62 relations: 'Amr ibn al-'As, Africa (Roman province), Altava, Anastasius Sinaita, Balearic Islands, Barca (ancient city), Battle of Carthage (698), Battle of Sufetula, Battle of Vescera, Battle of Yarmouk, Belisarius, Berbers, Byzacena, Byzantine Empire, Carthage, Ceuta, Cyrenaica, Diocletian, Eleutherios the Younger, Exarch, Exarchate of Ravenna, Gennadius (6th century), Gennadius (7th century), George Hamartolos, Gregory the Patrician, Hasan ibn al-Nu'man, Heraclius, Heraclius the Elder, Julian, Count of Ceuta, Justinian I, Kusaila, List of Byzantine emperors, Maghreb, Magister militum, Mauretania Caesariensis, Mauretania Sitifensis, Maurice (emperor), Mauro-Roman Kingdom, Melkite, Mesopotamia (Roman province), Monoenergism, Monothelitism, Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius), Nicetas the Patrician, Numidia, Praetorian prefect, Praetorian prefecture of Africa, Ravenna, Roman province, ..., Sardinia and Corsica, Sasanian Empire, Sbeitla, Spania, Strait of Gibraltar, Tigisi in Numidia, Tripolitania, Tunisia, Uqba ibn Nafi, Vandalic War, Visigothic Kingdom, Walter Kaegi. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Altava was an ancient Roman-Berber city in present-day Algeria.
Anastasius Sinaïta (Anastasius of Sinai, died after 700), also called Anastasios of Sinai, was a prolific and important seventh century Greek ecclesiastical writer, priest, monk, and abbot of Saint Catherine's Monastery at Mount Sinai.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Barca, also called Barce) (Βάρκη, برقة, Berber: Berqa) is an Ancient city and former bishopric, which survives in both Latin Catholic and Orthodox titular see.
The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 between a Byzantine expeditionary force and the armies of the fifth Umayyad Caliphate.
The Battle of Sufetula took place in 647 between the Arab Muslim forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa.
The Battle of Vescera (modern Biskra in Algeria) was fought in 682 or 683 between the Berbers of king Caecilius and their Byzantine allies from the Exarchate of Carthage against an Umayyad Arab army under Uqba ibn Nafi (the founder of Kairouan).
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Byzacena was a Late Roman province in the central part of Roman North Africa, which is now roughly Tunisia, split off from Africa Proconsularis.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Eleutherios the Younger was a Byzantine official who overthrew Gennadios and possibly succeeded him as Exarch of Africa.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Gennadius (Γεννάδιος) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the first exarch of Africa.
Gennadius (Γεννάδιος, died c. 665), sometimes referred to as Gennadius II (his 6th-century predecessor being Gennadius I), was a Byzantine general who exercised the role of Exarch of Africa from 648 to 665, when he was finally expelled.
George Hamartolos or Hamartolus (Γεώργιος Ἁμαρτωλός) was a monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842–867) and the author of a chronicle of some importance.
Gregory the Patrician (Γρηγόριος, Flavius Gregorius, died 647) was a Byzantine Exarch of Africa (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria).
Hasan ibn an-Nu`uman al-Ghasani (حسان بن النعمان الغساني Hasān ibn an-Nu‘umān al-Ghasānī) (d. c. 700), amir (general) of the Umayyad army in North Africa.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Heraclius the Elder (Heraclius; Ἡράκλειος; died 610) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641).
Julian, Count of Ceuta (Don Julián, Conde de Ceuta,, يليان, was, according to some sources a renegade governor, possibly a former comes in Byzantine service in Ceuta and Tangiers who subsequently submitted to the king of Visigothic Spain before joining the Muslims. According to Arab chroniclers, Julian had an important role in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, a key event in the history of Islam, in which al-Andalus was to play an important part, and in the subsequent history of what were to become Spain and Portugal.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Caecilius (Berber: ⴰⴾⵙⵉⵍ, Aksil or Aksel, Latin: Caecilius, Arabic: Kusailaarticle by Modéran cited below), his name means "leopard" in the Berber language, died in the year 690 AD fighting Muslim invaders, was a 7th-century Berber Christian king of the kingdom of Altava and leader of the Awraba tribe of the Imazighen and possibly Christian King of the Sanhadja confederation.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarian Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb.
Mauretania Sitifensis was a Roman province in Africa Proconsulare.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
The Mauro-Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Maurorum et Romanorum) was an independent Christian Berber kingdom centered on the city of Altava which controlled much of the ancient Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, located in present-day northern Algeria.
The term "Melkite", also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East.
Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.
Monoenergism (μονοενεργητισμός) was a notion in early medieval Christian theology, representing the belief that Christ had only one "energy" (energeia).
Monothelitism or monotheletism (from Greek μονοθελητισμός "doctrine of one will") is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine, that formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629.
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.
Nicetas or Niketas (Νικήτας) was the cousin of Emperor Heraclius.
Saint Nicetas the Patrician (Νικήτας Πατρίκιος, Niketas Patrikios; 761/62 – 6 October 836), usually identified with Nicetas Monomachos (Νικήτας Μονομάχος), was a Byzantine eunuch official and general from Paphlagonia active at the turn of the 9th century, who in later life became a monk and a fervent opponent of Byzantine Iconoclasm.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
The praetorian prefecture of Africa (praefectura praetorio Africae) was a major administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire located in the Maghreb.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sbeitla or Sufetula (Sbitla or Seftula, سبيطلة) is a city in north-central Tunisia.
Spania (Provincia Spaniae) was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Tigisi in Numidia was a colonia (town) and episcopal see of the Roman province of Numidia in Roman North Africa..
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
ʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (عقبة بن نافع, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate since the Reign of Umar and later on the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
The Vandalic War (Βανδηλικὸς πόλεμος) was a conflict fought in North Africa (largely in modern Tunisia) between the forces of the Eastern Roman ("Byzantine") Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
Walter Emil Kaegi is a historian and scholar of Byzantine History, professor of history at the University of Chicago, and a Voting Member of The Oriental Institute.