235 relations: -elect, Abuja, Adobe, Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights, ALBA, Alejo Véliz, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Anti-globalization movement, Anti-imperialism, Apartheid, Apu Mallku, Arani Province, Assembly for the Sovereignty of the Peoples, Aymara language, Aymara people, Álvaro García Linera, Bank of the South, Barack Obama, BBC News, Beatriz Canedo Patiño, Beni Department, Benito Juárez, Bill Clinton, Biofuel, Bolivia, Bolivian boliviano, Bolivian Constitutional Assembly election, 2006, Bolivian constitutional referendum, 2009, Bolivian constitutional referendum, 2016, Bolivian gas conflict, Bolivian general election, 1993, Bolivian general election, 1997, Bolivian general election, 2002, Bolivian general election, 2005, Bolivian general election, 2009, Bolivian general election, 2014, Bolivian municipal elections, 1999, Bolivian National Congress, 1997–2002, Bolivian regional autonomy referendum, 2006, Bolivian vote of confidence referendum, 2008, Cabinet of Bolivia, Carlos Mesa, Catholic Church, Central Intelligence Agency, Chapare Province, Chilean presidential election, 1970, Chulumani, Coca, Coca eradication, Cocaine, ..., Cocalero, Cochabamba, Cochabamba Water War, Communist Party of Bolivia, Communitarianism, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Conscription, Conservatism, Constitution of Bolivia, Dassault Falcon 900, David Padilla, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Democratic and Popular Union, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic socialism, Der Spiegel, Direct action, Direct democracy, Domestic policy of the Evo Morales administration, Drug Enforcement Administration, Economic and Political Weekly, Economic liberalism, Eduardo Rodríguez, Edward Snowden, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Environmentalism, Ethnic conflict, Evo Morales and the Roman Catholic Church, Evo Morales grounding incident, Exit poll, Falangism in Latin America, Felipe Quispe, Fidel Castro, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Financial transaction tax, First Lady, Florida, Foreign policy of the Evo Morales administration, Forest Stewardship Council, Free Trade Area of the Americas, General strike, Genetically modified organism, George W. Bush, Glencore, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, Government budget balance, Guerrilla warfare, Gustavo Guzmán, Havana, Headquarters of the United Nations, Hernán Siles Zuazo, Hugo Banzer, Hugo Chávez, Hydrocarbon, Imperialism, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous rights, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, International Monetary Fund, International Workers' Day, Iraq War, Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory, James Petras, Jimmy Carter, Jorge Quiroga, Journal of Latin American Studies, Juan del Granado, Juan Pereda, La Paz, Labor rights, Lake Poopó, Latin American Perspectives, Law enforcement in Bolivia, Left-wing politics, LGBT rights by country or territory, Luis García Meza, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Manfred Reyes Villa, Manuel Rocha, Marxism, Mauricio Macri, Media Luna, Mestizo, Miami, Michel Chossudovsky, Mixed economy, Movement for Socialism (Bolivia), Muammar Gaddafi, National Electoral Court of Bolivia, Nationalist Democratic Action, NATO, Natural resource, Néstor Kirchner, Nelson Mandela, Neoliberalism, New Republican Force, Nobel Peace Prize, Office of Transition Initiatives, Opposition (parliamentary), Orinoca Canton, Oruro Department, Oruro, Bolivia, Pachamama, Palacio Quemado, Pando Department, Patrick Duddy, Peace Corps, Petrobras, Philip Goldberg, Pink tide, Placenta, Plurinational Legislative Assembly, Plurinationalism, Populism, Porvenir massacre, Postpartum bleeding, Potosí, President of Bolivia, President of Iran, President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations, Proletariat, Protest vote, Provisional government, Puppet state, Quechuan languages, Representative democracy, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Revolutionary Nationalist Movement, Ricardo Lagos, Rubén Costas, Sacaba, Salvador Allende, Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia), Shining Path, Shock therapy (economics), Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Social democracy, Social Democratic Power, Socialism, Socialist mode of production, South African general election, 1994, South American Energy Summit, South–South cooperation, Soybean, Spanish language, Sport Boys Warnes, State of emergency, State terrorism, Subsistence agriculture, Supermajority, Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Bolivia), Tarija, Term limit, The Guardian, Third World Quarterly, Time (magazine), Tiwanaku, Totalitarianism, Traditional medicine, Trinidad, Bolivia, UMOPAR, UNESCO, Unified Syndical Confederation of Rural Workers of Bolivia, Union of South American Nations, United Left (Bolivia), United Nations General Assembly, United States Agency for International Development, United States presidential election, 2008, USA Today, Villa Tunari, Villa Tunari Massacre, Vinto, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War on drugs, White Bolivians, World Bank, YPFB, Zapotec peoples, 2008 unrest in Bolivia, 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2011 Bolivian indigenous rights protests, 2011 military intervention in Libya, 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. 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An officer-elect refers to a person who has been elected to a position but has not yet been installed.
Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
The Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights was an annual human rights prize founded by the Libyan People's Congress in late 1988, in "indebtedness and gratitude for Muammar Gaddafi and in appreciation for his role in firmly establishing the principle of direct democracy, his persistent struggle, his distinctive inspiration and continuous instigation for the consolidation of human liberty and for issuing the Great Green Document in the era of the masses, for the purpose of bestowing tribute upon symbolic figures of struggle and faith in the values of freedom to all humans, nations, groups and individuals".
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alejo Véliz Lazo (born February 9, 1957) is a Bolivian politician and activist.
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana (December 5, 1792 in Huarina, Bolivia – September 25, 1865 in Beauvoir, France) served as the seventh President of Peru during 1827, the Interim President of Peru from 1836 to 1838 and President of Bolivia (1829–39).
The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Apu Mallku is an Aymara title meaning "supreme leader" or "king" conferred on a Mallku or "prince".
Arani is a province in Cochabamba Department, Bolivia.
The Assembly for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (Asamblea por la Soberanía de los Pueblos, ASP) was a political organization in Bolivia.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (born 19 October 1962), is a Bolivian politician who has been Vice President of Bolivia since 2006.
The Bank of the South (Banco del Sur, Banco do Sul, Bank van het Zuiden) or BancoSur is a monetary fund and lending organization established on 26 September 2009 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela with promises of initial capital of US$20 billion.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatriz Canedo Patiño (1950-2016) was a Bolivian fashion designer described as the "Queen of Alpaca" due to her use of textiles from camelids such as the vicuña, alpaca, and llama.
Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastern department of Bolivia, in the lowlands region of the country.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The boliviano (sign: BsBanco Central de Bolivia. "." Accessed 26 Feb 2011.Banco Central de Bolivia. Accessed 26 Feb 2011. ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Bolivia on 2 July 2006, alongside a referendum on increased regional autonomy.
A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on 25 January 2009, postponed from the initially planned dates of 4 May 2008 and then 7 December 2008.
Emblem of the Bolivian constitutional referendum, 2016 A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on Sunday, 21 February 2016.
The Bolivian gas conflict was a social confrontation in Bolivia reaching its peak in 2003, centering on the exploitation of the country's vast natural gas reserves.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 6 June 1993.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 1 June 1997.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 30 June 2002.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 18 December 2005.
The Bolivian general election, 2009 was held on December 6, 2009, following a constitutional referendum held on 25 January 2009.
The Bolivian general election, 2014 was Bolivia's second to take place under the country's 2009 constitution, and the first supervised by the Plurinational Electoral Organ, a newly created fourth branch of government.
Municipal elections were held in Bolivia, on December 5, 1999, in all 311 municipalities across the country.
The Bolivian National Congress 1997–2002 was elected on 1 June 1997.
A referendum on granting greater autonomy to the departments of Bolivia was held on 2 July 2006, IFES alongside elections for a Constitutional Assembly.
A vote of confidence in President Evo Morales in the form of a referendum was held in Bolivia on 10 August 2008.
Council of Ministers of Bolivia, or Cabinet of Bolivia, is part of the executive branch of the Bolivian government, consisting of the heads of the variable number of government ministries.
Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born August 12, 1953) is a Bolivian historian and former politician.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chapare, also called The Chapare and is pronounced Cha-pa-reh, is a rural province in the northern region of Cochabamba Department in central Bolivia.
Presidential elections were held in Chile on 4 September 1970.
Chulumani is a municipality in Bolivia.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Coca eradication is a strategy promoted by the United States government starting in 1961 as part of its "War on Drugs" to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaleros are the coca leaf growers of Peru and Bolivia.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
The Communist Party of Bolivia (Partido Comunista de Bolivia) is a communist party in Bolivia.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC; Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos; Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens; Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The current Constitution of Bolivia (Constitución Política del Estado; literally, the Political Constitution of the State) came into effect on February 7, 2009 when it was promulgated by President Evo Morales.
The Dassault Falcon 900 is a French-built corporate jet aircraft made by Dassault Aviation.
David Padilla Arancibia (13 August 1927 – 25 September 2016) was a military general and de facto president of Bolivia.
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007, by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine).
The Democratic and Popular Union (Spanish: Unidad Democrática y Popular) (1977–84) was a Bolivian umbrella political alliance uniting various smaller left-wing parties.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
The domestic policy of the Evo Morales administration refers to the domestic policy initiatives of the current President of Bolivia, including past pre-presidential advocacies by Morales.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is a former president of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
The socialist administration of Bolivian President Evo Morales maintains a strained relationship with the Bolivian hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
On 1 July 2013, president Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had been attending a conference of gas-exporting countries in Russia, appeared predisposed to offer asylum to Edward Snowden during an interview with RT.
An election exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations.
Falangism in Latin America has been a feature of political life since the 1930s as movements looked to the national syndicalist clerical fascism of the Spanish state and sought to apply it to other Spanish-speaking countries.
Felipe Quispe Huanca "El Mallku" (Aymara language: "condor") is an Aymara political leader in Bolivia.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The foreign policy of the Evo Morales administration concerns the policy initiatives made towards other states by the current President of Bolivia, in difference to past, or future, Bolivian foreign policy.
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA; Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLÉA; Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA; Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Glencore plc (an acronym for Global Energy Commodity Resources) is an Anglo–Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, and a registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey.
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez de Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as "Goni", is a Bolivian politician and businessman, who served as President of Bolivia for two non-consecutive terms.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gustavo Guzmán Sepúlveda holds a BA in Communications from the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), where he also studied a Master Degree in Business.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz.
Hernán Siles Zuazo (21 March 1914 – 6 August 1996) was a Bolivian politician who served as constitutionally elected president twice, from 1956 to 1960 and again from 1982 to 1985.
Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a Bolivian politician, military general and President of Bolivia.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples.
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is an international arbitration institution established in 1966 for legal dispute resolution and conciliation between international investors.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro Secure, TIPNIS) is a protected area and Native Community Land in Bolivia situated between the north of the Cochabamba Department and the south of the Beni Department (Chapare, Moxos, and Marbán provinces).
James Petras (born 17 January 1937) is a retired Bartle Professor (Emeritus) of Sociology at Binghamton University in Binghamton, New York and adjunct professor at Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who has published on political issues with particular focus on Latin America and the Middle East, imperialism, globalization, and leftist social movements.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Jorge Fernando Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) nicknamed Tuto Quiroga, was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to August 6, 2002.
The Journal of Latin American Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
Juan Fernando del Granado Cosío (born 26 March 1953) is a Bolivian human-rights lawyer and politician, mayor of La Paz (2000–2010) and founder of the Movement without Fear (Movimiento Sin Miedo, MSM), a progressive political party.
Juan Pereda Asbún (June 17, 1931 – November 25, 2012) was a former military general and dictator of Bolivia (1978).
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
Lake Poopó (Lago Poopó) is a large saline lake located in a shallow depression in the Altiplano Mountains in Oruro Department, Bolivia, at an altitude of approximately.
Latin American Perspectives, A Journal on Capitalism and Socialism, is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Latin American studies.
Law enforcement in Bolivia is based on the 31,000-strong Cuerpo de Policía Nacional (National Police Corps) responsible for internal security and maintaining law and order.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
Luis García Meza Tejada (8 August 1929 – 29 April 2018) was a Bolivian dictator.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Manfred Reyes Villa (born April 19, 1954) is a Bolivian politician former military officer and a successful business man.
Manuel Rocha is an American diplomat and former United States Ambassador to Bolivia.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mauricio Macri (born 8 February 1959) is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015.
The Media Luna (half moon) or Media Luna Ampliada (extended half-moon) refers to a group of four departments – Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, and Tarija – in Bolivia which became the geographic area of opposition to the national government led by Evo Morales and the Movement for Socialism (MAS).
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michel Chossudovsky (born 1946) is a Canadian economist, author and conspiracy theorist.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
The Movement for Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (Movimiento al Socialismo–Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos, abbreviated MAS-IPSP, or simply MAS), alternately referred to as "Movement Toward Socialism" or "Movement to Socialism" (Movimiento al Socialismo), is a Bolivian left-wing socialist political movement led by Evo Morales, founded in 1998.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The National Electoral Court (Corte Nacional Electoral) was the government-appointed court which oversaw elections and electoral results at all levels of Bolivian government from 1956 to 2010, and supervised nine Departmental Electoral Courts in each department.
Nationalist Democratic Action (in Spanish: Acción Democrática Nacionalista) is a right-wing political party in Bolivia led by Dr.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Néstor Carlos Kirchner (25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Republican Force (Spanish: Nueva Fuerza Republicana, NFR) is a center-right political party in Bolivia.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) is part of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA) and was developed to provide fast, flexible, short-term assistance to take advantage of windows of opportunity to build democracy and peace.
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system.
Orinoca is a district (cantón) in the Andamarca Municipality in the Bolivian Sud Carangas Province in Oruro Department.
Oruro is a department in Bolivia, with an area of.
Oruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uru Uru is a city in Bolivia with a population of 264,683 (2012 calculation), about halfway between La Paz and Sucre in the Altiplano, approximately above sea level.
Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
The Bolivian Palace of Government, better known as Palacio Quemado (Burnt Palace), is the official residence of the President of Bolivia.
Pando is a department in the North of Bolivia, with an area of, in the Amazon Rainforest, adjoining the border with Brazil and Perú.
Patrick Duddy is an American diplomat, formerly United States Ambassador to Venezuela.
The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government.
Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Philip Seth Goldberg (born August 1, 1956) is an American diplomat and government official, who serves as the Charge d'Affaires ad interim at the United States Embassy in Cuba.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
Plurinationality, plurinational, or plurinationalism is defined as the coexistence of two or more sealed or preserved national groups within a polity (an organized community or body of peoples).
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The Porvenir massacre (also, El Porvenir massacre, Pando massacre) was a deadly ambush in the early hours of September 11, 2008, allegedly organized by Prefectural authorities of the Bolivian Department of Pando, as part of a civil coup d'état against the government of Evo Morales by members of the right-wing civic movement.
Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.
Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
The President of Bolivia (Presidente de Bolivia) officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The President Pro Tempore of the Union of South American Nations is the head position and representant of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR).
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
A protest vote (also known as a blank vote or white vote) is a vote cast in an election to demonstrate the voter's dissatisfaction with the choice of candidates or refusal of the current political system.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.
The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, MNR) is a Bolivian political party and the leading force behind the Bolivian National Revolution.
Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born 2 March 1938) is a Chilean lawyer, economist and social democrat politician who served as President of Chile from 2000 to 2006.
Rubén Armando Costas Aguilera (born October 6, 1955 in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa Cruz) is a Bolivian politician and the current governor of Bolivia's Santa Cruz department for the Truth and Social Democracy (VERDES) party.
Sacaba is a capital city and a municipality in the Bolivian province of Chapare.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Santa Cruz, with an area of, is the largest of the nine constituent departments of Bolivia occupying about one-third (33,74%) of the territory of the country.
The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Power (Poder Democrático Social, PODEMOS) was a Bolivian political party based on pro-business goals.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
The South American Energy Summit is the name for one of a sequence of summits bringing together delegations from the countries of the Union of South American Nations to discuss energy related issues.
South–South Cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Club Sport Boys Warnes is a professional football team based in Warnes, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia that competes in the Bolivian Primera División.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia), based in Sucre, is the highest court of ordinary jurisdiction in Bolivia.
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia.
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Third World Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge, established in 1979.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trinidad, officially La Santísima Trinidad (The Most Holy Trinity), is a city in Bolivia, capital of the department of Beni.
The Unidad Móvil Policial para Áreas Rurales (UMOPAR) (Mobile Police Unit for Rural Areas), a subsidiary of the Special Antinarcotics Force (Fuerza Especial de Lucha Contra el Narcotráfico—FELCN) of the Bolivian National Police (Cuerpo de Policía Nacional) was created in 1987 and is a Bolivian anti-narcotics and counterinsurgency force which was founded by, and is funded, advised, equipped, and trained by the United States government as part of its "War on Drugs".
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Unified (or Sole) Syndical Confederation of Rural Workers of Bolivia (CSUTCB) is the largest union of peasants in Bolivia.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Left (Izquierda Unida, abbreviated IU) was a political coalition in Bolivia.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Villa Tunari or Tunari is a location in the department of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
The Villa Tunari Massacre or Battle of Villa Tunari was a 27 June 1988 mass killing committed by UMOPAR (Rural Patrol Mobile Unit) troops against peasants and cocaleros in the town of Villa Tunari in Chapare Province, Bolivia.
Vinto is a town in the Cochabamba Department in central Bolivia.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
White Bolivians or European Bolivians are Bolivian people whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably Spain and Germany, and to a lesser extent, Italy and Croatia.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is the state-owned oil and gas company of Bolivia.
The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
The 2008 unrest in Bolivia began with protests against President Evo Morales and calls for greater autonomy for the country's eastern departments.
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.
The 2011 Bolivian protests were a series of demonstrations by indigenous peoples who opposed the construction of the Villa Tunari – San Ignacio de Moxos Highway through the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory, similar to the Trans-Amazonian Highway in Brazil, the ancestral lands of over 12,000 indigenous residents, from the Chimane, Yuracaré, and Mojeño-Trinitario peoples.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.