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Index Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. [1]

631 relations: ABC-CLIO, Abiotic component, Academic Press, Adaptation, Adaptive radiation, Age of the Earth, Albinism, Alfred Russel Wallace, Allele, Allele frequency, Allopatric speciation, Almost Like a Whale, Alternatives to evolution by natural selection, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Astronomical Society, American Dental Association, American Genetic Association, American Institute of Biological Sciences, American Journal of Human Genetics, American Journal of Medical Genetics, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Human Genetics, American Society of Naturalists, Amino acid, Amniote, Amphibian, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Anagenesis, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Annual Review of Biophysics, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Annual Reviews (publisher), Ant, Anthoxanthum, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, Antimicrobial resistance, Ape, Appendix (anatomy), Appleton-Century-Crofts, Applied Probability Trust, Arabidopsis arenosa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Argument from poor design, Aristotelianism, Arthropod, Artificial intelligence, Artificial life, ..., Asexual reproduction, Associated Press, Assortative mating, Astrobiology (journal), Atavism, Atmosphere, August Weismann, Australia, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteria, Baldwin effect, Basic Books, Bat, Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model, Bdelloidea, Bee, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Biochemistry, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Biodegradation (journal), Biodiversity, BioEssays, Biogenic substance, Biological anthropology, Biological organisation, Biological pigment, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Biology, Biology Direct, Biomass (ecology), BioMed Central, Biopolymer, BioScience, Biotic component, Biotic material, Bird, Birkhäuser, Blending inheritance, Brown algae, Callosobruchus chinensis, Cambrian explosion, Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge University Press, Canalisation (genetics), Cancer, Carcinogenesis, Carl Linnaeus, Cell (biology), Cell (journal), Cell nucleus, Cell Press, Cengage, Chapman & Hall, Character displacement, Charles Darwin, ChemBioChem, Chicken, Chloroplast, Christian, Chromatin, Chromosome, Citric acid, Classical genetics, Co-operation (evolution), Coccyx, Coevolution, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Colin Patterson (biologist), Collier Books, Colony (biology), Columbia University Press, Common descent, Common garter snake, Comparative anatomy, Competitive exclusion principle, Computer science, Cone cell, Cornell University Press, Cosmos, Creation and evolution in public education, Creation myth, Creationism, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodile, Crossbreed, Crust (geology), Crystallin, Current Biology, Current Opinion (Elsevier), Cyanobacteria, Cytoplasm, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Darwinism, De rerum natura, Deep homology, Development (journal), Developmental biology, Developmental plasticity, Directed evolution, Directional selection, Disruptive selection, Divinity, DNA, DNA methylation, DNA sequencing, Dollo's law of irreversibility, Domain (biology), Domestication, Donkey, Doubleday (publisher), Drosophila melanogaster, Drug metabolism, Dual inheritance theory, E. coli long-term evolution experiment, Earliest known life forms, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth science, Ecological inheritance, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Ediacaran biota, Effective population size, Egg cell, Ehrlichia, Elsevier, Embryogenesis, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Endospore, Endosymbiont, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Eoarchean, Epigenetics, Epperson v. Arkansas, Erasmus Darwin, Ernst Mayr, Escherichia coli, Eugene Odum, Eukaryote, European Society for Evolutionary Biology, Eusociality, Evidence of common descent, Evolution & Development, Evolution (journal), Evolution of biological complexity, Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles, Evolution of morality, Evolution strategy, Evolutionary algorithm, Evolutionary anthropology, Evolutionary arms race, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary computation, Evolutionary developmental biology, Evolutionary ecology, Evolutionary epistemology, Evolutionary history of life, Evolutionary history of plants, Evolutionary neuroscience, Evolutionary psychology, Evolutionism, Evolvability, Exaptation, Excite, Experiment, Experimental evolution, Explanation, Extended evolutionary synthesis, Extinction, Extinction event, Eye, Eye color, Fact, Fecundity, Federation of European Microbiological Societies, Fitness (biology), Fixation (population genetics), Flagellum, Flavobacterium, Food chain, Fossil, Founder effect, Francis Crick, Function (biology), Fungus, Gamete, Gene, Gene (journal), Gene duplication, Gene family, Gene flow, Gene pool, Gene product, Gene redundancy, Gene regulatory network, Generation, Genetic admixture, Genetic algorithm, Genetic assimilation, Genetic disorder, Genetic drift, Genetic engineering, Genetic hitchhiking, Genetic linkage, Genetic programming, Genetic recombination, Genetic variation, Genetica, Genetics (journal), Genetics Society of America, Genome, Genome Research, Genotype, Geological Society of London, Georges Cuvier, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Germ cell, Global warming, Glycolysis, Goose bumps, Graphite, Gray tree frog, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gregor Mendel, Group selection, Habitat, Habitat fragmentation, Hadean, Handicap principle, Haplotype, Hardy–Weinberg principle, Harvard University Press, Herbicide, Heredity, Heredity (journal), Heritability, Holocene extinction, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Homininae, Homo sapiens, Homologous chromosome, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Horizontal gene transfer, Horse, Host (biology), Hugo de Vries, Human, Human evolution, Human vestigiality, Hybrid (biology), Hybrid speciation, Hydrogenosome, Immune system, Inbreeding, Independence (probability theory), Infertility, Infobase Publishing, Ingo Rechenberg, Insect, Intelligent design, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, International Microbiology, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Isis (journal), J. B. S. Haldane, James Watson, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Henry Holland, John Maynard Smith, John Murray (publisher), John Ray, John Wiley & Sons, Johns Hopkins University Press, Journal of Biosciences, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Journal of Heredity, Journal of Human Genetics, Journal of Molecular Biology, Journal of Molecular Evolution, Journal of Morphology, Journal of the American Dental Association, Journal of Virology, Kin selection, Kitaa, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Laboratory experiments of speciation, Lamarckism, Largest-scale trends in evolution, Last universal common ancestor, Life, Linkage disequilibrium, Linnean Society of London, Locus (genetics), Lucretius, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Macroevolution, Mammal, Manfred Eigen, Marcel Dekker, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Materialism, Maternal effect, Mathematical and theoretical biology, McGraw-Hill Education, Medication, Medicine, Meiosis, Meiotic drive, Mendelian inheritance, Mercer University Press, Metabolic pathway, Metasedimentary rock, Mexican tetra, Michigan State University, Microbial mat, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Mindspark Interactive Network, MIT Press, Mitochondrion, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Molecular biology, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Molecular clock, Molecular Ecology, Molecular evolution, Molecular genetics, Molecular machine, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Molecule, Morphology (biology), Most recent common ancestor, Mouse, Mule, Multicellular organism, Multimodal distribution, Mutation, Mutationism, Mycorrhiza, Myxobacteria, National Academy of Sciences, National Association of Biology Teachers, National Association of Geoscience Teachers, National Museum of Natural History, National Research Council (Canada), National Science Foundation, Natural history, Natural selection, Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Nature (journal), Nature (philosophy), Nature Geoscience, Nature Reviews Cancer, Nature Reviews Genetics, Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, Neo-Darwinism, Neutral mutation, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, New Scientist, New York Academy of Sciences, Niche construction, Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution, Nucleotide, Nylon, Objections to evolution, Observational study, Offspring, On the Origin of Species, On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection, Organism, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Orthogenesis, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Paleobiology (journal), Paleontological Society, Paleontology, Pangenesis, Panmixia, Parapatric speciation, Pasteur Institute, Pathogen, Penguin Books, Pentachlorophenol, Peppered moth, Peppered moth evolution, Peripatric speciation, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Perseus Project, Pesticide, Phenotype, Phenotypic plasticity, Philosopher, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Philosophie Zoologique, Philosophy of Science (journal), Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Physical cosmology, Physical law, Physiology, Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Planta (journal), PLOS, PLOS Biology, PLOS Genetics, Poet, Polish Academy of Sciences, Politics, Pollen, Polyketide synthase, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Population, Population genetics, Potentiality and actuality, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Precambrian Research, Predation, Primate, Primitive reflexes, Princeton University Press, Prion, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Project Steve, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein domain, Protein structure, Pseudogene, Pseudoscience, Punctuated equilibrium, Quantitative trait locus, Random House, Random walk, Reciprocity (evolution), Red Queen hypothesis, Reinforcement (speciation), Religion, Religious text, Reproduction, Reproduction (journal), Reproductive isolation, Reptile, Reuters, RNA, RNA interference, Rod cell, Ronald Fisher, Rough Guides, Rough-skinned newt, Routledge, Royal College of Ophthalmologists, Royal Society, Rutgers University, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sampling bias, Sampling error, Sandstone, Saunders (imprint), Science (journal), Scientific American, Scientific method, Scientific theory, Scopes Trial, Selectable marker, Selective sweep, Sewall Wright, Sex, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Shifting balance theory, Signal transduction, Simon & Schuster, Sinauer Associates, Slime mold, Smithsonian Institution, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Society for the Study of Evolution, Society of Systematic Biologists, Somatic cell, Speciation, Species, Species problem, Sperm, Sphingobium, Sponge, Spontaneous generation, Springer Science+Business Media, Stabilizing selection, Structure (journal), Sun tanning, Sunburn, Superseded scientific theories, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Sympatric speciation, Systematic Biology, Systematics, Systematics and the Origin of Species, TalkOrigins Archive, Taxon, Taxonomy (biology), Telegraph Media Group, Teleology, Teleology in biology, Teleonomy, Termite, Tetrodotoxin, The American Naturalist, The Astrophysical Journal, The Blind Watchmaker, The British Journal for the History of Science, The Company of Biologists, The Daily Telegraph, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, The Genetics Society, The Growth of Biological Thought, The International Journal of Developmental Biology, The Major Transitions in Evolution, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, The Quarterly Review of Biology, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature, The Science of Nature, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, The Theory of Evolution, Theism, Theistic evolution, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Theory of forms, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Robert Malthus, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Transitional fossil, Translocase of the inner membrane, Transposable element, Tree of life (biology), Trends (journals), Tufts University, Unicellular organism, Unit of selection, United States Geological Survey, Universal Darwinism, Universe, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of California Press, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press, University of Illinois Press, University of Leeds, University of Michigan Press, University of the Basque Country, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vancouver Island University, Variance, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Vestigiality, Veterinary medicine, Viking Press, Virus, W. W. Norton & Company, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Western Australia, Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley-VCH, William Ellery Leonard, William Paley, Wisdom tooth, Wonderful Life (book), Yale University Press, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Expand index (581 more) »


ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.

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Abiotic component

In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.

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Age of the Earth

The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.

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Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.

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Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Allele frequency

Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.

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Allopatric speciation

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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Almost Like a Whale

Almost like a Whale by Steve Jones is a modern introduction to Charles Darwin's Origin of Species and closely follows its structure.

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Alternatives to evolution by natural selection

Alternatives to evolution by natural selection, also described as non-Darwinian mechanisms of evolution, have been proposed by scholars investigating biology since classical times to explain signs of evolution and the relatedness of different groups of living things.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Astronomical Society

The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.

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American Dental Association

The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members.

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American Genetic Association

The American Genetic Association (AGA), formerly the American Breeders' Association, is a USA-based learned society dedicated to the study of genetics.

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American Institute of Biological Sciences

The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is a non-profit scientific association that is dedicated to advancing biological research and education.

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American Journal of Human Genetics

The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.

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American Journal of Medical Genetics

American Journal of Medical Genetics is a peer-reviewed medical journal dealing with human genetics published in three separate sections (parts) by Wiley-Liss.

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American Society for Microbiology

The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.

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American Society of Human Genetics

The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), founded in 1948, is the primary professional membership organization for specialists in human genetics worldwide.

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American Society of Naturalists

The American Society of Naturalists was founded in 1883 and is one of the oldest professional societies dedicated to the biological sciences in North America.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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An Essay on the Principle of Population

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

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Anagenesis is an evolutionary pattern defined by a gradual change that occurs in a species without the need for splitting.

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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences.

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Annual Review of Biophysics

The Annual Review of Biophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews covering all aspects of biophysics.

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Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics

The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

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Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Anthoxanthum, commonly known as hornwort, vernal grasses, or vernalgrasses, (Latinised Greek for "yellow blossom"), is a genus of plants in the grass family.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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Appendix (anatomy)

The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.

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Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. was a division of the Meredith Publishing Company.

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Applied Probability Trust

The Applied Probability Trust is a UK-based non-profit foundation for study and research in the mathematical sciences, founded in 1964 and based at the University of Sheffield.

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Arabidopsis arenosa

Arabidopsis arenosa, the sand rock-cress, is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Argument from poor design

The argument from poor design, also known as the dysteleological argument, is an argument against the existence of a creator God, based on the reasoning that an omnipotent and omnibenevolent God would not create organisms with the perceived suboptimal designs that can be seen in nature.

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Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Artificial life

Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Assortative mating

Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.

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Astrobiology (journal)

Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.

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In biology, an atavism is a modification of a biological structure whereby an ancestral trait reappears after having been lost through evolutionary change in previous generations.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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August Weismann

August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baldwin effect

In evolutionary biology, the Baldwin effect describes the effect of learned behavior on evolution.

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Basic Books

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model

The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about.

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Bdelloidea (Greek βδελλα, bdella, "leech-like") is a class of rotifers found in freshwater habitats all over the world.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary established in 1978 by Stevan Harnad and published by Cambridge University Press.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of biochemistry and biophysics that was established in 1947.

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Biodegradation (journal)

Biodegradation is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering biotransformation, mineralization, detoxification, recycling, amelioration or treatment of chemicals or waste materials by naturally occurring microbial strains, microbial associations or recombinant organisms.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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BioEssays is a monthly peer-reviewed review journal covering molecular and cellular biology.

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Biogenic substance

A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.

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Biological anthropology

Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.

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Biological organisation

Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.

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Biological pigment

Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.

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Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) is an educational center that develops curricular materials, provides educational support, and conducts research and evaluation in the fields of science and technology.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biology Direct

Biology Direct is an online open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research papers, reviews, hypotheses, comments and discovery notes in biology.

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Biomass (ecology)

Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.

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BioMed Central

BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.

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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

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Biotic component

Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.

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Biotic material

Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.

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Blending inheritance

Blending inheritance is an obsolete theory in biology from the 19th century.

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Brown algae

The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.

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Callosobruchus chinensis

Callosobruchus chinensis is a common species of beetle found in the bean weevil subfamily, and is known to be a pest to many stored legumes.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Cambridge Philosophical Society

The Cambridge Philosophical Society (CPS) is a scientific society at the University of Cambridge.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canalisation (genetics)

Canalisation is a measure of the ability of a population to produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of its environment or genotype.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell Press

Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier, is a publisher of biomedical journals, including Cell and Neuron.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Chapman & Hall

Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.

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Character displacement

Character displacement is the phenomenon where differences among similar species whose distributions overlap geographically are accentuated in regions where the species co-occur, but are minimized or lost where the species’ distributions do not overlap.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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ChemBioChem is a peer-reviewed journal of chemical biology, synthetic biology and bio-nanotechnology co-owned by 14 European chemical society members of ChemPubSoc Europe and published by Wiley-VCH.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Classical genetics

Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.

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Co-operation (evolution)

In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.

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The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.

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In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.

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Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press was founded in 1933 to aid in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's purpose of furthering the advance and spread of scientific knowledge.

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Colin Patterson (biologist)

Colin Patterson FRS (1933–1998), was a British palaeontologist at the Natural History Museum in London from 1962 to his official retirement in 1993 who specialised in fossil fish and systematics, advocating the transformed cladistics school.

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Collier Books

Collier Books was a publisher established by the Collier family.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Common garter snake

The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a species of natricine snake, which is indigenous to North America and found widely across the continent.

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Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.

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Competitive exclusion principle

In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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The cosmos is the universe.

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Creation and evolution in public education

The status of creation and evolution in public education has been the subject of substantial debate and conflict in legal, political, and religious circles.

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Creation myth

A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.

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Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.

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Current Biology

Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.

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Current Opinion (Elsevier)

Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Darwin's Dangerous Idea

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life is a 1995 book by Daniel Dennett, in which the author looks at some of the repercussions of Darwinian theory.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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De rerum natura

De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.

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Deep homology

In evolutionary developmental biology, the concept of deep homology is used to describe cases where growth and differentiation processes are governed by genetic mechanisms that are homologous and deeply conserved across a wide range of species.

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Development (journal)

Development is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of developmental biology that covers cellular and molecular mechanisms of animal and plant development.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Developmental plasticity

Developmental plasticity is a general term referring to changes in neural connections during development as a result of environmental interactions as well as neural changes induced by learning.

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Directed evolution

Directed evolution (DE, "gelenkte Evolution") is a method used in protein engineering that mimics the process of natural selection to evolve proteins or nucleic acids toward a user-defined goal.

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Directional selection

In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.

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Disruptive selection

Disruptive selection, also called diversifying selection, describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values.

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In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Dollo's law of irreversibility

Dollo's law of irreversibility (also known as Dollo's law and Dollo's principle), proposed in 1893 by French-born Belgian paleontologist Louis Dollo states that, "an organism never returns exactly to a former state, even if it finds itself placed in conditions of existence identical to those in which it has previously lived...

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Doubleday (publisher)

Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Dual inheritance theory

Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution.

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E. coli long-term evolution experiment

The E. coli long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988.

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Earliest known life forms

The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.

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Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Ecological inheritance

Ecological inheritance is the passing on to descendants of inherited resources and conditions, and associated modified selection pressures, through niche construction.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Ediacaran biota

The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).

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Effective population size

The effective population size is "the number of individuals in a population who contribute offspring to the next generation," or all the breeding adults in that population.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Ehrlichia is a genus of rickettsiales bacteria that is transmitted to vertebrates by ticks.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Environment (biophysical)

A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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The Eoarchean (also spelled Eoarchaean) is the first era of the Archean Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Epperson v. Arkansas

Epperson v. Arkansas,, was a United States Supreme Court case that invalidated an Arkansas statute that prohibited the teaching of human evolution in the public schools.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Eugene Odum

Eugene Pleasants Odum (September 17, 1913 – August 10, 2002) was an American biologist at the University of Georgia known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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European Society for Evolutionary Biology

The European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB) was founded in 1987.

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Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

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Evidence of common descent

Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor.

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Evolution & Development

Evolution & Development is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing material at the interface of evolutionary and developmental biology.

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Evolution (journal)

Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a monthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events.

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Evolution of biological complexity

The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.

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Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles

The evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles was an evolutionary event in which bones in the jaw of reptiles were co-opted to form part of the hearing apparatus in mammals.

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Evolution of morality

The evolution of morality refers to the emergence of human moral behavior over the course of human evolution.

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Evolution strategy

In computer science, an evolution strategy (ES) is an optimization technique based on ideas of evolution.

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Evolutionary algorithm

In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.

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Evolutionary anthropology

Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.

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Evolutionary arms race

In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is a struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary computation

In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms.

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Evolutionary developmental biology

Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.

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Evolutionary ecology

Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection of ecology and evolutionary biology.

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Evolutionary epistemology

Evolutionary epistemology refers to three distinct topics: (1) the biological evolution of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans, (2) a theory that knowledge itself evolves by natural selection, and (3) the study of the historical discovery of new abstract entities such as abstract number or abstract value that necessarily precede the individual acquisition and usage of such abstractions.

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Evolutionary history of life

The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.

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Evolutionary history of plants

The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.

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Evolutionary neuroscience

Evolutionary neuroscience is the scientific study of the evolution of nervous systems.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.

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Evolvability is defined as the capacity of a system for adaptive evolution.

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Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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Excite (stylized as excite) is an internet portal launched in December 1995 that provides a variety of content including news and weather, a metasearch engine, a web-based email, instant messaging, stock quotes, and a customizable user homepage.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Experimental evolution

Experimental evolution is the use of laboratory experiments or controlled field manipulations to explore evolutionary dynamics.

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An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.

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Extended evolutionary synthesis

The extended evolutionary synthesis consists of a set of theoretical concepts more comprehensive than the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Eye color

Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.

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A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.

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In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.

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Federation of European Microbiological Societies

Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS) is an international European scientific organization, formed by the union of a number of national organizations; there are now 52 members from 37 European countries, regular and provisional.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Fixation (population genetics)

In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flavobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Founder effect

In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene (journal)

Gene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in genetics, focusing on the cloning, structure, and function of genes.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Gene family

A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions.

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Gene flow

In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.

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Gene pool

The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.

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Gene product

A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.

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Gene redundancy

Gene redundancy is the existence of multiple genes in the genome of an organism that perform the same function.

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Gene regulatory network

A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.

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A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.

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Genetic admixture

Genetic admixture occurs when two or more previously isolated and genetically differentiated populations begin interbreeding.

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Genetic algorithm

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).

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Genetic assimilation

Genetic assimilation is a process by which a phenotype originally produced in response to an environmental condition, such as exposure to a teratogen, later becomes genetically encoded via artificial selection or natural selection.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetic hitchhiking

Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetic programming

In artificial intelligence, genetic programming (GP) is a technique whereby computer programs are encoded as a set of genes that are then modified (evolved) using an evolutionary algorithm (often a genetic algorithm, "GA") – it is an application of (for example) genetic algorithms where the space of solutions consists of computer programs.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetic variation

Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.

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Genetica is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in genetics and evolutionary biology.

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Genetics (journal)

Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Genetics Society of America

The Genetics Society of America (GSA) is a scholarly membership society of more than 5,500 genetics researchers and educators, established in 1931.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome Research

Genome Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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Geological Society of London

The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.

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Germ cell

A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Goose bumps

Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Gray tree frog

The gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) is a species of small arboreal frog native to much of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Group selection

Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Habitat fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.

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The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.

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Handicap principle

The handicap principle is a hypothesis originally proposed in 1975 by Israeli biologist Amotz Zahavi to explain how evolution may lead to "honest" or reliable signaling between animals which have an obvious motivation to bluff or deceive each other.

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Hardy–Weinberg principle

The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Heredity (journal)

Heredity is a scientific journal concerned with heredity in a biological sense, i.e. genetics.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Holocene extinction

The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.

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Holtzbrinck Publishing Group

Holtzbrinck Publishing Group is a privately-held Stuttgart-based company which owns publishing companies worldwide.

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Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Homologous chromosome

A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Hugo de Vries

Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Human vestigiality

In the context of human evolution, human vestigiality involves those traits (such as organs or behaviors) occurring in humans that have lost all or most of their original function through evolution.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hybrid speciation

Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.

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A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

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Independence (probability theory)

In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.

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Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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Ingo Rechenberg

Ingo Rechenberg (born November 20, 1934 in Berlin) is a German researcher and professor currently in the field of bionics.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Intelligent design

Intelligent design (ID) is a religious argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins",Numbers 2006, p. 373; " captured headlines for its bold attempt to rewrite the basic rules of science and its claim to have found indisputable evidence of a God-like being.

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International Journal of Medical Microbiology

The International Journal of Medical Microbiology, formerly the Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on microbiology published by Elsevier.

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International Microbiology

International Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer and the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology.

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International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Isis (journal)

Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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John Henry Holland

John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929 – August 9, 2015) was an American scientist and Professor of psychology and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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John Maynard Smith

John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.

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John Murray (publisher)

John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.

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John Ray

John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Journal of Biosciences

The Journal of Biosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru, India.

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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

The Journal of Evolutionary Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of evolutionary biology.

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Journal of Heredity

The Journal of Heredity is a peer-reviewed scientific journal concerned with heredity in a biological sense, covering all aspects of genetics.

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Journal of Human Genetics

The Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human genetics and genomics.

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Journal of Molecular Biology

The Journal of Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published weekly by Elsevier.

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Journal of Molecular Evolution

The Journal of Molecular Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers molecular evolution.

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Journal of Morphology

The Journal of Morphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of anatomy and morphology featuring primary research articles, review articles, and meeting abstracts.

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Journal of the American Dental Association

The Journal of the American Dental Association is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal on dentistry published by the American Dental Association.

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Journal of Virology

The Journal of Virology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research concerning all aspects of virology.

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Kin selection

Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.

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Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland.

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Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District

Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 (M.D. Pa. 2005) was the first direct challenge brought in the United States federal courts testing a public school district policy that required the teaching of intelligent design.

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Laboratory experiments of speciation

Laboratory experiments of speciation have been conducted for all four modes of speciation: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric; and various other processes involving speciation: hybridization, reinforcement, founder effects, among others.

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Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.

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Largest-scale trends in evolution

The history of life on Earth seems to show a clear trend; for example, it seems intuitive that there is a trend towards increasing complexity in living organisms.

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Last universal common ancestor

The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Linkage disequilibrium

In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.

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Linnean Society of London

The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.

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Macmillan Publishers (United States)

Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.

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Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Manfred Eigen

Manfred Eigen (born 9 May 1927) is a German biophysical chemist who won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work on measuring fast chemical reactions.

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Marcel Dekker

Marcel Dekker was a journal and encyclopedia publishing company with editorial boards found in New York, New York.

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Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Maternal effect

A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother.

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Mathematical and theoretical biology

Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Meiotic drive

Meiotic drive is a type of intragenomic conflict, whereby one or more loci within a genome will affect a manipulation of the meiotic process in such a way as to favor the transmission of one or more alleles over another, regardless of its phenotypic expression.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Mercer University Press

Mercer University Press, established in 1979, is a publisher that is part of Mercer University.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metasedimentary rock

In geology, metasedimentary rock is a type of metamorphic rock.

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Mexican tetra

The Mexican tetra or blind cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus) is a freshwater fish of the family Characidae of the order Characiformes.

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Michigan State University

Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.

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Microbial mat

A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.

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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (published as MMBR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mindspark Interactive Network

Mindspark Interactive Network, Inc. was an operating business unit of IAC known for the development and marketing of entertainment and personal computing software, as well as mobile application development.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Modern synthesis (20th century)

The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

Molecular Aspects of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal for clinicians of all relevant specialities and biomedical scientists working in areas from biochemistry and molecular and cell biology to physiology, pharmacology and pathology.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular Biology and Evolution

Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Molecular Ecology

Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.

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Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Molecular machine

A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).

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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Multimodal distribution

In statistics, a bimodal distribution is a continuous probability distribution with two different modes.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutationism is one of several alternatives to evolution by natural selection that have existed both before and after the publication of Charles Darwin's 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.

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A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic substances.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Association of Biology Teachers

The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) is an American-based scholarly society.

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National Association of Geoscience Teachers

The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) purpose is to foster improvement in the teaching of the earth sciences at all levels of formal and informal instruction, to emphasize the cultural significance of the earth sciences, and to disseminate knowledge in this field to the general public.

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National Museum of Natural History

The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.

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National Research Council (Canada)

The National Research Council (NRC, Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national research and technology organization (RTO) of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity

Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity is an 1802 work of Christian apologetics and philosophy of religion by the English clergyman William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805).

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature (philosophy)

Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.

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Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nature Reviews Cancer

Nature Reviews Cancer is a monthly review journal covering the field of oncology.

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Nature Reviews Genetics

Nature Reviews Genetics is a monthly review journal in genetics and covers the full breadth of modern genetics.

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Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution

The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution is a modification of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that accounts for the fact that not all mutations are either so deleterious such that they can be ignored, or else neutral.

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Neo-Darwinism is the interpretation of Darwinian evolution through natural selection as it has variously been modified since it was first proposed.

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Neutral mutation

Neutral mutations are changes in DNA sequence that are neither beneficial nor detrimental to the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce.

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Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New York Academy of Sciences

The New York Academy of Sciences (originally the Lyceum of Natural History) was founded in January 1817.

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Niche construction

Niche construction is the process by which an organism alters its own (or another species') local environment.

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Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

"Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution" is a 1973 essay by the evolutionary biologist and Eastern Orthodox Christian Theodosius Dobzhansky, criticising anti-evolution creationism and espousing theistic evolution.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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Objections to evolution

Objections to evolution have been raised since evolutionary ideas came to prominence in the 19th century.

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Observational study

In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

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In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection is the title of a joint presentation of two scientific papers to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858: On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Russel Wallace and an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species from Charles Darwin's Essay of 1844, together with an Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres

Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1968 covering astrobiology and origins of life research.

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Orthogenesis, also known as orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution, evolutionary progress, or progressionism, is the biological hypothesis that organisms have an innate tendency to evolve in a definite direction towards some goal (teleology) due to some internal mechanism or "driving force".

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paleobiology (journal)

Paleobiology is a scientific journal promoting the integration of biology and conventional paleontology, with emphasis placed on biological or paleobiological processes and patterns.

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Paleontological Society

The Paleontological Society, formerly the Paleontological Society of America, is an international organisation devoted to the promotion of paleontology.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.

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Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.

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Parapatric speciation

In parapatric speciation, two subpopulations of a species evolve reproductive isolation from one another while continuing to exchange genes.

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Pasteur Institute

The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant.

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Peppered moth

The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.

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Peppered moth evolution

The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution.

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Peripatric speciation

Peripatric speciation is a mode of speciation in which a new species is formed from an isolated peripheral population.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Perseus Project

The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Philosophie Zoologique

Philosophie Zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism.

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Philosophy of Science (journal)

Philosophy of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Philosophy of Science Association.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

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Planta (journal)

Planta is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all areas of botany.

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PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.

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PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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PLOS Genetics

PLOS Genetics is an open access peer-reviewed genetics-focused journal established in 2005 by the non-profit organization Public Library of Science (PLOS).

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A poet is a person who creates poetry.

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Polish Academy of Sciences

The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Polyketide synthase

Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a family of multi-domain enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and a few animal lineages.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Potentiality and actuality

In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.

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Pre-Socratic philosophy

A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.

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Precambrian Research

Precambrian Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the geology of the Earth and its planetary neighbors.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Primitive reflexes

Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Project Steve

Project Steve is a list of scientists with the given name Stephen/Steven or a variation thereof (e.g., Stephanie, Stefan, Esteban, etc.) who "support evolution".

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Punctuated equilibrium

Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record the population will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of its geological history.

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Quantitative trait locus

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Random walk

A random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on some mathematical space such as the integers.

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Reciprocity (evolution)

Reciprocity in evolutionary biology refers to mechanisms whereby the evolution of cooperative or altruistic behaviour may be favoured by the probability of future mutual interactions.

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Red Queen hypothesis

The Red Queen hypothesis, also referred to as Red Queen's, Red Queen's race or the Red Queen effect, is an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving opposing organisms in an ever-changing environment.

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Reinforcement (speciation)

Reinforcement (sometimes called secondary contact) is a process of speciation where natural selection increases the reproductive isolation between two populations of species.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reproduction (journal)

Reproduction is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the cellular and molecular biology of reproduction, including the development of gametes and early embryos in all species; developmental processes such as cell differentiation, morphogenesis and related regulatory mechanisms in normal and disease models, assisted reproductive technologies in model systems and in a clinical environment, and reproductive endocrinology, immunology and physiology.

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Reproductive isolation

The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA interference

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.

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Rough Guides

Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.

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Rough-skinned newt

The rough-skinned newt or roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa) is a North American newt known for the strong toxin exuded from its skin.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal College of Ophthalmologists

The Royal College of Ophthalmologists, founded in 1988, is an independent professional body and one of the Medical Royal Colleges.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

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Sampling error

In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Saunders (imprint)

Saunders is an academic publisher based in the United States.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scientific theory

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.

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Scopes Trial

The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school.

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Selectable marker

A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.

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Selective sweep

In genetics, a selective sweep is the reduction or elimination of variation among the nucleotides near a mutation in DNA.

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Sewall Wright

Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Shifting balance theory

The shifting balance theory is a theory of evolution proposed in 1932 by Sewall Wright, suggesting that adaptive evolution may proceed most quickly when a population divides into subpopulations with restricted gene flow.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Sinauer Associates

Sinauer Associates, Inc. is a publisher of college-level textbooks.

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Slime mold

Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology

The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology is organized to integrate the many fields of specialization which occur in the broad field of biology.

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Society for the Study of Evolution

The Society for the Study of Evolution is a professional organization of evolutionary biologists.

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Society of Systematic Biologists

The Society of Systematic Biologists (SSB) started as the Society of Systematic Zoology in 1947.

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Somatic cell

A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species problem

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Sphingobium species are different from other sphingomonads in that they are commonly isolated from soil; however, Sphingobium yanoikuyae was isolated from a clinical specimen.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Spontaneous generation

Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stabilizing selection

Stabilizing selection (not to be confused with negative or purifying selection) is a type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value.

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Structure (journal)

Structure is a peer-reviewed scientific journal founded by Wayne Hendrickson, Carl-Ivar Brändén and Alan R. Fersht in September 1993.

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Sun tanning

Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned.

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Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

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Superseded scientific theories

A superseded, or obsolete, scientific theory is a scientific theory that the mainstream scientific community once widely accepted, but now considers an inadequate or incomplete description of reality, or simply false.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Sympatric speciation

Sympatric speciation is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.

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Systematic Biology

Systematic Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Systematics and the Origin of Species

Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist is a book written by zoologist and evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr, first published in 1942 by Columbia University Press.

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TalkOrigins Archive

The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Telegraph Media Group

The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Teleology in biology

Teleology in biology is the use of the language of goal-directedness in accounts of evolutionary adaptation, which some biologists and philosophers of science find problematic.

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Teleonomy is the quality of apparent purposefulness and of goal-directedness of structures and functions in living organisms brought about by the exercise, augmentation, and, improvement of reasoning.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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The Blind Watchmaker

The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

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The British Journal for the History of Science

The British Journal for the History of Science (a.k.a. BJHS) is an international academic journal published quarterly by Cambridge University Press in association with the British Society for the History of Science.

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The Company of Biologists

The Company of Biologists is a UK-based charity and not-for-profit publisher that was established in 1925 by George Parker Bidder III with the aim of promoting research and study across all branches of biology.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).

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The Genetics Society

The Genetics Society is a British learned society.

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The Growth of Biological Thought

The Growth of Biological Thought (992 pages, Belknap Press) is a book written by Ernst Mayr, first published in 1982.

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The International Journal of Developmental Biology

The International Journal of Developmental Biology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research in developmental biology.

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The Major Transitions in Evolution

The Major Transitions in Evolution is a book written by John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry (Oxford University Press, 1995).

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New York Times Company

The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.

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The Quarterly Review of Biology

The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.

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The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature is a popular science book by Matt Ridley exploring the evolutionary psychology of sexual selection.

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The Science of Nature

The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.

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The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002) is Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould's technical book on macroevolution and the historical development of evolutionary theory.

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The Theory of Evolution

The Theory of Evolution is a book by English evolutionary biologist and geneticist John Maynard Smith, originally published in 1958 in time for 150th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the centenary of the publication of The Origin of Species the following year.

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Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.

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Theistic evolution

Theistic evolution, theistic evolutionism, evolutionary creationism or God-guided evolution are views that regard religious teachings about God as compatible with modern scientific understanding about biological evolution.

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Theodosius Dobzhansky

Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.

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Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.

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Transitional fossil

A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.

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Translocase of the inner membrane

The translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) is a complex of proteins found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the mitochondria.

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Trends (journals)

Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.

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Tufts University

Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Unit of selection

A unit of selection is a biological entity within the hierarchy of biological organization (for example, an entity such as: a self-replicating molecule, a gene, a cell, an organism, a group, or a species) that is subject to natural selection.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Universal Darwinism

Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of California Museum of Paleontology

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Illinois Press

The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.

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University of Leeds

The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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University of the Basque Country

The University of the Basque Country (Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, EHU; Universidad del País Vasco, UPV; UPV/EHU) is the public university of the Basque Autonomous Community.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Vancouver Island University

Vancouver Island University (abbreviated as VIU, formerly known as Malaspina University-College and before that as Malaspina College) is a Canadian public university serving Vancouver Island and coastal British Columbia.

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In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

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Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation is an 1844 work of speculative natural history and philosophy by Robert Chambers.

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Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

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Veterinary medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.

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Viking Press

Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

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William Ellery Leonard

William Ellery Leonard (January 25, 1876, in Plainfield, New Jersey – May 2, 1944, in Madison, Wisconsin) was an American poet, playwright, translator, and literary scholar.

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William Paley

William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian.

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Wisdom tooth

A wisdom tooth or third molar is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human dentition.

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Wonderful Life (book)

Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History is a 1989 book on the evolution of Cambrian fauna by Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of zoology published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Linnean Society.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution

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