) is an English politician, and Member of the European Parliament for the London Region.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jean-Marie Le Pen (born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who has served as Honorary President of the National Front since January 2011 and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from France since 2004, previously between 1984 and 2003.
Jerzy Karol Buzek (born 3 July 1940) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Poland.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
Joseph (José) Bové (born 11 June 1953 in Talence, Gironde) is a French farmer, politician and syndicalist, member of the alter-globalization movement, and spokesman for Via Campesina.
Josep Borrell i Fontelles (born 24 April 1947 in La Pobla de Segur, Lleida) is a Spanish politician.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
Lívia Járóka (born 6 October 1974, in Tata) is a Hungarian politician of part Romani ethnicity.
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.
The member states of the European Union are aligned in their foreign policy on many issues.
A portfolio in the European Commission is an area of responsibility assigned to a European Commissioner, usually connected to one or several Directorates-General (DGs).
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The European Parliament LUX Prize is a prize given to a competing film by the European Parliament.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Mairead McGuinness (born 13 June 1959) is an Irish politician who has served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Ireland since 2004.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Manfred Weber (born 14 July 1972) is a German politician who has served as Leader of the European People's Party in the European Parliament since 2014.
Manuel Marín González (21 October 1949 – 4 December 2017) was a Spanish politician, former President of the Congress of Deputies of Spain.
Martin Schulz (born 20 December 1955) is a German politician who served as leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from March 2017 to February 2018 and as a Member of the Bundestag (MdB) since September 2017.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) was a European treaty which combined the three executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The national parliaments of the European Union are those legislatures responsible for each member state of the European Union (EU).
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nicole Fontaine (16 January 1942 – 17 May 2018) was a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Île-de-France.
Non-Inscrits (abbreviated NI; Non-Attached Members, abbreviated NA) are Members of the European Parliament (MEP) who do not sit in one of the recognised political groups.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJ) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU).
Open Europe is a socially and economically liberal pan-European think tank and campaign group with offices in London and Brussels and an independent partner organisation in Berlin operated by staff from a number of EU states.
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Pan-African Parliament (PAP), also known as the African Parliament, is the legislative body of the African Union and held its inaugural session in March 2004.
The Parlamentarium is the visitors' centre of the European Parliament and is located in the Parliament's Espace Léopold complex in Brussels.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council.
Parliamentwatch (abgeordnetenwatch.de) is an Internet portal that allows German citizens to question their representatives in the German parliament (the Bundestag) publicly.
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.
The Party of the European Left (PEL), commonly abbreviated European Left, is a European political party which operates as an association of democratic socialist and communist political parties in the European Union and other European countries.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Dame Pauline Green, (born 8 December 1948) is a former Labour and Co-operative Member of the European Parliament and former Leader of the Parliamentary Group of the Party of European Socialists (PES).
Pavel Telička (born 21 August 1965t) is a Czech lobbyist, politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from the Czech Republic.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Politico Europe is the European edition of the American publication Politico, a journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank (ECB), the institution responsible for the management of the euro and monetary policy in the Eurozone of the European Union (EU).
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The President of the European Parliament presides over the debates and activities of the European Parliament.
The President of the Council of Ministers (Polish: Prezes Rady Ministrów), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Premier Polski), is the leader of the cabinet and the head of government of Poland.
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES).
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Five Quaestors in the European Parliament look after the financial and administrative interests of Members of the European Parliament.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
A question time in a parliament occurs when members of the parliament ask questions of government ministers (including the prime minister), which they are obliged to answer.
Rainer Wieland (born 19 February 1957) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for Germany.
Ramon Luis Valcárcel Siso (born November 16, 1954) is a Spanish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Spain.
A rapporteur is a person who is appointed by an organization to report on the proceedings of its meetings.
A recommendation in the European Union, according to Article 288 of the (formerly Article 249 TEC), is one of two kinds of non-binding acts cited in the Treaty of Rome.
A regulation is a legal act of the European Union that becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously.
The right of (legislative) initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose a new law (bill).
Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg-born French statesman.
Rocco Buttiglione (born 6 June 1948) is an Italian Union of Christian and Centre Democrats politician and an academic. Buttiglione's nomination for a post as European Commissioner with a portfolio that was to include civil liberties, resulted in controversy as some political groups opposed him for his conservative Roman Catholic views against homosexuality, despite his assurances that these were only his personal convictions and would not dictate his administration. Buttiglione is a Professor of political science at Saint Pius V University in Rome, and member of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. He served as a minister for EU policies (from 2001 to 2005) and then as Minister for Cultural Assets and Activities (from 2005 to 2006) in Silvio Berlusconi's governments. In 2005 Buttiglione received an honorary doctoral degree for his commitment to the ideas of liberty. In May 2006, he unsuccessfully ran for mayor of Turin.
Roger Awan-Scully,, known as Roger Scully, is a British political scientist and academic.
Roland Ries (January 11, 1945 in Niederlauterbach, Bas-Rhin) is a French politician from Alsace holding several posts on local, regional and national level since 1997.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Rumiana Ruseva Jeleva Румяна Русева Желева (born on April 18, 1969 in the town of Nova Zagora) was Bulgaria's minister of foreign affairs (July 2009 – January 2010), the third woman to hold this office after Irina Bokova and Nadezhda Mihailova.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
The Santer Commission was the European Commission in office between 23 January 1995 and 15 March 1999.
The Schengen Information System (SIS) is a governmental database maintained by the European Commission.
The Schuman Declaration is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950.
In legal English, the seat of a corporation or organisation, as a legal entity, is the location of its headquarters.
The city of Strasbourg (France) is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The secretariat of the European Parliament is the administrative body of the European Parliament headed by a Secretary-General.
The Services in the Internal Market Directive (also called the "Bolkestein Directive") is an EU law aiming at establishing a single market for services within the European Union (EU).
The seventh European Parliament was elected in the 2009 elections and lasted until the 2014 elections.
Simone Annie Liline Veil, DBE (Jacob; 13 July 1927 – 30 June 2017) was a French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health under Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Franziska Maria "Ska" Keller (born 22 November 1981) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
A soapbox is a raised platform on which one stands to make an impromptu speech, often about a political subject.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
Southeast European Times was a United States European Command-sponsored news website dedicated to coverage of Southeast Europe that ended publication in March 2015.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
In 2007 the President of the European Parliament, Hans-Gert Poettering, set up a special working group on parliamentary reform.
The State of the Union address, also known as the State of the European Union, is the annual speech addressed by the President of the European Commission to the European Parliament plenary session in September.
Statistical machine translation (SMT) is a machine translation paradigm where translations are generated on the basis of statistical models whose parameters are derived from the analysis of bilingual text corpora.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
Sylvie Guillaume (born 11 June 1962) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from France.
A tailcoat is a coat with the front of the skirt cut away, so as to leave only the rear section of the skirt, known as the tails.
In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (nowadays usually electronically stored and processed).
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Taking the existing interparliamentary relationship as its basis, the Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue (TLD) aims to strengthen and enhance the level of political discourse between European and American legislators.
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.
The Treaty establishing the European Defence Community is an unratified treaty signed on 27 May 1952 by the six 'inner' countries of European integration; West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.
The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
Udo Bullmann (born 8 June 1956) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress).
Unity in diversity is a concept of "unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation" that shifts focus from unity based on a mere tolerance of physical, cultural, linguistic, social, religious, political, ideological and/or psychological differences towards a more complex unity based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
There are fourteen vice-presidents of the European Parliament who sit in for the president in presiding over the plenary of the European Parliament.
Vote trading is the practice of voting for or against another person's bill, position on a more general issue, or favored candidate in exchange for the other person's vote for or against a position, proposal, or candidate that one supports.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Assembly of the European Communities, Common Assembly, Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, EU Parliament, EU parliament, Eu parl, Eu parliament, Euparl, Euro Parliament, EuroParl, Europarl, Europarliament, European Assembly, European Chamber, European Parliament's, European Parliamentary, European Parliamentary Assembly, European Union Parliament, European parlament, European parliament, European parliment, Parliament of Europe, Parliament of European Union, Parliament of the EU, Parliament of the European Union, Strasbourg Parliament, The European Parliament.