57 relations: Admissible evidence, Anecdotal evidence, Argument, Arrest, ASTM International, Belief, Bias, Burden of proof (law), Capital punishment, Chain of custody, Circumstantial evidence, Civil procedure, Crime, Criminal procedure, Debate, Defendant, Digital evidence, Documentary evidence, Empiricism, Epistemology, Evidence (law), Experiment, Experimenter's regress, Falsifiability, Federal Rules of Evidence, Hypothesis, Judgment (mathematical logic), Knowledge, Laboratory, Law, Logical positivism, Mathematical proof, Objection (argument), Observation, Personal experience, Philosophy, Plaintiff, Presumption of innocence, Prima facie, Proof (truth), Prosecutor, Question of law, Real evidence, Reason, Reasonable doubt, Relationship evidence, Resolution (law), Scientific evidence, Scientific method, Scientific theory, ..., Skepticism, Testimony, Theory of justification, Trace evidence, Trier of fact, Truth, Validity. Expand index (7 more) » « Shrink index
Admissible evidence, in a court of law, is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to a factfinder—usually a judge or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the proceeding.
Anecdotal evidence is evidence from anecdotes, i.e., evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Chain of custody (CoC), in legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.
Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
Digital evidence or electronic evidence is any probative information stored or transmitted in digital form that a party to a court case may use at trial.
Documentary evidence is any evidence that is, or can be, introduced at a trial in the form of documents, as distinguished from oral testimony.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
In science, experimenter's regress refers to a loop of dependence between theory and evidence.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
First adopted in 1975, the Federal Rules of Evidence codify the evidence law that applies in United States federal courts.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
In mathematical logic, a judgment (or judgement) or assertion is a statement or enunciation in the metalanguage.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.
In argumentation, an objection is a reason arguing against a premise, argument, or conclusion.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Personal experience of a human being is the moment-to-moment experience and sensory awareness of internal and external events or a sum of experiences forming an empirical unity such as a period of life.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
A proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
In law, a question of law, also known as a point of law, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law.
Physical evidence (also called real evidence or material evidence) is any material object that plays some role in the matter that gave rise to the litigation, introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding (such as a trial) to prove a fact in issue based on the object's physical characteristics.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Reasonable doubt is a term used in jurisdiction of common law countries.
Relationship evidence describes a particular class of circumstantial evidence - evidence of events and interactions between witnesses (often the accused and the complainant) extraneous to the offences charged.
In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.
Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Trace evidence is created when objects make contact.
A trier of fact, or finder of fact, is a person, or group of persons, who determines facts in a legal proceeding, usually a trial.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.