100 relations: Abstraction, Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Citizens’ Rights Directive, Co-determination, Collective bargaining, Collective Redundancies Directive 1998, Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, Conservative Party (UK), Consumption (economics), Court of Justice of the European Union, Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch, Demir and Baykara v Turkey, Economic, social and cultural rights, Employee Involvement Directive 2001, Employment contract, Employment Information Directive 1991, Enerji Yapi-Yol Sen v Turkey, Equal Treatment Directive 2006, Equality Framework Directive 2000, European Central Bank, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European debt crisis, European Economic Community, European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, European Social Charter, European Union, European Union law, European Works Council Directive 2009, Eurostat, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fixed-term Work Directive 1999, Francovich v Italy, Freedom of association, Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union, Gender equality, German labour law, Greek government-debt crisis, Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970, Hugo Sinzheimer, Inequality of bargaining power, Information and Consultation Directive 2002, Insolvency Protection Directive 2008, Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive 2003, International Labour Organization, International trade, International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP, Job security, Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG, ..., Labour law, Labour Party (UK), Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet, Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg, Legal person, List of International Labour Organization Conventions, Maastricht Treaty, Monetary policy, Occupational safety and health, Ohlin Report, Otto Kahn-Freund, Parental Leave Directive 2010, Part-time Work Directive 1997, Pensions Act 2004, Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Post-2008 Irish economic downturn, Posted Workers Directive 1996, Power (social and political), Pregnant Workers Directive 1992, Property, Public consultation, Race Equality Directive 2000, Race to the bottom, Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Rome I Regulation, Simon Deakin, Social equality, Social exclusion, Social security, Societas Europaea, Strike action, Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008, Transfers of Undertakings Directive 2001, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Rome, Treaty of Versailles, United Kingdom general election, 1997, United Kingdom labour law, United States labor law, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Wage regulation, Wilson and Palmer v United Kingdom, Working Time Directive 2003, Working Time Regulations 1998, Workplace Health and Safety Directive, Works council, World War II, 2008–present Spanish financial crisis, 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of assembly and association, including the right to form trade unions, subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (also sometimes called the "Free Movement Directive") defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the member states of the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.
Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
The Collective Redundancies Directive is an EU Directive concerning the procedures and warnings that any employer is under a duty to its workforce to follow if it finds it necessary to make more than 20 employees over 90 days (or 10 to 30 employees depending on firm size over 30 days if the member state chooses this option).
The Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (9 December 1989) is a principles-based charter of human rights that apply specifically to the workforce in the European Union.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch is a landmark UK labour law case on the right to take part in collective bargaining.
Demir and Baykara v Turkey is a landmark European Court of Human Rights case concerning Article 11 ECHR and the right to engage in collective bargaining.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
The Employee Involvement Directive is an EU Directive concerning the right of workers to elect members of the board of directors in a European Company.
An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain.
The Employment Information Directive is an EU Directive which regulates European labour law for the purpose of making workers' contracts transparent.
Enerji Yapi-Yol Sen v Turkey is a European labour law case, relevant for UK labour law concerning the right to strike.
The Equal Treatment Directive is an Act of the European Union, which implements the principle of equal treatment between men and women in EU labour law.
Council Directive 2000/78/EC, called Employment Equality Framework Directive, is an EU Directive, and a major part of EU labour law which aims to combat discrimination on grounds of disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief and age in the workplace.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) is a European Union financial regulatory institution that replaced the Committee of European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Supervisors (CEIOPS).
The European Social Charter is a Council of Europe treaty which was opened for signature on October 18, 1961 and initially became effective on February 26, 1965, after West Germany had become the fifth of the 13 signing nations to ratify it.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European Works Council Directive (or sometimes the "Transnational Works Council Directive") is a European Union Directive on the establishment of works councils, for the purpose of information and consultation, in companies that operate transnationally within the EU.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Fixed-term Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.
Francovich v Italy (1991) C-6/90 was a decision of the European Court of Justice which established that European Union member states could be liable to pay compensation to individuals who suffered a loss by reason of the member state's failure to transpose an EU directive into national law.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
German labour law refers to the regulation of employment relationships and industrial partnerships in Germany.
The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.
Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
Hugo Sinzheimer (12 April 1875 – 16 September 1945) was a German legal scholar, and author of the Weimar Constitution.
In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.
Information and Consultation of Employees Directive is a european Labour Law that requires undertakings to inform and consult employees on significant changes to businesses in a standing procedure, typically called a work council.
The Insolvency Protection Directive is an EU Directive concerning the protection of employees in the event of insolvency of an employer.
Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive is a European Union Directive designed to create an internal market for occupational retirement provision.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Rosella or International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, including UK labour law, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.
Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG (2010) is a leading EU labour law case, which held that there is a general principle of law in all European Union member states, against discrimination, and in favour of equal treatment.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg (1986) was a European Union law case about the free movement of workers within the territory of the European Union.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
The list of International Labour Organization Conventions totals 190 laws which aim to improve the labour standards of people around the world.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.
The Ohlin Report was a report drafted by a group of experts of the International Labour Organization led by Bertil Ohlin in 1956.
Sir Otto Kahn-Freund QC (17 November 1900 – 16 August 1979) was a scholar of labour law and comparative law.
The Parental Leave Directive is a European Union Directive, which concerns the basic rights of all parents to leave in the European Union.
Part-time Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.
The Pensions Act 2004 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to improve the running of pension schemes.
Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Kreisverband Waldshut eV (2005) is an EU law and European labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive.
The post-2008 Irish economic downturn in the Republic of Ireland, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and an expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s.
The Posted Workers Directive is an EU directive concerned with the free movement of workers within the European Union.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The Pregnant Workers Directive is a European Union Directive.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Public consultation, or simply consultation, is a regulatory process by which the public's input on matters affecting them is sought.
The Race Equality Directive is an Act of the European Union, concerning European labour law.
The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions.
Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2007) is a UK insolvency law and labour law case, concerning the protection of employees' salaries on their employer's insolvency.
The Rome I Regulation (Regulation (EC) No of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations) is a regulation which governs the choice of law in the European Union.
Simon Deakin (born 26 March 1961) is Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Cambridge, and a Fellow of Peterhouse College, Cambridge.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
A societas Europaea (SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union (EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
The Temporary Agency Work Directive is an EU Directive agreed in November 2008 which seeks to guarantee those working through employment agencies equal pay and conditions with employees in the same business who do the same work.
The Transfers of Undertakings Directive is a European Union law that protects the contracts of employment of people working in businesses that are transferred between owners.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
United Kingdom labour law regulates the relations between workers, employers and trade unions.
United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Wage regulation refers to attempts by a government to regulate wages paid to citizens.
Wilson v United Kingdom is a UK labour law and European labour law case concerning discrimination by employers against their workers who join and take action through trade unions.
The Working Time Directive, is a Directive of the European Union.
The Working Time Regulations 1998 is the United Kingdom statutory instrument which implements the EU Working Time Directive 93/104/EC.
The Safety and Health at Work Directive is a European Union directive that sets out general principles for protection of workers' Occupational safety and health.
A works council (very rarely called "work council") is a "shop-floor" organization representing workers that functions as a local/firm-level complement to trade unions but is independent of these at least in some countries.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 2008–present Spanish financial crisis, also known as the Great Recession in Spain or the Great Spanish Depression, began in 2008 during the world financial crisis of 2007–08.
The Great Recession in Portugal led to the country being unable to repay or refinance its government debt without the assistance of third parties.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.