259 relations: Alpine Investments BV v Minister van Financiën, Altice Portugal, Andorra, Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano SpA, Animal, Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield, Austria, Überseering BV v Nordic Construction Company Baumanagement GmbH, Belarusian citizenship, Belgian nationality law, Belgians, Belgium, Berlin Wall, Bhagavan, Bolzano, Bonn, Bosman ruling, Brenner Autobahn, Brexit, Bulgaria, Cambridge University Press, Cannabis, Capital (economics), Capital control, Capital controls in Greece, Capital gains tax, Cartesio Oktató és Szolgáltató bt, Centros Ltd v Erhvervs- og Selskabsstyrelsen, Child support, Chocolate, Citizens’ Rights Directive, Citizenship of Russia, Citizenship of the European Union, Clearing (finance), Cocoa butter, Coffeehouse, Cold calling, Commission v Austria, Commission v France (1997), Commission v Germany (2007), Commission v Ireland (1982), Commission v Italy (2003), Commission v Italy (2009), Commission v Italy (2011), Commission v Portugal, Commodity, Company, Competition (economics), Competition law, Consumer protection, ..., Corporate law, Corporate tax, Court of Justice of the European Union, Crème de cassis, Creditor, Croatia, Cube, Currency, Currency union, Customs union, Cut throat competition, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Daily Mail, Daily Mail and General Trust, Danish krone, Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area, Defrenne v Sabena (No 2), Delaware, Delors Commission, Denmark, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Dignity, Division of labour, Dublin, Economic and monetary union, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Economics, Economies of scale, Equal opportunity, Estonia, Euro, Eurobond, European Central Bank, European Commission, European Court of Justice, European debt crisis, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, European External Action Service, European Free Trade Association, European migrant crisis, European Parliament, European Single Market, European System of Central Banks, European Union, European Union Customs Union, European Union law, European Union–Turkey Customs Union, Eurozone, Factors of production, Financial transaction tax, Finanzamt Köln Altstadt v Schumacker, Finland, Fordham International Law Journal, Foreign direct investment, France, Free Movement of Workers Regulation 2011, Freedom of association, Freedom of movement, Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union, French people, Full employment, Futures contract, Gebhard v Consiglio dell'Ordine degli Avvocati e Procuratori di Milano, Georgia (country), Geraets-Smits v Stichting Ziekenfonds, Germany, Geven v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Gibraltar, Goidelic languages, Golden share, Goods, Government procurement in the European Union, Greece, Groener v Minister for Education, Grzelczyk v Centre Public d’Aide Sociale d’Ottignes-Louvain-la-Neuve, Health, Hendrix v Employee Insurance Institute, Human, Human rights, Hungary, I Can't Believe It's Not Butter!, Iceland, Inequality of bargaining power, Inner Six, Insolvency, International labour law, International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP, Ireland, Italy, Jean-Marc Bosman, Josemans v Burgemeester van Maastricht, Joseph H. H. Weiler, Joseph Stiglitz, Juncker Commission, Keck and Mithouard, Klopp, Konsumentombudsmannen v De Agostini, Konsumentombudsmannen v Gourmet AB, Latvia, Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg, Lepik, Liechtenstein, Liga Portuguesa de Futebol v Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa, Limited company, Lithuania, Louis Brandeis, Louis K. Liggett Co. v. Lee, Lower Saxony, Luxembourg, Maastricht Treaty, Malta, Margaret Thatcher, Margarine, Market access, Member state of the European Union, Merrill Lynch, Metock v Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, Miguel Poiares Maduro, Milan, Minimum capital, Moldova, Monaco, Monetary policy, Morality, Mutual recognition agreement, National Health Service, Netherlands, Non-tariff barriers to trade, Norway, Omega Spielhallen und Automatenaufstellungs-GmbH v Oberbürgermeisterin der Bundesstadt Bonn, Oxford University Press, Paul Craig (law professor), Plant, Poland, Police, Portugal, Posted Workers Directive 1996, PreussenElektra AG v Schleswag AG, Price stability, Procureur du Roi v Benoît and Gustave Dassonville, Proportionality (law), R (Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing, R (Daily Mail and General Trust plc) v HM Treasury, R (Secretary of State for the Home Department) v Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Surinder Singh, Race to the bottom, Reason, Regulatory competition, Republic of Ireland, Rewe-Zentral AG v Bundesmonopolverwaltung für Branntwein, Reyners v Belgium, RFC Liège, Romania, Romanians, Sala v Freistaat Bayern, Salling Group, San Marino, Schengen Agreement, Schengen Area, Schmidberger v Austria, Scotch whisky, Service (economics), Services in the Internal Market Directive 2006, Share (finance), Shops Act 1950 (Great Britain), Single European Act, Single market, Sirop de Picon, Slovakia, Slovenia, Social security, SOLVIT, Soviet Union, Spain, Stabilisation and Association Process, Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Strawberry, Stuttgart, Sweden, Switzerland, Switzerland–European Union relations, TARGET2, Tax evasion, The Communist Manifesto, The Guardian, The Price of Inequality, Tomato, Transaction cost, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Rome, Trojani v Centre public d'aide sociale de Bruxelles, Turkey, Ukraine, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005, Union State, United Kingdom, University College London, USL Dunkerque, Van Binsbergen v Bestuur van de Bedrijfvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid, Van Duyn v Home Office, Vegetable oil, Vivian Murray, Volkswagen Act, Walter Rau Lebensmittelwerke v De Smedt PVBA, Weigel v Finanzlandesdirektion für Vorarlberg, Workforce. 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Alpine Investments BV v Minister van Financiën (1995) C-384/93 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Altice Portugal (formerly known as Portugal Telecom or PT) is the largest telecommunications service provider in Portugal.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Roman Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano S.p.A. (2000) C-281/98 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Francis Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield, PC (surname pronounced "Co-feeld"; 28 September 1916 – 8 January 2007) was by turns a civil servant, a company director, a Conservative politician, and a European Commissioner.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Überseering BV v Nordic Construction Company Baumanagement GmbH (2002) is a European company law case, concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
Belarusian citizenship is membership in the political community of the Republic of Belarus.
Belgian citizenship is based on a mixture of the principles of jus sanguinis and jus soli.
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman (1995) C-415/93 (known as the Bosman ruling) is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision concerning freedom of movement for workers, freedom of association, and direct effect of article 39 (now article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) of the TEC.
The Brenner Autobahn (Autostrada del Brennero or AutoBrennero, Brenner Motorway) refers to a major European truck route, which connects Innsbruck in Austria to Modena in northern Italy.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
Capital controls were introduced in Greece in June 2015, when Greece's government came to the end of its bailout extension period without having come to an agreement on a further extension with its creditors and the European Central Bank decided not to further increase the level of its Emergency Liquidity Assistance for Greek banks.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
Cartesio Oktató és Szolgáltató bt (2008) is a European company law case concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
Centros Ltd v Erhvervs- og Selskabsstyrelsen (1999) is a European company law case, concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
The Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (also sometimes called the "Free Movement Directive") defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the member states of the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.
Citizenship of Russia is regulated by the federal act regarding citizenship of the Russian Federation (of 2002, with the amendments of 2003, 2004, 2006), Constitution of the Russian Federation (of 1993), and the international treaties that cover citizenship questions to which the Russian Federation is a party.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled.
Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Cold calling is defined as the solicitation of business from potential customers who have had no prior contact with the salesperson conducting the call.
Commission v Austria (2005) C-147/03 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Commission v France (1997) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Germany (2007) is an EU law case, relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning European company law.
Commission v Ireland (1982) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (2003) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (2009) C-110/05 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (2011) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
Commission v Portugal (2010) is an EU law case, relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning European company law.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
Crème de cassis (also known as Cassis Liqueur) is a sweet, dark red liqueur made from blackcurrants.
A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Cut throat competition is a term that was widely used to describe the reason for consumer protection regulation, labour law, and enforcement of competition law or antitrust, in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Daily Mail and General Trust plc is a British media company, the owner of The Daily Mail and several other titles.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (2014) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA) are three free trade areas established between the European Union, and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine respectively.
Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) (1976) is a foundational European Union law case, concerning direct effect and the European Social Charter in the European Union.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delors Commission was the administration of Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) was a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR).
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
An economic and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) with a monetary union.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
A eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the European Union (EU).
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
On 31 December 1995, a 6 March 1995 Decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council, established by the Ankara Agreement, to implement a customs union (Gümrük Birliği) between Turkey and the European Union, came into effect.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.
Finanzamt Köln Altstadt v Schumacker (1995) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Fordham International Law Journal is a student-run law journal associated with the Fordham University School of Law.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Free Movement of Workers Regulation No.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Gebhard v Consiglio dell'Ordine degli Avvocati e Procuratori di Milano (1995) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Geraets-Smits v Stichting Ziekenfonds and Peerbooms v Stichting CZ Groep Zorgverzekeringen (2001) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Geven v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (2007) C-213/05 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
A golden share is a nominal share which is able to outvote all other shares in certain specified circumstances, often held by a government organization, in a government company undergoing the process of privatization and transformation into a stock-company.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
Government procurement or public procurement is undertaken by the public authorities of the European Union (EU) and its member states in order to award contracts for public works and for the purchase of goods and services in accordance with the principles underlying the Treaties of the European Union.
Groener v Minister for Education (1989) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Grzelczyk v Centre Public d’Aide Sociale d’Ottignes-Louvain-la-Neuve (2001) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Hendrix v Raad van Bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen (2007) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! is a spread brand produced by Unilever.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.
International labour law is the body of rules spanning public and private international law which concern the rights and duties of employees, employers, trade unions and governments in regulating the workplace.
The Rosella or International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, including UK labour law, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean-Marc Bosman (born 30 October 1964) is a Belgian former professional footballer, whose judicial challenge of the football transfer rules led to the Bosman ruling in 1995.
Josemans v Burgemeester van Maastricht (2010) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Joseph Halevi Horowitz Weiler (born 2 September 1951) is a South African-American academic, currently serving as European Union Jean Monnet Chair at New York University Law School and Senior Fellow of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
The Juncker Commission is the European Commission in office since 1 November 2014 and is due to serve until 2019.
Reference for a Preliminary Ruling in the Criminal Proceedings against Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard (1993) C-267/91 is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Klopp is a German surname.
Konsumentombudsmannen v De Agostini (1997) C-34/95 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Konsumentombudsmannen v Gourmet AB (2001) C-405/98 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg (1986) was a European Union law case about the free movement of workers within the territory of the European Union.
Lepik or Leppik is a common Estonian surname (meaning "alder forest"), with notable bearers including.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional and Bwin International Ltd v Departamento de Jogos da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa (2009) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Louis K. Liggett Co.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
Market access for goods means the conditions, tariff and Non-tariff measures (NTMs), set by countries for the entry of specific goods into their markets.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Merrill Lynch Wealth Management is a wealth management division of Bank of America.
Metock v Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform (2008) is an EU law case, significant in Ireland and Denmark, on the Citizens Rights Directive and family unification rules for migrant citizens.
Miguel Poiares Maduro (born 3 January 1967) is a Portuguese academic and politician.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Minimum capital is a concept used in corporate law and banking regulation to stipulate what assets the organisation must hold as a minimum requirement.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
A mutual recognition agreement (MRA) is an international agreement by which two or more countries agree to recognize one another's conformity assessments.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) or sometimes called "Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs)" are trade barriers that restrict imports or exports of goods or services through mechanisms other than the simple imposition of tariffs.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Omega Spielhallen und Automatenaufstellungs-GmbH v Oberbürgermeisterin der Bundesstadt Bonn (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paul P. Craig (born 27 September 1951) is currently Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St John's College.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Posted Workers Directive is an EU directive concerned with the free movement of workers within the European Union.
PreussenElektra AG v Schleswag AG (2001) is a UK enterprise law case, electricity generation.
Price stability is a goal of monetary and fiscal policy aiming to support sustainable rates of economic activity.
Procureur du Roi v Benoît and Gustave Dassonville (1974) Case 8/74 is an EU law case of the European Court of Justice, in which a 'distinctly applicable measure of equivalent effect' to a quantitative restriction of trade in the European Union was held to exist on a Scotch whisky imported from France.
Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.
R (Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing, SS for Education and Skills (2005) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
R (Daily Mail and General Trust plc) v HM Treasury and Commissioners of Inland Revenue (1988) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
R (Secretary of State for the Home Department) v Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Surinder Singh 3 CMLR 358 is a UK immigration law and EU law case involving the right of entry and residence into a nation state.
The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Regulatory competition, also called competitive governance or policy competition, is a phenomenon in law, economics and politics concerning the desire of law makers to compete with one another in the kinds of law offered in order to attract businesses or other actors to operate in their jurisdiction.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rewe-Zentral v Bundesmonopolverwaltung für Branntwein (1979) Case 120/78, popularly known as Cassis de Dijon after its subject matter, is an EU law decision of the European Court of Justice.
Reyners v Belgium (1974) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Royal Football Club de Liège (RFC Liège) is a Belgian football club from the city of Liège.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sala v Freistaat Bayern (1998) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Salling Group A/S (formerly Dansk Supermarked A/S) is Denmark's largest retailer, with a market share of 34.9%.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Eugen Schmidberger, Internationale Transporte und Planzüge v Austria (2003) C-112/00 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Scotch whisky (often simply called Scotch) is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
The Services in the Internal Market Directive (also called the "Bolkestein Directive") is an EU law aiming at establishing a single market for services within the European Union (EU).
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
The Shops Act 1950 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which was repealed on 1 December 1994 by the Deregulation and Contracting Out Act 1994.
The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
Picon is a caramel-coloured, flavoured bitters drunk as an apéritif, which traditionally accompanies beer in the east and north of France.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
The SOLVIT network is a body funded by the European Commission since 2002 to assist citizens and businesses to ascertain their EU rights in cases where a dispute has risen between a citizen or a company and an official body of a Member state of the European Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In talks with countries and territories that have expressed a wish to join the European Union, the EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in that country or territory.
Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie (1988) is a European Union law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The relations between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) are framed by a series of bilateral treaties whereby the Swiss Confederation has adopted various provisions of European Union law in order to participate in the Union's single market, without joining as a member state.
TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for the Eurozone, and is available to non-Eurozone countries.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future is a 2012 book by Joseph Stiglitz that deals with income inequality in the United States.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
Trojani v Centre public d'aide sociale de Bruxelles (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of persons and citizenship in the European Union.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive regulates unfair business practices in EU law, as part of European consumer law.
The Union State (p; Саюзная дзяржава), also referred to as the Union State of Russia and Belarus (p; Саюзная дзяржава Расіі і Беларусі), is a supranational union consisting of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
USL Dunkerque (Union Sportive du Littoral de Dunkerque) is a French football club based in the commune of Dunkirk.
Van Binsbergen v Bestuur van de Bedrijfvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid (1974) Case 33/74 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Van Duyn v Home Office (1974) C-41/74 was a case of the European Court of Justice concerning the free movement of workers between member states.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vivian Murray (22 July 1932 – 6 March 2009) was an Irish businessman.
The Volkswagen Act is a set of German federal laws enacted in 1960, regulating the privatization of Volkswagenwerk GmbH into Volkswagen AG.
Walter Rau Lebensmittelwerke v De Smedt PVBA (1983) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Weigel v Finanzlandesdirektion für Vorarlberg (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
EEC common market, EU Internal Market, EU Single Market, EU common market, EU internal market, EU single market, EU's Single Market, EU's internal market, EU's single market, Eu four freedoms, European Internal Market, European Union Internal Market, European Union Single Market, European Union common market, European Union single market, European Union's Single Market, European Union's single market, European internal market, European single market, Four Freedoms (European Union), Four Liberties, Four economic freedoms, Four freedoms (European Union), Free movement of capital, Free movement of goods, Free movement of person, Free movement of services, Freedom of establishment, Freedom to provide services, Home market of the European Union, Internal Market, Internal Market (European Union), Internal market, Internal market of the EU, Internal market of the European Union, Internal markets, Internal taxation, Measures having equivalent effect, Single European Market, Single market of the European Union.