31 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Atmosphere of Earth, Breathing, Carbon dioxide, Cellular respiration, Central chemoreceptors, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Dead space (physiology), Flavor, Functional residual capacity, Hydron (chemistry), Hyperpnea, Inhalation, Internal intercostal muscles, Lung, Lung volumes, Motor cortex, Olfaction, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Primary motor cortex, Pulmonary shunt, Respiratory center, Respiratory minute volume, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Spirometry, Thoracic diaphragm, Ventral respiratory group, Vital capacity, Volatile organic compound, Yawn.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol.
Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
The internal intercostal muscles (intercostales interni) are a group of skeletal muscles located between the ribs.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.
A pulmonary shunt is a pathological condition which results when the alveoli of the lungs are perfused with blood as normal, but ventilation (the supply of air) fails to supply the perfused region.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Respiratory minute volume (or minute ventilation or minute volume) is the volume of gas inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a person's lungs per minute.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The ventral respiratory group (VRG) is a column of neurons located in the ventrolateral region of the medulla, extending from the caudal facial nucleus to −400μm obex.The ventral respiratory group is one of the respiratory groups in the respiratory centre.
Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath. Yawning (oscitation) most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality. It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, sleepiness, or even boredom and hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by others yawning (e.g. seeing a person yawning, talking to someone on the phone who is yawning) and is a typical example of positive feedback. This "contagious" yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles, and can occur across species. Approximately 20 psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by scholars, but there is little agreement on the primacy of any one. During a yawn, the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear contracts, creating a rumbling noise from within the head. Yawning is sometimes accompanied, both in humans and animals, by an instinctive act of stretching several parts of the body, including arms, neck, shoulders and back.