91 relations: ACARS, Advanced steam technology, Air pollution, Alternative fuel vehicle, Ammonia, Asthma, Atmospheric dispersion modeling, Benzene, Bone marrow, Bronchitis, California Air Resources Board, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carboxyhemoglobin, Catalytic converter, Chemical substance, Chronic condition, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clean Air Act (United States), Climate change, Coal, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Combustion, Congestion pricing, Crankcase, Death, Diesel engine, Diesel fuel, Emission standard, European emission standards, Exhaust gas temperature gauge, Exhaust system, Federal Highway Administration, Flue gas, Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, Flue-gas stack, Formaldehyde, Fuel oil, Gas mask, Gasoline, Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Hemoglobin, Hydrocarbon, Immune system, Infection, Internal combustion engine, Jet engine, Kyoto Protocol, ..., Landfill gas, Lightning, Low-emission zone, Lung cancer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mobile source air pollution, Motor vehicle, Motor vehicle emissions and pregnancy, Natural gas, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Nitromethane, Non-road engine, Oil refinery, Operating temperature, Oxygen, Ozone, Particulates, Petrochemical, Pollutant, Propelling nozzle, Respiratory system, Rocket engine, Scrubber, Shock diamond, Smog, Soot, Southern California, Spark-ignition engine, Steam engine, Sulfur dioxide, United States Air Force Academy, United States emission standards, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vehicle emissions control, Volatile organic compound, Water vapor, World Health Organization, World Trade Center (1973–2001). Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
In aviation, ACARS (an acronym for aircraft communications addressing and reporting system) is a digital datalink system for transmission of short messages between aircraft and ground stations via airband radio or satellite.
Advanced steam technology (sometimes known as Modern Steam) reflects an approach to the technical development of the steam engine intended for a wider variety of applications than has recently been the case.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels (petrol or Diesel fuel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered).
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Carboxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin (symbol COHb or HbCO) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin (Hb) that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide (CO).
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand such as higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times.
A crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft in a reciprocating internal combustion engine.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states.
An exhaust gas temperature gauge (EGT gauge) is a meter used to monitor the exhaust gas temperature of an internal combustion engine in conjunction with a thermocouple-type pyrometer.
An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion refers to the combustion-product gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels.
A flue-gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A low-emission zone (LEZ) is a defined area where access by some polluting vehicles is restricted or deterred with the aim of improving the air quality.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
In the United States about 10% of the population, 35 million people, live within 100 meters of a high traffic road High-traffic roads are commonly identified as being host to more than 50,000 vehicles per day, which is a source of toxic vehicle pollutants.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula.
Non-road engine (which may include non-road equipment and non-road vehicle) is an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine engine used for other purposes than being an engine of a vehicle operated on public roadways.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas generator into a jet engine.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
Shock diamonds (also known as Mach diamonds, Mach disks, Mach rings, donut tails or thrust diamonds) are a formation of standing wave patterns that appear in the supersonic exhaust plume of an aerospace propulsion system, such as a supersonic jet engine, rocket, ramjet, or scramjet, when it is operated in an atmosphere.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
A spark-ignition engine (SI engine) is an internal combustion engine, generally a petrol engine, where the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The United States Air Force Academy (also known as USAFA, the Air Force Academy, or the Academy), is a military academy for officer cadets of the United States Air Force.
In the United States, emissions standards are managed nationally by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
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