325 relations: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, A. C. Grayling, A. J. Ayer, Abraham Kuyper, Abrahamic religions, Absolute (philosophy), Act of God, Adi Shankara, Adrsta, Afterlife, Agent detection, Agnosticism, Al-Ghazali, Albert Stöckl, Allah, Alvin Plantinga, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greek religion, Anselm of Canterbury, Anthropomorphism, Anti-realism, Apatheism, Apologetics, Argument from a proper basis, Argument from authority, Argument from beauty, Argument from consciousness, Argument from degree, Argument from desire, Argument from free will, Argument from inconsistent revelations, Argument from miracles, Argument from nonbelief, Argument from poor design, Argument from religious experience, Argumentum ad populum, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Arthur Balfour, Atheism, Atheism in Hinduism, Atheistic existentialism, Averroes, Āstika and nāstika, B. B. Warfield, Bahá'í Faith, Baucis and Philemon, Bayesian probability, Being, Being and Nothingness, ..., Belief, Bernard d'Espagnat, Bertrand Russell, Bhagavan, Bible, Book of Mormon, Book of the Law of the Lord, Brahma Kumaris, Brahma Sutras, Brahman, Buddhism, Burden of proof (philosophy), C. S. Lewis, Calvin College, Calvinism, Carl Jung, Carl Sagan, Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic Church, Causality, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Charvaka, Christian, Christian existential apologetics, Christianity, Christological argument, Church of Christ (Assured Way), Church of Christ (Temple Lot), Church of Christ With the Elijah Message, Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite), Classical theism, Cognitive science, Columbia University Press, Community of Christ, Conceptions of God, Contingency (philosophy), Cornelius Van Til, Cosmological argument, Creator deity, Critique of Pure Reason, Dada Lekhraj, Daniel Dennett, David Bentley Hart, David Hume, De facto, Deductive reasoning, Deism, Deity, Depression (mood), Dotdash, Edward Feser, Efficacy of prayer, Empirical research, Epistemology, Everyday life, Evil, Evolution, Evolutionary argument against naturalism, Existence, Existence precedes essence, Experiment, Faith, Falsifiability, Fate of the unlearned, Ferdinand Brunetière, Fideism, First Vatican Council, Five Ways (Aquinas), France, Francis Collins, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Gödel's ontological proof, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, Germany, Gnosticism, God, God's Debris, Good and evil, Gordon Clark, Grimus, Hard problem of consciousness, Herman Dooyeweerd, Historicity of Jesus, History, History of religion, Humanistic Judaism, Immanuel Kant, Inductive reasoning, Infinite regress, Intelligence, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Ishvara, Islam, Jacques Derrida, Jainism, James Strang, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jehovah, John Calvin, John Lennox, John Polkinghorne, John the Baptist, Joseph Smith, Judaism, Kalam cosmological argument, Karl Popper, Karma, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Knowledge, Krishna, Laban (Book of Mormon), Latter Day Saint movement, Lawrence M. Krauss, Leap of faith, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Life, Logic, Logical consequence, Logical positivism, Logical truth, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Maimonides, Mantra, Mathematical beauty, Mīmāṃsā, Mere Christianity, Metaphysics, Milky Way, Modal logic, Monadology, Monotheism, Mormonism, Muslim, Naturalism (philosophy), Negative and positive atheism, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Neural network, New Testament, New York City, Non-overlapping magisteria, Nyaya, Occam's razor, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Omnipotence paradox, Omnipresence, One Mighty and Strong, Ontological argument, Ontology, Open theism, Orthopraxy, Otto Fetting, Pandeism, Panentheism, Pantheism, Paramatman, Pascal Boyer, Pascal's Wager, Paul Kurtz, Paul the Apostle, Personal god, Personal life, Phenomenon, Philosophy, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Physicalism, Plato, Popular culture, Presuppositional apologetics, Prima facie, Prior probability, Probability, Problem of evil, Problem of Hell, Problem of other minds, Problem of the creator of God, Process theology, Proof by contradiction, Prospect (magazine), Quantum mechanics, Quentin Smith, Quran, Ra, Rabbi, Rationalism, Reality, Reason, Rebecca Goldstein, Reincarnation, Relationship between religion and science, Religion, Religious text, René Descartes, Resurrection of Jesus, Revue des deux Mondes, Reza Aslan, Richard Dawkins, Richard Swinburne, Ritual, Robert Flint, Robert L. Reymond, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Rudolf Carnap, Russell's teapot, Saṃsāra, Salman Rushdie, Salvation, Sam Harris, Samkhya, Samkhya Pravachana Sutra, Sanskrit, Satcitananda, Søren Kierkegaard, Science, Scientific method, Scotland, Scott Adams, Scott Atran, Secular humanism, Sensus divinitatis, Shangdi, Sherwin Wine, Sigmund Freud, Soul, Spectrum of theistic probability, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Jay Gould, Stephen Toulmin, Subjectivity, Suffering, Summa Theologica, Supernatural, Svayam Bhagavan, Tanakh, Teleological argument, Ten Commandments, Tetragrammaton, The Alchemy of Happiness, The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Exodus, The God Delusion, The Grand Design (book), The Word of the Lord, Theism, Theistic Personalism, Theodicy, Theological noncognitivism, Theory of mind, Thomas Aquinas, Trance, Transcendence (philosophy), Transcendence (religion), Transcendental argument for the existence of God, Truth value, Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit, Unmoved mover, Vaishnavism, Value theory, Vedanta, Vedas, Vishnu, Voree plates, W. A. Draves, Western philosophy, William James, William Lane Craig, Witness, Zeus. Expand index (275 more) » « Shrink index
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (commonly called Treatise when referring to Berkeley's works) is a 1710 work, in English, by Irish Empiricist philosopher George Berkeley.
Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abraham Kuijper (29 October 1837 – 8 November 1920), publicly known as Abraham Kuyper, was Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and also a journalist.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
In legal usage throughout the English-speaking world, an act of God is a natural hazard outside human control, such as an earthquake or tsunami, for which no person can be held responsible.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Adrsta (अदृष्ट, Adr̥ṣṭa) is a concept in Indian philosophy which means that which is "unobserved, not seen, invisible".
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Agent detection is the inclination for animals, including humans, to presume the purposeful intervention of a sentient or intelligent agent in situations that may or may not involve one.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Albert Stöckl (Möhren, near Treuchtlingen, in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, 15 March 1823 – Eichstädt, 15 November 1895) was a German neo-scholastic philosopher and theologian.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.
Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism) is the attitude of apathy towards the existence or non-existence of god(s).
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
The argument from a proper basis is an ontological argument for the existence of God related to fideism.
An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.
The argument from beauty (also the aesthetic argument) is an argument for the existence of a realm of immaterial ideas or, most commonly, for the existence of God.
The argument from consciousness is an argument for the existence of God based on consciousness.
The argument from degrees or the degrees of perfection argument is an argument for the existence of God first proposed by mediaeval Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas as one of the five ways to philosophically argue in favour of God's existence in his Summa Theologica.
The argument from desire is an argument for the existence of God and/or a heavenly afterlife.
The argument from free will, also called the paradox of free will or theological fatalism, contends that omniscience and free will are incompatible and that any conception of God that incorporates both properties is therefore inherently contradictory.
The argument from inconsistent revelations, also known as the avoiding the wrong hell problem, is an argument against the existence of God.
The argument from miracles is an argument for the existence of God that relies on the belief that events witnessed and described as miracles – i.e. as events not explicable by natural or scientific laws – indicate the intervention of the supernatural.
An argument from nonbelief is a philosophical argument that asserts an inconsistency between the existence of God and a world in which people fail to recognize him.
The argument from poor design, also known as the dysteleological argument, is an argument against the existence of a creator God, based on the reasoning that an omnipotent and omnibenevolent God would not create organisms with the perceived suboptimal designs that can be seen in nature.
The argument from religious experience is an argument for the existence of God.
In argumentation theory, an argumentum ad populum (Latin for "argument to the people") is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition must be true because many or most people believe it, often concisely encapsulated as: "If many believe so, it is so." This type of argument is known by several names, including appeal to the masses, appeal to belief, appeal to the majority, appeal to democracy, appeal to popularity, argument by consensus, consensus fallacy, authority of the many, bandwagon fallacy, vox populi, and in Latin as argumentum ad numerum ("appeal to the number"), fickle crowd syndrome, and consensus gentium ("agreement of the clans").
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद,, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies.
"Atheistic existentialism" is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield (November 5, 1851 – February 16, 1921) was professor of theology at Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
In Ovid's moralizing fable which stands on the periphery of Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Baucis and Philemon were an old married couple in the region of Tyana, which Ovid places in Phrygia, and the only ones in their town to welcome disguised gods Zeus and Hermes (in Roman mythology, Jupiter and Mercury respectively), thus embodying the pious exercise of hospitality, the ritualized guest-friendship termed xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved.
Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes published with the subtitle A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author asserts the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence ("existence precedes essence") and seeks to demonstrate that free will exists.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Bernard d'Espagnat (22 August 1921 – 1 August 2015) was a French theoretical physicist, philosopher of science, and author, best known for his work on the nature of reality.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2200 BC to AD 421.
The Book of the Law of the Lord is a sacred book of scripture used by the Strangites, a sect of the Latter Day Saint movement.
The Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University (Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya or BKWSU) is a new religious movement that originated in Hyderabad, Sindh, during the 1930s.
The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The burden of proof (Latin: onus probandi, shortened from Onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat) is the obligation on a party in a dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Calvin College is a liberal arts college located in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian existential apologetics differs from traditional approaches to Christian apologetics by basing arguments for Christian theism on the satisfaction of existential needs rather than on strictly logical or evidential arguments.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christological argument for the existence of God, which exists in several forms, holds that if these claims are valid, one should accept God exists.
The Church of Christ With the Elijah Message, The Assured Way of the Lord, Inc., informally called The Assured Way, is a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement based in Independence, Missouri.
The Church of Christ, informally referred to as the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) and "Hedrickites", is a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement headquartered in Independence, Missouri on what is known as the Temple Lot.
The Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, also known as The Church of Christ With the Elijah Message, Established Anew 1929, is a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement, headquartered in Jackson County, Missouri.
The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) is a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement headquartered in Independence, Missouri, United States.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints—usually distinguished with a parenthetical (Strangite)—is a schism of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Classical theism is a form of theism in which God is characterized as the absolutely metaphysically ultimate being, in contrast to other conceptions such as pantheism, panentheism, polytheism and process theism.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), is an American-based international church with roots in the Latter Day Saint movement.
Conceptions of God in monotheist, pantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
Cornelius Van Til (May 3, 1895 – April 17, 1987) was a Dutch Christian philosopher and Reformed theologian, who is credited as being the originator of modern presuppositional apologetics.
In natural theology and philosophy, a cosmological argument is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Lekhraj Khubchand Kripalani (15 December 1876 – 18 January 1969), also known as Dada Lekhraj, was the founder of the Brahma Kumaris.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
David Bentley Hart (born 1965) is an American Orthodox Christian philosophical theologian, cultural commentator and polemicist.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Edward Feser (born April 16, 1968) is an American philosopher, writer, and academic.
The efficacy of prayer is about the outcome of prayer requests.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary argument against naturalism (EAAN) is a philosophical argument asserting a problem with believing both evolution and philosophical naturalism simultaneously.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
The proposition that existence precedes essence (l'existence précède l'essence) is a central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being).
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
The fate of the unlearned, also known as the destiny of the unevangelized, is an eschatological question about the ultimate destiny of people who have not been exposed to a particular theology or doctrine and thus have no opportunity to embrace it.
Ferdinand Brunetière (19 July 1849 – 9 December 1906) was a French writer and critic.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
The First Vatican Council (Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.
The Quinque viæ (Latin "Five Ways") (sometimes called "five proofs") are five logical arguments regarding the existence of God summarized by the 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian St. Thomas Aquinas in his book Summa Theologica.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project.
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Gödel's ontological proof is a formal argument by the mathematician Kurt Gödel (1906–1978) for God's existence.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
God's Debris: A Thought Experiment is a 2001 novella by Dilbert creator Scott Adams.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902 – April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian.
Grimus is a 1975 fantasy and science fiction novel by Salman Rushdie.
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.
Herman Dooyeweerd (7 October 1894, Amsterdam – 12 February 1977, Amsterdam) was a Dutch juridical scholar by training, who by vocation was a philosopher and a co-founder of the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea with Dirk Vollenhoven.
The historicity of Jesus concerns the degree to which sources show Jesus of Nazareth existed as a historical figure.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.
Humanistic Judaism (Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
James Jesse Strang (March 21, 1813 – July 9, 1856) was an American religious leader, politician and monarch.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jehovah is a Latinization of the Hebrew, one vocalization of the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), the proper name of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible and one of the seven names of God in Judaism.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Carson Lennox (born 7 November 1943) is a Northern Irish mathematician specialising in group theory, a philosopher of science and a Christian apologist.
John Charlton Polkinghorne (born 16 October 1930) is an English theoretical physicist, theologian, writer and Anglican priest.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Kalām cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God; named for the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism), it was popularized by William Lane Craig in his The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979).
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
The Kitáb-i-Aqdas or Aqdas is the central book of the Bahá'í Faith written by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion, in 1873.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Laban was the name of a person in the first part of the Book of Mormon, a scripture of the Latter Day Saint movement.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Lawrence Maxwell Krauss (born May 27, 1954) is an American-Canadian theoretical physicist and cosmologist who is Foundation Professor of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University, and director of its Origins Project.
A leap of faith, in its most commonly used meaning, is the act of believing in or accepting something outside the boundaries of reason.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (LPR; Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion, VPR) outlines his ideas on Christianity as a form of self-consciousness.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Mathematical beauty describes the notion that some mathematicians may derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general.
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
Mere Christianity is a theological book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a series of BBC radio talks made between 1941 and 1944, while Lewis was at Oxford during the Second World War.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
The Monadology (La Monadologie, 1714) is one of Gottfried Leibniz’s best known works representing his later philosophy.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Negative atheism, also called weak atheism and soft atheism, is any type of atheism where a person does not believe in the existence of any deities but does not explicitly assert that there are none.
Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator.
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Non-overlapping magisteria (NOMA) is the view that was advocated by Stephen Jay Gould that science and religion each represent different areas of inquiry, fact vs.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
The omnipotence paradox is a family of paradoxes that arise with some understandings of the term 'omnipotent'.
Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.
The One Mighty and Strong is an unknown person who was the subject of an 1832 prophecy by Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement.
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Open theism, also known as openness theology and free will theism, is a theological movement that has developed within evangelical and post-evangelical Protestant Christianity as a response to ideas related to the synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian theology.
In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.
Otto Fetting (November 20, 1871 – January 30, 1933) was an American realtor and editor from Port Huron, Michigan who served first as a pastor and evangelist in the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and then later as an apostle in the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), commonly referred to as the "Hedrickites".
Pandeism (or pan-deism) is a theological doctrine first delineated in the 18th century which combines aspects of pantheism with aspects of deism.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Paramatman (Sanskrit: परमात्मन्, IAST: Paramātmāṇ) or Paramātmā is the Absolute Atman or Supreme self) in Vedanta and Yoga philosophies in the Hindu theology. The Paramatman is the “Primordial Self” or the “Self Beyond” who is spiritually practically identical with the Absolute, identical with the Brahman. Selflessness is the attribute of Paramatman, where all personality/individuality vanishes.
Pascal Robert Boyer is a French and American anthropologist, mostly known for his work in the cognitive science of religion.
Pascal's Wager is an argument in philosophy presented by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–62).
Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".
Personal life is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Presuppositionalism is a school of Christian apologetics that believes the Christian faith is the only basis for rational thought.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
In Bayesian statistical inference, a prior probability distribution, often simply called the prior, of an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
The problem of Hell is an ethical problem in religion in which the existence of Hell for the punishment of souls is regarded as inconsistent with the notion of a just, moral, and omnibenevolent God.
The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic: given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? It is a central tenet of the philosophical idea known as solipsism; the notion that for any person only one's own mind is known to exist.
A common challenge to theistic propositions of a creator deity as a necessary first-cause explanation for the universe is the question: "Who created God?".
Process theology is a type of theology developed from Alfred North Whitehead's (1861–1947) process philosophy, most notably by Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000) and John B. Cobb (b. 1925).
In logic, proof by contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition.
Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics, economics and current affairs.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quentin Persifor Smith (born August 27, 1952 in Rhinebeck, New York) is a professor emeritus of philosophy at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ra (rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: ri-a or ri-ia) or Re (ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Rebecca Newberger Goldstein (born February 23, 1950) is an American philosopher, novelist and public intellectual.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
The Revue des deux Mondes (Review of the Two Worlds) is a French language monthly literary and cultural affairs magazine that has been published in Paris since 1829.
Reza Aslan (رضا اصلان,; born May 3, 1972) is an Iranian-American author, public intellectual, religious studies scholar, producer, and television host.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Richard G. Swinburne (born 26 December 1934) is a British philosopher.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Robert Flint (1838–1910) was a Scottish theologian and philosopher who wrote also on sociology.
Robert Lewis Reymond (October 30, 1932 – September 20, 2013) was a Christian theologian of the Protestant Reformed tradition and the author of New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith (1998).
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Russell's teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, neuroscientist, critic of religion, blogger, and podcast host.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Samkhya Pravachana Sutra (Sāṁkhyapravacanasūtra) is a collection of major Sanskrit texts of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satchitananda (IAST: Satcitānanda) or Sacchidānanda representing "existence, consciousness, and bliss" or "truth, consciousness, bliss", is an epithet and description for the subjective experience of the ultimate, unchanging reality in Hinduism called Brahman.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scott Adams (born June 8, 1957) is the creator of the Dilbert comic strip and the author of several nonfiction works of satire, commentary, and business.
Scott Atran (born February 6, 1952) is a French-American anthropologist who is a Director of Research in Anthropology at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris, Research Professor at the University of Michigan, and cofounder of ARTIS International and of the at Oxford University.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Sensus divinitatis ("sense of divinity"), also referred to as sensus deitatis ("sense of deity") or semen religionis ("seed of religion"), is a term first used by French Protestant reformer John Calvin to describe a hypothetical human sense.
Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.
Sherwin Theodore Wine (January 25, 1928 – July 21, 2007) was a rabbi and a founding figure in Humanistic Judaism.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Popularized by Richard Dawkins in The God Delusion, the spectrum of theistic probability is a way of categorizing one's belief regarding the probability of the existence of a deity.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Svayam Bhagavān ("The Lord Himself") is a Sanskrit theological term for the concept of absolute representation of God as Bhagavan.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
Kimiya-yi Sa'ādat (کیمیای سعادت italics) was a book written by Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, a Persian theologian, philosopher, and prolific Sunni Muslim author regarded as one of the greatest systematic thinkers of Islam.
The Church of Jesus Christ is a Christian religious denomination headquartered in Monongahela, Pennsylvania, United States.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.
The God Delusion is a 2006 best-selling non-fiction book by English biologist Richard Dawkins, a professorial fellow at New College, Oxford and former holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford.
The Grand Design is a popular-science book written by physicists Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow and published by Bantam Books in 2010.
The Word of the Lord refers to one of two books of scripture used by certain factions of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
According to Dagobert D. Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, 1942, theistic personalism is "the theory most generally held by Personalists that God is the ground of all being, immanent in and transcendent over the whole world of reality.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Theological noncognitivism is the position that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
The Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (TAG) is the argument that attempts to prove God's existence by arguing that logic, morals, and science ultimately presuppose a supreme being, and that God must be the source of logic and morals.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
The Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit is a counter-argument to modern versions of the argument from design for the existence of God.
The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The Voree plates, also called The Record of Rajah Manchou of Vorito, or the Voree Record, were a set of three tiny metal plates allegedly discovered by Latter Day Saint leader James J. Strang in 1845 in Voree, near Burlington, Wisconsin.
William August Draves (born "Wilhelm") (12 May 1912 — 28 June 1994) was the founder and an apostle of the Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, a successor to the organization founded by former Church of Christ (Temple Lot) Apostle Otto Fetting.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher and Christian theologian.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Absence of God, Argument Against God, Argument For God, Argument against the existence of God, Argument for the existence of God, Arguments against the existence of God, Arguments against the existence of a God, Arguments against the existence of god, Arguments against the existence of gods, Arguments for God, Arguments for God's existence, Arguments for and against the existence of God, Arguments for the existance of God, Arguments for the existence of God, Arguments for the existence of god, ArgumentsForTheExistenceOfGod, Does God exist?, Evidence for God, Evidence of God, Existance of God, Existence of Allah, Existence of God(s), Existence of a God, Existence of god, God exists, God's existence, Is God real?, Mathematics and God, Non-existence of God, Non-existence of the Devil, Nonexistence of God, Nonexistence of the Devil, Proof God does not exist, Proof God exists, Proof of God, Proof of existence of God, Proof of god, Proof of the existence of God, Proof that God exists, Proofs of God, Proofs of God's existence, Proving the existence of God, Reality of God, The argument against God, The existence of God, The rationality of atheism/Needs to be NPOVed.