151 relations: Aggadah, Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, Akkadian language, Allegory in the Middle Ages, Amoraim, Ancient Greek, Ancient Near East, Archetype, Artistic inspiration, Asmachta (Talmudical hermeneutics), Assyriology, Avesta, École Biblique, Babylon, Babylonia, Bārûtu, Bel and the Dragon, Bhartṛhari, Bible, Biblical criticism, Biblical hermeneutics, Biblical inspiration, Biblical literalism, Biblical software, Biblical studies, Book of Baruch, Book of Daniel, Book of Esther, Book of Genesis, Book of Jeremiah, Books of the Bible, Calvinism, Catholic Church, Catholic theology of Scripture, Close reading, Code of Hammurabi, Common sense, Cuneiform script, Deuterocanonical books, Diacritic, Doctorate, Dominican Order, Eisegesis, Eliezer ben Hurcanus, Enûma Eliš, Encyclopædia Iranica, Enuma Anu Enlil, Epic of Gilgamesh, Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ..., Exegesis in Zoroastrianism, Form criticism, Fundamentalism, Gathas, Gloss (annotation), Gospel, Grammar, Gymnobiblism, Halakha, Harvard Divinity School, Hermeneutics, Historical criticism, Historical-grammatical method, Holy Spirit, Homiletics, Icon, Indian philosophy, Interpretation (logic), Jerusalem, Jews, Johannine epistles, Kahana b. Tahlifa, Kalam, Ketuvim, Leiden University, Letter of Jeremiah, Liberal Christianity, Literal and figurative language, Literary genre, Marie-Joseph Lagrange, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Mīmāṃsā, Methodology, Middle Ages, Midrash, Mishnah, Mnemonic, Modernism in the Catholic Church, Moed, Muhammad, Nevi'im, New Testament, Niqqud, Pastoral epistles, Pericope, Peshat, Pesher, Philology, Philosophy of language, Pontifical Biblical Commission, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, Pope, Pope Pius XII, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Prophets in Judaism, Psalms, Quran, Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Ishmael, Rabbinic literature, Radical criticism, Redaction criticism, Religious studies, Religious text, Renaissance, Revelation, Rome, Sasanian Empire, Second Vatican Council, Semiotics, Sensus plenior, Shabda, Shia Islam, Sifra, Signified and signifier, Society of Jesus, Source criticism, Sufism, Sumerian language, Susanna (Book of Daniel), Symbol, Syntax, Tafsir, Talmud, Talmudical hermeneutics, Tanakh, Tannaim, Textual criticism, The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children, Torah, Tradition history, Typology (theology), Université libre de Bruxelles, University of Chicago, University of Paris, University of Tübingen, Western esotericism, World Digital Library, Yale University. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.
The Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project (Ahlul Bayt DILP), established in 1996, is a non-profit Islamic organization that features work from a group of volunteers operating throughout the world.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the synthesis of biblical and classical traditions into what would become recognizable as medieval culture.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Inspiration (from the Latin inspirare, meaning "to breathe into") is an unconscious burst of creativity in a literary, musical, or other artistic endeavour.
In Talmudical hermeneutics, asmachta is a hint found in the Hebrew Bible for rabbinical prohibitions or any other Halakha.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
The École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, commonly known as École Biblique, is a French academic establishment in Jerusalem, founded by Dominicans, and specialising in archaeology and Biblical exegesis.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Bārûtu, the “art of the diviner,” is a monumental ancient Mesopotamian compendium of the science of extispicy or sacrificial omens stretching over around a hundred cuneiform tablets which was assembled in the Neo-Assyrian/Babylonian period based upon earlier recensions.
The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended Book of Daniel.
Bhartṛhari (Devanagari: भर्तृहरि; also romanised as Bhartrihari; fl. c. 5th century CE) is a Sanskrit writer to whom are normally ascribed two influential Sanskrit texts.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible.
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.
Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation.
Biblical software or Bible software is a group of computer applications designed to read, study and in some cases discuss biblical texts and concepts.
Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Bible (the Tanakh and the New Testament).
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The theology of Scripture in the Roman Catholic church has evolved much since the Second Vatican Council of Catholic Bishops ("Vatican II", 1962-1965).
In literary criticism, close reading is the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of a text.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Eisegesis is the process of interpreting a text or portion of text in such a way that the process introduces one's own presuppositions, agendas, or biases into and onto the text.
Eliezer ben Hurcanus (אליעזר בן הורקנוס), variant spelling, Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, was a kohen, and one of the most prominent Sages (tannaim) of the 1st and 2nd centuries in Judea, disciple of Johanan ben ZakaiThe Fathers, according to Rabbi Nathan 14:5 and colleague of Gamaliel II, whose sister he married (see Ima Shalom), and of Joshua ben Hananiah.
The (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Enuma Anu Enlil (The Assyrian Dictionary, volume 7 (I/J) – inūma, The Oriental Institute, Chicago 1960, s. 160. When the gods Anu and Enlil), abbreviated EAE, is a major series of 68 or 70 tablets (depending on the recension) dealing with Babylonian astrology.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings.
The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology is a Christian reference work published by Baker Books.
Exegesis in Zoroastrianism is principally defined as the interpretation of Avesta, the Zoroastrian religious book.
Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism that classifies units of scripture by literary pattern and then attempts to trace each type to its period of oral transmission.
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.
The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Gymnobiblism (gymno + biblism) is the opinion that the bare text of the Bible, without commentary, may be safely given to the unlearned as a sufficient guide to religious truth.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
The historical-grammatical method is a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the biblical authors' original intended meaning in the text.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Homiletics (ὁμιλητικός homilētikós, from homilos, "assembled crowd, throng"), in religion, is the application of the general principles of rhetoric to the specific art of public preaching.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Johannine epistles, the Epistles of John, or the Letters of John are three of the catholic epistles of the New Testament, thought to have been written AD 85–100.
Kahana b. Taḥlifa, is a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an amora of the third century CE.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
Literal and figurative language is a distinction within some fields of language analysis, in particular stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics.
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Marie-Joseph Lagrange (7 March 1855, Bourg-en-Bresse10 March 1938, Marseille; earlier Albert Marie-Henri Lagrange) was a Catholic priest in the Dominican Order and founder of the École Biblique in Jerusalem.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
In a Catholic context Modernism is a loose gestalt of liberal theological opinions that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Moed (מועד, "Festivals") is the second Order of the Mishnah, the first written recording of the Oral Torah of the Jewish people (also the Tosefta and Talmud).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
The pastoral epistles are three books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus.
A pericope (Greek περικοπή, "a cutting-out") in rhetoric is a set of verses that forms one coherent unit or thought, suitable for public reading from a text, now usually of sacred scripture.
Peshat (also P'shat) is one of four classical methods of Jewish biblical exegesis used by rabbis and Jewish bible scholars in reading the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh.
Pesher (פשר, pl. pesharim from a Hebrew word meaning "interpretation," is a group of interpretive commentaries on scripture. The Pesharim commentaries became known from the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The pesharim give a theory of scriptural interpretation of a number of biblical texts from the Old Testament, such as Habakkuk and Psalms. The authors of pesharim believe that scripture is written in two levels: the surface for ordinary readers with limited knowledge, and the concealed one for specialists with higher knowledge. This is most clearly spelled out in the Habakkuk Pesher (1QpHab), where the author of the text asserts that God has made known to the Teacher of Righteousness, a prominent figure in the history of the Essene community, "all the mysteries of his servants the prophets" (1QpHab VII:4-5). By contrast, the prophets, and other readers of the texts, only had a partial interpretation revealed to them. The result of this pesher method creates a fixed-literary structure, which is seen most in the continuous Pesharim, with the goal of giving the plain meaning of the prophets words.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
The Pontifical Biblical Commission is a body established within the Roman Curia to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture.
The Pontifical Biblical Institute (it: Pontificio Istituto Biblico), or "'Biblicum'", in Rome, Italy, is an institution of the Holy See that is run by the Jesuits and offers instruction at the university level.
The Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana; also known as the Gregoriana) is a higher education ecclesiastical school (pontifical university) located in Rome, Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The 48 prophets and seven prophetesses according to Rashi, Megillah 14a and glosses ad loc.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Akiba ben Yosef (עקיבא בן יוסף, c. 50–135 CE) also known as Rabbi Akiva, was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation).
Rabbi Yishmael "Ba'al HaBaraita" or Yishmael ben Elisha (90-135 CE, Hebrew: רבי ישמעאל בעל הברייתא) was a Tanna of the 1st and 2nd centuries (third tannaitic generation).
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Radical criticism is a movement around the late 19th century that, typically, denied authentic authorship of the Pauline epistles.
Redaction criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte or Redaktionstheologie, is a critical method for the study of biblical texts.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Sensus plenior is a Latin phrase that means "fuller sense" or "fuller meaning".
Shabda, or, is the Sanskrit word for "speech sound".
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sifra (Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is the Halakhic midrash to Leviticus.
The terms signified and signifier are most commonly related to semiotics, which is defined by Oxford Dictionaries Online as "the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation".
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Source criticism (or information evaluation) is the process of evaluating an information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a photo, an observation, or anything used in order to obtain knowledge.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Susanna or Shoshana ("lily"), also called Susanna and the Elders, is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Talmudical hermeneutics (Hebrew: מידות שהתורה נדרשת בהן) defines the rules and methods for the investigation and exact determination of the meaning of the Scriptures, within the framework of Rabbinic Judaism.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children is a lengthy passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, as well as in the ancient Greek Septuagint translation.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Tradition history or criticism is a methodology of Biblical criticism that was developed by Hermann Gunkel.
Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament.
The Université libre de Bruxelles (in English: Free University of Brussels), abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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