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Evolutionary physiology

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Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population. [1]

79 relations: Allometry, Anatomy, Animal locomotion, Antioxidant, Behavior, Behavioral ecology, Beneficial acclimation hypothesis, Biochemistry, Biological life cycle, Biomechanics, Carrier's constraint, Clutch (eggs), Comparative physiology, Debate, Differential psychology, Dinosaur, Doubly labeled water, Ecology, Ecophysiology, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Endotherm, Epigenetics, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary medicine, Evolutionary neuroscience, Evolutionary psychology, Experimental evolution, Extended evolutionary synthesis, Field metabolic rate, Fitness (biology), Generation, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Geographic range limit, Homeostasis, Human, Human body, I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Immunity (medical), Integrative and Comparative Biology, John Speakman, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Kleiber's law, Krogh's principle, Latitude, Leon Orbeli, Life history theory, List of physiologists, Longevity, ..., Metabolic theory of ecology, Molecular evolution, Morphology (biology), Mortality rate, National Science Foundation, Optimality model, Organism, Outline of academic disciplines, Parasitism, Pathogen, Peter Hochachka, Phenotype, Phenotypic plasticity, Phylogenetic comparative methods, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Physiology, Physiology of dinosaurs, Polymorphism (biology), Quantitative genetics, Raymond B. Huey, Selective breeding, Sexual selection, Society for Experimental Biology, Synapsid, The American Naturalist, Theodore Garland Jr., Thrifty phenotype, Trade-off, Unwarranted variation. Expand index (29 more) »

Allometry

Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

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Antioxidant

Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Behavior

Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Behavioral ecology

Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.

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Beneficial acclimation hypothesis

The beneficial acclimation hypothesis (BAH) is the physiological hypothesis that acclimating to a particular environment (usually thermal) provides an organism with advantages in that environment.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.

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Carrier's constraint

Carrier's constraint is the observation that air-breathing vertebrates which have two lungs and flex their bodies sideways during locomotion find it very difficult to move and breathe at the same time, because the sideways flexing expands one lung and compresses the other, shunting stale air from lung to lung instead of expelling it completely to make room for fresh air.

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Clutch (eggs)

A clutch of eggs is the group of eggs produced by birds, amphibians, or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest.

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Comparative physiology

Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.

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Debate

Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.

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Differential psychology

Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.

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Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Doubly labeled water

Doubly labeled water is water in which both the hydrogen and the oxygen have been partly or completely replaced (i.e. labeled) with an uncommon isotope of these elements for tracing purposes.

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Ecology

Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Ecophysiology

Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Endocrinology

Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Endotherm

An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.

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Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary medicine

Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.

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Evolutionary neuroscience

Evolutionary neuroscience is the scientific study of the evolution of nervous systems.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Experimental evolution

Experimental evolution is the use of laboratory experiments or controlled field manipulations to explore evolutionary dynamics.

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Extended evolutionary synthesis

The extended evolutionary synthesis consists of a set of theoretical concepts more comprehensive than the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942.

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Field metabolic rate

Field metabolic rate (FMR) refers to a measurement of the metabolic rate of a free-living animal in the wild.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Generation

A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Geographic range limit

A geographic range limit is the geographic boundary beyond which a species does not occur, the limit or limits of the range of a species.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry

The I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry (IEPHB) is a facility in Saint Petersburg, Russia, dedicated to research in the fields of biochemistry and evolutionary physiology.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology

Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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John Speakman

Jonathan Roger Speakman (born 1958) is a British biologist working at the University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, for which he was Director from 2007 to 2011.

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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

The Journal of Evolutionary Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of evolutionary biology.

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Kleiber's law

Kleiber's law, named after Max Kleiber for his biology work in the early 1930s, is the observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal's metabolic rate scales to the ¾ power of the animal's mass.

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Krogh's principle

Krogh's principle states that "for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied." This concept is central to those disciplines of biology that rely on the comparative method, such as neuroethology, comparative physiology, and more recently functional genomics.

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Latitude

In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Leon Orbeli

Leon Abgarovich Orbeli (Լևոն Աբգարի Օրբելի, Levon Abgari Orbeli; Леон Абгарович Орбели, Levon Abgarovich Orbeli; June 25, 1882 – December 9, 1958) was an Armenian physiologist active in the Russian SFSR.

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Life history theory

Life history theory is an analytical frameworkVitzthum, V. (2008).

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List of physiologists

This is a list of physiologists who have Wikipedia articles, in alphabetical order by surname.

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Longevity

The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.

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Metabolic theory of ecology

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleiber's law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology.

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Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Optimality model

In biology, optimality models are a tool used to evaluate the costs and benefits of different organismal features, traits, and characteristics, including behavior, in the natural world.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Outline of academic disciplines

An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.

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Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Peter Hochachka

Peter William Hochachka, (March 9, 1937 – September 16, 2002) was a Canadian professor and zoologist.

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Phenotype

A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

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Phylogenetic comparative methods

Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) use information on the historical relationships of lineages (phylogenies) to test evolutionary hypotheses.

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Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

Physiological and Biochemical Zoology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Physiology of dinosaurs

The physiology of dinosaurs has historically been a controversial subject, particularly their thermoregulation.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Quantitative genetics

Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).

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Raymond B. Huey

Raymond Brunson Huey (born 14 September 1944) is a biologist specializing in evolutionary physiology.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Society for Experimental Biology

The Society for Experimental Biology is a learned society that was established in 1923 at Birkbeck College in London to "promote the art and science of experimental biology in all its branches".

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Synapsid

Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.

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Theodore Garland Jr.

Theodore Garland Jr. (born 28 November 1956) is a biologist specializing in evolutionary physiology.

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Thrifty phenotype

The thrifty phenotype hypothesis says that reduced fetal growth is strongly associated with a number of chronic conditions later in life.

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Trade-off

A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects.

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Unwarranted variation

Unwarranted variation (or geographic variation) in health care service delivery refers to medical practice pattern variation that cannot be explained by illness, medical need, or the dictates of evidence-based medicine.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_physiology

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