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Index Exercise

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. [1]

189 relations: Accuracy and precision, Active living, Activities of daily living, Acute-phase protein, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipose tissue, Aerobic exercise, Agility, Aging and Disease, Alligator, Amenorrhea, Amino acid, AMP-activated protein kinase, Amphetamine, Anaerobic exercise, Anandamide, Anaphylaxis, Angiogenesis, Balance (ability), Basal metabolic rate, Behavioural change theories, Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid, Biceps curl, Biomarker, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Bodybuilding, Bogotá, Bone density, Brain tumor, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Breast cancer, Breed, C-reactive protein, Cachexia, CACNA2D3, Calorie, Central nervous system, Cicero, Circulatory system, Coactivator (genetics), Colombia, Continuous training, Cortisol, CpG site, Crocodile, Cycling, Diastole, DNA methylation, ..., Duck, Early Middle Ages, Eccentric training, EEF2, EIF4E, EIF4EBP1, Endocannabinoid system, Endurance, Endurance training, Energy homeostasis, Epidemiology, Erasmus+, Euphoria, Eurobarometer, European Commission, Exercise hypertension, Exercise intensity, Exercise intolerance, Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, Exercise-induced nausea, Flexibility (anatomy), FOX proteins, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Functional training, Germanic peoples, Hamster wheel, Health, Heart rate, Heredity, High-intensity interval training, Hiking, Hippocampus, Hobby, Human musculoskeletal system, Human power, Immune system, Inflammation, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Interval training, J curve, Jerry Morris, Joint, JUNB, Kinesiology, L3MBTL, Lactate threshold, Lactic acid, Lean body mass, Leucine, Long slow distance, Long-distance running, Lunge (exercise), Marathon, Mary Bagot Stack, Master regulator, Metabolic equivalent, Metabolism, Micronutrient, Middle age, Mindfulness, Mitochondrial biogenesis, Mitochondrion, Morphology (biology), Motor coordination, Mouse, MTOR, MTORC1, Muscle, Muscle hypertrophy, Myocardial infarction, Myocyte, Myofibril, Myokine, Natural killer cell, Neurogenesis, Neuromuscular junction, Neurotrophic factors, NF-κB, Nutrient, Nutrition, Opioid peptide, Overtraining, Oxidative phosphorylation, P70-S6 Kinase 1, Pedestrian zone, Phenethylamine, Phosphatidic acid, Phospholipase D, Phosphorylation, Physical fitness, PPARGC1A, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Pull-up (exercise), Push-up, Rainbow trout, Range of motion, Rhabdomyolysis, Ribosomal protein s6, Ribosome, Rowing (sport), Running, Salmon, Selective breeding, Senescence, Signal transduction, Sirtuin 1, Skipping rope, Sleep, Speed, Sport, Sprint (running), Stomach cancer, Strength training, Stretching, Stroke, Stroke volume, Supercompensation, Swimming, Systole, Tennis, Theodore Garland Jr., Trace amine, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Troponin, Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, Upper respiratory tract infection, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, Walking, Warming up, Weight loss, Weight training, Well-being, Yellowtail amberjack. Expand index (139 more) »

Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Active living

Role of exercise is a way of life that integrates physical activity into your everyday routines, such as walking to the store or biking to work.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Acute-phase protein

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

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Agility or nimbleness is the ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, and endurance.

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Aging and Disease

Aging and Disease is a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by JKL International on behalf of the International Society on Aging and Disease.

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An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.

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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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AMP-activated protein kinase

5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anaerobic exercise

Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.

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Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

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Balance (ability)

In biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Behavioural change theories

Behavioural change theories are attempts to explain why behaviours change.

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Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid

β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), otherwise known as its conjugate base,, is a naturally produced substance in humans that is used as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in certain medical foods that are intended to promote wound healing and provide nutritional support for people with muscle wasting due to cancer or HIV/AIDS.

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Biceps curl

The term "biceps curl" may refer to any of a number of weight training exercises that target the biceps brachii muscle.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.

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Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bone density

Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.

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Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA2D3 gene on chromosome 3 (locus 3p21.1).

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Coactivator (genetics)

A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Continuous training

Continuous training, also known as continuous exercise, is any type of physical training that involves activity without rest intervals.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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CpG site

The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Eccentric training

An eccentric contraction is the motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load.

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Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF2 gene.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, also known as eIF4E, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4E gene.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (also known as 4E-BP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4EBP1 gene.

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Endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.

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Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.

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Endurance training

Endurance training is the act of exercising to increase endurance.

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Energy homeostasis

In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Erasmus+ is the European Commission's Programme for education, training, youth and sport for the period 2014–2020, succeeding the previous Lifelong Learning Programme (2007 - 2014).

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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Exercise hypertension

Exercise hypertension is an excessive rise in blood pressure during exercise.

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Exercise intensity

Exercise intensity refers to how much energy is expended when exercising.

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Exercise intolerance

Exercise intolerance is a condition of inability or decreased ability to perform physical exercise at what would be considered to be the normally expected level or duration.

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Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., occurs when the airways narrow as a result of exercise.

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Exercise-induced nausea

Exercise-induced nausea is a feeling of sickness or vomiting which can occur shortly after exercise has stopped as well as during exercise itself.

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Flexibility (anatomy)

Flexibility or limberness refers to the range of movement in a joint or series of joints, and length in muscles that cross the joints to induce a bending movement or motion.

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FOX proteins

FOX (Forkhead box) proteins are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and longevity.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Functional training

Functional training is a classification of exercise which involves training the body for the activities performed in daily life.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Hamster wheel

Hamster wheels or running wheel are exercise devices used primarily by hamsters and other rodents, but also by other cursorial animals when given the opportunity.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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High-intensity interval training

High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods, until too exhausted to continue.

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Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.

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Human musculoskeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.

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Human power

Human power is work or energy that is produced from the human body.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Insulin-like growth factor 1

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.

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Interval training

Interval training is a type of training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods.

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J curve

A J curve is any of a variety of J-shaped diagrams where a curve initially falls, then steeply rises above the starting point.

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Jerry Morris

Jeremiah Noah "Jerry" Morris (6 May 1910 – 28 October 2009) was a Scottish epidemiologist who established the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.

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A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.

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Transcription factor jun-B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUNB gene.

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Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.

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Lethal(3)malignant brain tumor-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the L3MBTL gene.

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Lactate threshold

Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lean body mass

Lean body mass is a component of body composition, calculated by subtracting body fat weight from total body weight: total body weight is lean plus fat.

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Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Long slow distance

Long slow distance (LSD) is a form of aerobic endurance training in running and cycling.

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Long-distance running

Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres (5 miles).

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Lunge (exercise)

A lunge can refer to any position of the human body where one leg is positioned forward with knee bent and foot flat on the ground while the other leg is positioned behind.

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The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.

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Mary Bagot Stack

Mary Bagot Stack founded the Women's League of Health & Beauty in 1930, the first and most significant mass keep-fit system of the 1930s in the UK.

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Master regulator

In genetics, a master regulator is a gene at the top of a gene regulation hierarchy, particularly in regulatory pathways related to cell fate and differentiation.

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Metabolic equivalent

The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1 or approximately: \text\.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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Middle age

Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age.

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Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.

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Mitochondrial biogenesis

Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.

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mTORC1, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1, is a protein complex that functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle hypertrophy

Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.

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Neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.

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NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Opioid peptide

Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.

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Overtraining occurs when a person exceeds their body's ability to recover from strenuous exercise.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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P70-S6 Kinase 1

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein kinase) that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KB1 gene.

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Pedestrian zone

Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, and as pedestrian precincts in British English) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited.

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Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.

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Phosphatidic acid

Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.

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Phospholipase D

Phospholipase D (lipophosphodiesterase II, lecithinase D, choline phosphatase) (PLD) is an enzyme of the phospholipase superfamily.

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Pull-up (exercise)

A pull-up is an upper-body compound pulling exercise.

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A push-up (or press-up) is a common calisthenics exercise performed in a prone position by raising and lowering the body using the arms.

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Rainbow trout

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.

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Range of motion

Range of motion (or ROM), is the linear or angular distance that a moving object may normally travel while properly attached to another.

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Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.

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Ribosomal protein s6

Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit and is therefore thought to be involved in regulating translation.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Rowing (sport)

Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.

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Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.

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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Sirtuin 1

Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.

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Skipping rope

A skipping rope (British English) or jump rope (American English) is a tool used in the sport of jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

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Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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Sprint (running)

Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time.

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Strength training

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

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Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Stroke volume

In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.

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In sports science theory, supercompensation is the post training period during which the trained function/parameter has a higher performance capacity than it did prior to the training period.

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Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Theodore Garland Jr.

Theodore Garland Jr. (born 28 November 1956) is a biologist specializing in evolutionary physiology.

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Trace amine

Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues or haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system.

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Upper respiratory tract infection

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.

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Ventricular hypertrophy

Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart.

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VO2 max

VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity).

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Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.

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Warming up

The warming up is prepare for physical exertion or a performance by exercising or practising gently beforehand.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Weight training

Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles.

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Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.

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Yellowtail amberjack

The southern yellowtail amberjack, yellowtail kingfish or great amberjack (Seriola lalandi) is a large fish found in the Southern Ocean.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise

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