97 relations: Adaptive dimensional search, Alex Fraser (scientist), Algorithm, Ant colony optimization algorithms, Artificial development, Artificial immune system, Artificial intelligence, Artificial life, Association for Computing Machinery, Autoconstructive evolution, Biological system, Competitive learning, Completeness (logic), Computer science, Cultural algorithm, David B. Fogel, David E. Goldberg, Developmental biology, Differential evolution, Digital organism, Dual-phase evolution, Dynamical system, Estimation of distribution algorithm, Evolution, Evolution strategy, Evolutionary algorithm, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary programming, Evolutionary robotics, Evolved antenna, EvoStar, Feasible region, Fitness (biology), Fitness approximation, Fitness function, Fitness landscape, Gene expression programming, Genetic algorithm, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Genetic operator, Genetic programming, Genetic recombination, Global optimization, Gloria Townsend, Grammatical evolution, Hans-Paul Schwefel, Historical inheritance systems, Human-based evolutionary computation, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Inferential programming, ..., Ingo Rechenberg, Interactive evolutionary computation, John Henry Holland, John Koza, Journal of Molecular Evolution, Kalyanmoy Deb, Kenneth A De Jong, Lawrence J. Fogel, Learnable evolution model, Learning classifier system, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Loss function, Mathematical optimization, Melanie Mitchell, Memetic algorithm, Metaheuristic, MIT Press, Mutation, Mutation testing, Natural selection, No free lunch in search and optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Peter J. Fleming, Peter Nordin, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Population, Program synthesis, Reproduction, Riccardo Poli, Selective breeding, Self-organization, Self-organizing map, Soft computing, Springer Publishing, Stephanie Forrest, Stochastic, Stochastic optimization, Survival of the fittest, Swarm intelligence, Systems biology, Test functions for optimization, Theo Jansen, Theory of computation, Trial and error, Universal Darwinism, University of Michigan Press, Zbigniew Michalewicz. Expand index (47 more) »

## Adaptive dimensional search

Adaptive dimensional search algorithms differ from nature-inspired metaheuristic techniques in the sense that they do not use any metaphor as an underlying principle for implementation.

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## Alex Fraser (scientist)

Alex Fraser (1923–2002) was a major innovator in the development of the computer modeling of population genetics and his work has stimulated many advances in genetic research over the past decades.

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## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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## Ant colony optimization algorithms

In computer science and operations research, the ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs.

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## Artificial development

Artificial development, also known as artificial embryogeny or computational development, is an area of computer science and engineering concerned with computational models motivated by genotype-phenotype mappings in biological systems.

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## Artificial immune system

In artificial intelligence, artificial immune systems (AIS) are a class of computationally intelligent, rule-based machine learning systems inspired by the principles and processes of the vertebrate immune system.

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## Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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## Artificial life

Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.

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## Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

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## Autoconstructive evolution

Autoconstructive evolution is a process in which the entities undergoing evolutionary change are themselves responsible for the construction of their own offspring and thus for aspects of the evolutionary process itself.

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## Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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## Competitive learning

Competitive learning is a form of unsupervised learning in artificial neural networks, in which nodes compete for the right to respond to a subset of the input data.

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## Completeness (logic)

In mathematical logic and metalogic, a formal system is called complete with respect to a particular property if every formula having the property can be derived using that system, i.e. is one of its theorems; otherwise the system is said to be incomplete.

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## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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## Cultural algorithm

Cultural algorithms (CA) are a branch of evolutionary computation where there is a knowledge component that is called the belief space in addition to the population component.

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## David B. Fogel

Dr.

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## David E. Goldberg

David Edward Goldberg (born September 26, 1953) is an American computer scientist, civil engineer, and professor at the department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (IESE) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is most noted for his work in the field of genetic algorithms.

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## Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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## Differential evolution

In evolutionary computation, differential evolution (DE) is a method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality.

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## Digital organism

A digital organism is a self-replicating computer program that mutates and evolves.

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## Dual-phase evolution

Dual phase evolution (DPE) is a process that drives self-organization within complex adaptive systems.

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## Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

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## Estimation of distribution algorithm

Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs), sometimes called probabilistic model-building genetic algorithms (PMBGAs), are stochastic optimization methods that guide the search for the optimum by building and sampling explicit probabilistic models of promising candidate solutions.

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## Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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## Evolution strategy

In computer science, an evolution strategy (ES) is an optimization technique based on ideas of evolution.

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## Evolutionary algorithm

In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.

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## Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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## Evolutionary programming

Evolutionary programming is one of the four major evolutionary algorithm paradigms.

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## Evolutionary robotics

Evolutionary robotics (ER) is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to develop controllers and/or hardware for autonomous robots.

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## Evolved antenna

In radio communications, an evolved antenna is an antenna designed fully or substantially by an automatic computer design program that uses an evolutionary algorithm that mimics Darwinian evolution.

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## EvoStar

EvoStar, or Evo*, is an international scientific event devoted to evolutionary computation held in Europe.

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## Feasible region

In mathematical optimization, a feasible region, feasible set, search space, or solution space is the set of all possible points (sets of values of the choice variables) of an optimization problem that satisfy the problem's constraints, potentially including inequalities, equalities, and integer constraints.

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## Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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## Fitness approximation

In function optimization, fitness approximation is a method for decreasing the number of fitness function evaluations to reach a target solution.

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## Fitness function

A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that is used to summarise, as a single figure of merit, how close a given design solution is to achieving the set aims.

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## Fitness landscape

In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success.

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## Gene expression programming

In computer programming, gene expression programming (GEP) is an evolutionary algorithm that creates computer programs or models.

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## Genetic algorithm

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).

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## Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference

The Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO) is the premier conference in the area of genetic and evolutionary computation.

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## Genetic operator

A genetic operator is an operator used in genetic algorithms to guide the algorithm towards a solution to a given problem.

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## Genetic programming

In artificial intelligence, genetic programming (GP) is a technique whereby computer programs are encoded as a set of genes that are then modified (evolved) using an evolutionary algorithm (often a genetic algorithm, "GA") – it is an application of (for example) genetic algorithms where the space of solutions consists of computer programs.

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## Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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## Global optimization

Global optimization is a branch of applied mathematics and numerical analysis that deals with the global optimization of a function or a set of functions according to some criteria.

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## Gloria Townsend

Gloria Townsend is an American computer scientist and professor in the department of Computer Science at DePauw University in Indiana.

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## Grammatical evolution

Grammatical evolution is a relatively new evolutionary computation technique pioneered by Conor Ryan, JJ Collins and Michael O'Neill in 1998 at the in the University of Limerick.

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## Hans-Paul Schwefel

Hans-Paul Schwefel (born December 4, 1940 in Berlin) is a German computer scientist and professor emeritus at University of Dortmund (now Dortmund University of Technology), where he held the chair of systems analysis from 1985 until 2006.

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## Historical inheritance systems

Historical inheritance systems are different systems of inheritance among various people.

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## Human-based evolutionary computation

Human-based evolutionary computation (HBEC) is a set of evolutionary computation techniques that rely on human innovation.

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## IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation

The IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) is one of the largest and most important conferences within Evolutionary computation (EC), the other conferences of similar importance being Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (PPSN) and European Conference on Genetic Programming (EuroGP).

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## Inferential programming

In ordinary computer programming, the programmer keeps the program's intended results in mind and painstakingly constructs a computer program to achieve those results.

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## Ingo Rechenberg

Ingo Rechenberg (born November 20, 1934 in Berlin) is a German researcher and professor currently in the field of bionics.

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## Interactive evolutionary computation

Interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) or aesthetic selection is a general term for methods of evolutionary computation that use human evaluation.

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## John Henry Holland

John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929 – August 9, 2015) was an American scientist and Professor of psychology and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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## John Koza

John R. Koza is a computer scientist and a former adjunct professor at Stanford University, most notable for his work in pioneering the use of genetic programming for the optimization of complex problems.

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## Journal of Molecular Evolution

The Journal of Molecular Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers molecular evolution.

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## Kalyanmoy Deb

Kalyanmoy Deb is an Indian computer scientist.

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## Kenneth A De Jong

Kenneth A De Jong is an American computer scientist and professor at George Mason University.

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## Lawrence J. Fogel

Dr.

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## Learnable evolution model

The learnable evolution model (LEM) is a novel, non-Darwinian methodology for evolutionary computation that employs machine learning to guide the generation of new individuals (candidate problem solutions).

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## Learning classifier system

Learning classifier systems, or LCS, are a paradigm of rule-based machine learning methods that combine a discovery component (e.g. typically a genetic algorithm) with a learning component (performing either supervised learning, reinforcement learning, or unsupervised learning).

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## Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.

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## Loss function

In mathematical optimization, statistics, econometrics, decision theory, machine learning and computational neuroscience, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.

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## Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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## Melanie Mitchell

Melanie Mitchell is a professor of computer science at Portland State University.

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## Memetic algorithm

Memetic algorithms (MAs) represent one of the recent growing areas of research in evolutionary computation.

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## Metaheuristic

In computer science and mathematical optimization, a metaheuristic is a higher-level procedure or heuristic designed to find, generate, or select a heuristic (partial search algorithm) that may provide a sufficiently good solution to an optimization problem, especially with incomplete or imperfect information or limited computation capacity.

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## MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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## Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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## Mutation testing

Mutation testing (or mutation analysis or program mutation) is used to design new software tests and evaluate the quality of existing software tests.

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## Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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## No free lunch in search and optimization

In computational complexity and optimization the no free lunch theorem is a result that states that for certain types of mathematical problems, the computational cost of finding a solution, averaged over all problems in the class, is the same for any solution method.

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## Particle swarm optimization

In computer science, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality.

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## Peter J. Fleming

Peter John Fleming is a Professor of Industrial Systems and Control in the Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering at the University of Sheffield, and till June 2012 he was the director of the Rolls-Royce University Technology Centre for Control and Systems Engineering.

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## Peter Nordin

Peter Nordin is a Swedish computer scientist, entrepreneur and author who has contributed to artificial intelligence, automatic programming, machine learning, and evolutionary robotics.

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## Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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## Population

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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## Program synthesis

In computer science, program synthesis is the task to automatically construct a program that satisfies a given high-level specification.

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## Reproduction

Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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## Riccardo Poli

Riccardo Poli (born 1961) is a Professor in the Department of Computing and Electronic Systems of the University of Essex.

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## Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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## Self-organization

Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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## Self-organizing map

A self-organizing map (SOM) or self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction.

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## Soft computing

In computer science, soft computing (sometimes referred to as computational intelligence, though CI does not have an agreed definition) is the use of inexact solutions to computationally hard tasks such as the solution of NP-complete problems, for which there is no known algorithm that can compute an exact solution in polynomial time.

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## Springer Publishing

Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).

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## Stephanie Forrest

Stephanie Forrest (born circa 1958) is an American computer scientist and director of the Biodesign Center for Biocomputing, Security and Society at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University.

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## Stochastic

The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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## Stochastic optimization

Stochastic optimization (SO) methods are optimization methods that generate and use random variables.

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## Survival of the fittest

"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.

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## Swarm intelligence

Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.

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## Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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## Test functions for optimization

In applied mathematics, test functions, known as artificial landscapes, are useful to evaluate characteristics of optimization algorithms, such as.

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## Theo Jansen

Theodorus Gerardus Jozef "Theo" Jansen (born 14 March 1948) is a Dutch artist.

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## Theory of computation

In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.

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## Trial and error

Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.

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## Universal Darwinism

Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth.

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## University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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## Zbigniew Michalewicz

Zbigniew Michalewicz, PhD, is an entrepreneur, author and professor who is recognised internationally as an mathematical optimisation and new technologies expert.

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## Redirects here:

Computer simulations of evolution, Datanetics, Evolution simulation, Evolutionary Computation, Evolutionary computing, Evolved virtual creatures, Virtual animal, Virtual creature.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_computation