253 relations: Absolute gain (international relations), Adaptation, Adaptationism, Affective neuroscience, Agent-based model, Altruism, Alzheimer's disease, Anisogamy, Anthony Stevens (Jungian analyst), Anthropology, Archaeological record, Archaeology, Artificial intelligence, Attachment theory, Autism, Baldwin effect, Bateman's principle, Beauty, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Behavioral ecology, Behavioural genetics, Belief, Biological determinism, Biology, Biology and Philosophy, Biosocial criminology, Bipolar disorder, Bonobo, Bride price, Caricature, Cato Institute, Cecilia Heyes, Cerebral cortex, Charles Darwin, Chimpanzee, Christopher Ryan (author), Cinderella effect, Coalition, Cognition, Cognitive module, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive psychology, Collective action, Collective unconscious, Computational theory of mind, Conditionality, Cooperative eye hypothesis, Courtship display, Crime, Criticism of evolutionary psychology, ..., Cultural determinism, Cultural evolution, Cultural neuroscience, Cultural universal, Darwinian Happiness, Darwinian literary studies, David Buss, David P. Schmitt, Deep social mind, Deirdre Barrett, Depth perception, Deterrence theory, Developmental psychology, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Discipline (academia), Donald Brown (anthropologist), Donald Symons, Dual inheritance theory, Dunbar's number, Dwarfism, E. O. Wilson, Emotion in animals, Ethnic nepotism, Ethology, Evolution, Evolution and Human Behavior, Evolution of human intelligence, Evolution of the brain, Evolutionary approaches to depression, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental psychology, Evolutionary game theory, Evolutionary mismatch, Evolutionary origin of religions, Evolutionary physiology, Evolutionary Psychology (journal), Evolutionary psychology and culture, Exaptation, Factual relativism, False dilemma, Fitness (biology), FOXP2, Francis Heylighen, Frequency-dependent selection, Gamete, Gene-centered view of evolution, Genetics, George C. Williams (biologist), Gestation, Gigantism, Great ape language, Green-beard effect, Group dynamics, Harper (publisher), Heritability, Heuristic, Homo, Honour, Human behavior, Human behavioral ecology, Human brain, Human ethology, Human mating strategies, Human nature, Id, ego and super-ego, Identity by descent, Ideology, Inclusive fitness, Infanticide, Ingroups and outgroups, Inherence, Intellectual disability, Intellectual giftedness, Intelligence, Intersubjectivity, Jerry Fodor, John Bowlby, John Tooby, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Karl von Frisch, KE family, Kin recognition, Kin selection, Konrad Lorenz, Lactation, Language acquisition, Leadership, Leda Cosmides, Life history theory, Linda Mealey, List of evolutionary psychologists, Lynn Hunt, Mammal, Margie Profet, Mark van Vugt, Marriage, Mate choice, Mating, Mating preferences, Metatheory, Michael T. McGuire, Michael Tomasello, Mirror neuron, MIT Press, Modern synthesis (20th century), Modularity of mind, Molecular evolution, Morning sickness, Natural science, Natural selection, Naturalistic fallacy, Nature versus nurture, Neuroethology, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Noam Chomsky, Noogenesis, Normal distribution, Offspring, Origin of language, Origin of speech, Ovulation, Ovulatory shift hypothesis, Paleoanthropology, Paleolithic diet, Paleolithic lifestyle, Parental investment, Paul Baltes, Paul Bloom (psychologist), Paul Ekman, Personality disorder, Phenotypic trait, Physiology, Pleistocene, Political entrepreneur, Polymorphism (biology), Primate cognition, Promiscuity, Psychiatry, Psychological adaptation, Psychology, Public records, R/K selection theory, Randolph M. Nesse, Reactionary, Reciprocity (evolution), Relative gain (international relations), Reproduction, Revenge, Reward system, Rhetorical device, Robert Kurzban, Robert Trivers, SAGE Publications, Schizophrenia, Sex at Dawn, Sexual conflict, Sexual fetishism, Sexual jealousy, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Sexual selection in humans, Shadow (psychology), Sickle cell disease, Simulation theory of empathy, Social constructionism, Social neuroscience, Social psychology, Social science, Sociobiological theories of rape, Sociobiology, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Spandrel (biology), Springer Science+Business Media, Stabilizing selection, Standard social science model, Stephen Jay Gould, Steven Pinker, Straw man, Supernormal stimulus, Tabula rasa, Terrence Deacon, The Adapted Mind, The Blank Slate, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Evolution of Human Sexuality, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, The Language Instinct, The Quarterly Review of Biology, The Symbolic Species, Theory of mind, Third-party punishment, Thomas Givon, Tinbergen's four questions, Tit for tat, Trade-off, Trivers–Willard hypothesis, Universal Darwinism, W. D. Hamilton, W. Tecumseh Fitch, Wason selection task, Westermarck effect, William James, Zoology. Expand index (203 more) » « Shrink index
According to liberal international relations theory, absolute gain is what international actors look at in determining their interests, weighing out the total effects of a decision on the state or organization and acting accordingly.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adaptationism is the Darwinian view that many physical and psychological traits of organisms are evolved adaptations.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.
An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Anisogamy (also called heterogamy) is the form of sexual reproduction that involves the union or fusion of two gametes, which differ in size and/or form. (The related adjectives are anisogamous and anisogamic). The smaller gamete is considered to be male (sperm cell), whereas the larger gamete is regarded as female (egg cell). There are several types of anisogamy. Both gametes may be flagellated and therefore motile. Alternatively, both of the gametes may be non-flagellated. The latter situation occurs in some algae and plants. In the red alga Polysiphonia, non-motile eggs are fertilized by non-motile sperm. In flowering plants, the gametes are non-motile cells within gametophytes. The form of anisogamy that occurs in animals, including humans, is oogamy, where a large, non-motile egg (ovum) is fertilized by a small, motile sperm (spermatozoon). The egg is optimized for longevity, whereas the small sperm is optimized for motility and speed. The size and resources of the egg cell allow for the production of pheromones, which attract the swimming sperm cells.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
In evolutionary biology, the Baldwin effect describes the effect of learned behavior on evolution.
Bateman's principle, in evolutionary biology, is that in most species, variability in reproductive success (or reproductive variance) is greater in males than in females.
Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary established in 1978 by Stevan Harnad and published by Cambridge University Press.
Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Biological determinism, also known as genetic determinism or genetic reductionism, is the belief that human behaviour is controlled by an individual's genes or some component of their physiology, generally at the expense of the role of the environment, whether in embryonic development or in learning.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biology and Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles about philosophy of biology, broadly understood to span conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in the biological sciences.
Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Cecilia Heyes (born 6 March 1960) is Professor of Psychology at the University of Oxford.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Christopher Ryan is an American author best known for co-authoring the book Sex at Dawn (2010).
In evolutionary psychology, the Cinderella effect is the phenomenon of higher incidence of different forms of child-abuse and mistreatment by stepparents than by biological parents.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The Economist, Sep 27th 2007 --> A cognitive module is, in theories of the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory, a specialised tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.
Collective unconscious (kollektives Unbewusstes), a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species.
In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation.
In political economy and international relations, conditionality is the use of conditions attached to the provision of benefits such as a loan, debt relief or bilateral aid.
The cooperative eye hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the appearance of the human eye.
A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Evolutionary psychology has generated substantial controversy and criticism.
Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels.
Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change.
Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field studying how cultural values, such as practices and beliefs, shape and are shaped by the mind, brain and genes across multiple timescales.
A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.
Darwinian Happiness: Evolution As a Guide for Living and Understanding Human Behavior,, is a 2002 book by the Norwegian biologist Bjørn Grinde from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Darwinian literary studies (also known as literary Darwinism) is a branch of literary criticism that studies literature in the context of evolution by means of natural selection, including gene-culture coevolution.
David M. Buss (born April 14, 1953) is a professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, known for his evolutionary psychology theorizing and research on human sex differences in mate selection, with a focus on systems in which males are allowed violence against women in mating.
David P. Schmitt is a personality psychologist who founded the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP).
Deep social mind is a concept in evolutionary psychology; it refers to the distinctively human capacity to 'read' (that is, to infer) the mental states of others while reciprocally enabling those others to read one's own mental states at the same time.
Deirdre Barrett, Ph.D. is an author and psychologist who teaches at Harvard Medical School.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Donald E. Brown (born 1934) is an American professor of anthropology (emeritus).
Donald Symons (born 1942) is an American anthropologist best known as one of the founders of evolutionary psychology, and for pioneering the study of human sexuality from an evolutionary perspective.
Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution.
Dunbar's number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships—relationships in which an individual knows who each person is and how each person relates to every other person.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Charles Darwin was one of the first scientists to write about the existence and nature of emotions in animals.
In sociology, the term ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for in-group bias or in-group favouritism applied by nepotism for people with the same ethnicity within a multi-ethnic society.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolution and Human Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research in which evolutionary perspectives are brought to bear on the study of human behavior.
The evolution of human intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.
The principles that govern the evolution of brain structure are not well understood.
Evolutionary approaches to depression are attempts by evolutionary psychologists to use the theory of evolution to shed light on the problem of mood disorders.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) is a research paradigm that applies the basic principles of Darwinian evolution, particularly natural selection, to understand the development of human behavior and cognition.
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology.
Evolutionary mismatch, also known as mismatch theory or evolutionary trap, is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to evolved traits that were once advantageous but became maladaptive due to changes in the environment.
The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.
Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.
Evolutionary Psychology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal published since 2003.
Evolutionary psychology has traditionally focused on individual-level behaviors, determined by species-typical psychological adaptations.
Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.
Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.
A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
Francis Paul Heylighen (born 1960) is a Belgian cyberneticist investigating the emergence and evolution of intelligent organization.
Frequency-dependent selection is an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, "giant", plural γίγαντες gigantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average.
Research into great ape language has involved teaching chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams (Yerkish).
The green-beard effect is a thought experiment used in evolutionary biology to explain selective altruism among individuals of a species.
Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human ethology is the study of human behavior.
In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology, human mating strategies are a set of behaviors used by individuals to attract, select, and retain mates.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
The id, ego, and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
A DNA segment is identical by state (IBS) in two or more individuals if they have identical nucleotide sequences in this segment.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
Inherence refers to Empedocles' idea that the qualities of matter come from the relative proportions of each of the four elements entering into a thing.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.
Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
Edward John Mostyn Bowlby CBE, MA (Cantab), BChir, MD, MRCP, FRCP, FRCPsych, Hon ScD (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory.
John Tooby is an American anthropologist, who, together with psychologist wife Leda Cosmides, helped pioneer the field of evolutionary psychology.
The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal of psychology that was established in 1958.
Karl Ritter von Frisch, (20 November 1886 – 12 June 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz.
The KE family is a medical name designated for a British family, about half of whom exhibit a severe speech disorder called developmental verbal dyspraxia.
Kin recognition, also called kin detection, is an organism's ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin.
Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
Leda Cosmides (born May 1957 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American psychologist, who, together with anthropologist husband John Tooby, helped develop the field of evolutionary psychology.
Life history theory is an analytical frameworkVitzthum, V. (2008).
Linda Jeanne Mealey (December 17, 1955 in San Diego, California – November 5, 2002) was an American evolutionary psychologist and professor at the College of Saint Benedict.
The following is a list of evolutionary psychologists or prominent contributors to the field of evolutionary psychology.
Lynn Avery Hunt (born November 16, 1945) is the Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Margaret J. "Margie" Profet (born August 7, 1958) is an American evolutionary biologist with no formal biology training who created a decade-long controversy when she published her findings on the role of Darwinian evolution in menstruation, allergies and morning sickness.
Mark van Vugt (born 9 May 1967, Amsterdam) is a Netherlands evolutionary psychologist who holds a professorship in evolutionary psychology and work and organizational psychology at the VU University (Vrije Universiteit) Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Mate preferences in humans refers to why one human chooses or chooses not to mate with another human and their reasoning why (see: Evolutionary Psychology, mating).
A metatheory or meta-theory is a theory whose subject matter is some theory.
Michael Tomasello (born January 18, 1950) is an American developmental and comparative psychologist; as well a linguist.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.
Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.
Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In philosophical ethics, the term "naturalistic fallacy" was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Neuroethology is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Noogenesis (Ancient Greek: νοῦς.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
The origin of speech refers to the more general problem of the origin of language in the context of the physiological development of the human speech organs such as the tongue, lips and vocal organs used to produce phonological units in all human languages.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The ovulatory shift hypothesis is the theory that women experience evolutionarily adaptive changes in subconscious thoughts and behaviors related to mating across the ovulatory cycle.
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).
The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.
In a Paleolithic lifestyle (also known as paleo or primal lifestyle), one attempts to live as humans presumably did in the Paleolithic era (Old Stone Age), or to recreate such a lifestyle in the present day.
Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.
Paul B. Baltes (June 18, 1939 – November 7, 2006) was a German psychologist whose broad scientific agenda was devoted to establishing and promoting the life-span orientation of human development.
Paul Blöøm (born December 24, 1963) is a Canadian American psychologist.
Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The term political entrepreneur may refer to any of the following.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Primate cognition is the study of the intellectual and behavioral skills of non-human primates, particularly in the fields of psychology, behavioral biology, primatology, and anthropology.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychological adaptation is a functional, cognitive or behavioral trait that benefits an organism in its environment.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public records are documents or pieces of information that are not considered confidential and generally pertain to the conduct of government.
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Randolph M. Nesse (born 1948) is an American physician and evolutionary biologist.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Reciprocity in evolutionary biology refers to mechanisms whereby the evolution of cooperative or altruistic behaviour may be favoured by the probability of future mutual interactions.
Relative gain, in international relations, is the actions of states only in respect to power balances and without regard to other factors, such as economics.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, resource of language, or stylistic device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading them towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke an emotional display of a given perspective or action.
Robert Kurzban is a professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, specializing in evolutionary psychology.
Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers (born February 19, 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality is a book dealing with the evolution of monogamy in humans and human mating systems.
Sexual conflict or sexual antagonism occurs when the two sexes have conflicting optimal fitness strategies concerning reproduction, particularly over the mode and frequency of mating, potentially leading to an evolutionary arms race between males and females.
Sexual fetishism or erotic fetishism is a sexual fixation on a nonliving object or nongenital body part.
Sexual jealousy is a special form of jealousy in sexual relationships, present in animals that reproduce through internal fertilization, and is based on suspected or imminent sexual infidelity.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans.
In Jungian psychology, the "shadow", "Id", or "shadow aspect/archetype" may refer to (1) an unconscious aspect of the personality which the conscious ego does not identify in itself, or (2) the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a person is not fully conscious.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Simulation theory of empathy is a theory that holds that humans anticipate and make sense of the behavior of others by activating mental processes that, if carried into action, would produce similar behavior.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sociobiological theories of rape explore how evolutionary adaptation influences the psychology of rapists.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975; 25th anniversary edition 2000) is a book by the biologist E. O. Wilson.
In evolutionary biology, a spandrel is a phenotypic characteristic that is a byproduct of the evolution of some other characteristic, rather than a direct product of adaptive selection.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stabilizing selection (not to be confused with negative or purifying selection) is a type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value.
The term standard social science model (SSSM) was first introduced by John Tooby and Leda Cosmides in the 1992 edited volume The Adapted Mind.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
A supernormal stimulus or superstimulus is an exaggerated version of a stimulus to which there is an existing response tendency, or any stimulus that elicits a response more strongly than the stimulus for which it evolved.
Tabula rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.
Terrence William Deacon (born 1950) is an American Neuroanthropologist (Ph.D. in Biological Anthropology, Harvard University 1984).
The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture is a 1992 book edited by the anthropologist Jerome H. Barkow, the psychologist Leda Cosmides and the anthropologist John Tooby.
The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature is a best-selling 2002 book by Steven Pinker, in which the author makes a case against tabula rasa models in the social sciences, arguing that human behavior is substantially shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.
The Evolution of Human Sexuality is a 1979 book about human sexuality by the anthropologist Donald Symons, in which the author discusses topics such as human sexual anatomy, ovulation, orgasm, homosexuality, sexual promiscuity, and rape, attempting to show how evolutionary concepts can be applied to humans.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).
The Language Instinct is a 1994 book by Steven Pinker, written for a general audience.
The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.
The Symbolic Species is a 1997 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon on the evolution of language.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Third-party punishment, or altruistic punishment, is punishment of a transgressor (first party) which is administered, not by a victim of the transgression (second party), but rather by a third party not directly affected by the transgression.
Thomas Givon (also known as Talmy Givón) (born June 22, 1936) is a linguist and writer.
Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.
Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation".
A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects.
In evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, the Trivers–Willard hypothesis, formally proposed by Robert Trivers and Dan Willard, suggests that female mammals are able to adjust offspring sex ratio in response to their maternal condition.
Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth.
William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
William Tecumseh Sherman Fitch III (born 1963)http://homepage.univie.ac.at/tecumseh.fitch/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/FitchCV2011.pdf is an American evolutionary biologist and cognitive scientist, and at the University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria), where he is co-founder of the Department of Cognitive Biology.
The Wason selection task (or four-card problem) is a logic puzzle devised by Peter Cathcart Wason in 1966.
The Westermarck effect, or reverse sexual imprinting, is a hypothetical psychological effect through which people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to sexual attraction.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Bibliography of evolution and human behavior, Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness, Environment of evolutionary adaptedness, Era of evolutionary adaptedness, Evo-psych, Evolutionary Psychology, Evolutionary developmental psychopathology, Evolutionary psychologist, Evolutionary psychologists, Evolutionary psychology controversies, Evolutionary psychology controversy, Psychoevolutionary theory.