266 relations: 'Pataphysics, A Clockwork Orange (film), A. J. Ayer, Abandonment (existentialism), Absurdism, Adam Fong, Akira Kurosawa, Albert Camus, Alexandre Kojève, André Breton, Andrei Tarkovsky, Angst, Anguish, Anime, Antigone (Anouilh play), Anxiety, Apocalypse Now, Arthur Adamov, Atheism, Authenticity (philosophy), Übermensch, Bad faith (existentialism), Badlands (film), Being and Nothingness, Being and Time, Being in itself, Bharath (actor), Bible, Blade Runner, Blaise Pascal, Boredom, Caligula (play), Carl Jung, Catholic Church in France, Charlie Kaufman, Christian theology, Christianity, Christopher Nolan, Chuck Palahniuk, Colin Wilson, Combat (newspaper), Consciousness, Crime and Punishment, Critique of Dialectical Reason, Determinism, Disenchantment, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, Don Quixote, Easy Rider, Edinburgh Festival Fringe, ..., Edmund Husserl, Either/Or, Emmy van Deurzen, Ernest Becker, Essence, Eugène Ionesco, Eugène Minkowski, Europe, Exercise, Existence precedes essence, Existential crisis, Existential nihilism, Existential phenomenology, Existentialism, Existentialism Is a Humanism, Existentiell, Fight Club, Fight Club (novel), François Truffaut, Frankfurt, Franz Kafka, Frederick Copleston, Free will, Freedom, Freiburg im Breisgau, French Resistance, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Gabriel Marcel, Gainax, Gaspar Noé, Gaze, Georg Simmel, Georges Bataille, Gerd B. Achenbach, Ghost in the Shell (1995 film), Global catastrophic risk, Groundhog Day (film), H. P. Lovecraft, Hamlet, Harold and Maude, Hasidic Judaism, Hegelianism, Heidelberg, Herbert Marcuse, Hermann Hesse, Hideaki Anno, High Noon, Human condition, Humanistic psychology, Hypostatic abstraction, I and Thou, I Heart Huckabees, Ikiru, Individual, Ingmar Bergman, Intersubjectivity, Irvin D. Yalom, Jack Kerouac, Jacques Lacan, James Wood (critic), Jean Anouilh, Jean Beaufret, Jean Genet, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jerusalem, Johan Sebastian Welhaven, José Ortega y Gasset, Joseph Heller, Journey to the End of the Night, Kangaroo court, Karl Barth, Karl Jaspers, Knight of faith, Kurt Vonnegut, Lady Godiva, Leap of faith, Les Nouvelles littéraires, Les Temps modernes, Letter on Humanism, Lev Shestov, Life in a Day (2011 film), List of anti-war films, List of existentialists, Logical positivism, Logotherapy, Louis Althusser, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Ludwig Binswanger, Luigi Pirandello, Maine, Marburg, Martin Buber, Martin Esslin, Martin Heidegger, Marxism, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Meaning (existential), Meaning-making, Medard Boss, Melancholia (2011 film), Michel Foucault, Michel Gondry, Michel Weber, Michelangelo Antonioni, Miguel de Cervantes, Miguel de Unamuno, Mood Indigo (film), Moral nihilism, Nausea (novel), Nazism, Neo-orthodoxy, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Nihilism, Nikolai Berdyaev, No Exit, Notes from Underground, Nothing, Objectivity (philosophy), One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film), Ordinary People, Orson Welles, Oscar Zárate, Otto Rank, Paris, Pathos, Paths of Glory, Paul Tillich, Penguin Classics, Phenomenology (philosophy), Phenomenology of Perception, Philip K. Dick, Philosophical counseling, Philosophy, Philosophy Now, Play (theatre), Positivism, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Predicate (grammar), Prentice Hall, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Questions (game), Quietism (philosophy), Rainer Maria Rilke, Ralph Ellison, Rationalism, Raymond Queneau, Red Beard, René Descartes, Rollo May, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Rudolf Bultmann, Rudolf Carnap, Rune Slagstad, Samuel Beckett, San Manuel Bueno, Mártir, Søren Kierkegaard, Scandinavia, Science fiction, Secular humanism, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir, Sisyphus, Slaughterhouse-Five, Social psychology, Sociology, Socrates, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanley Kubrick, Steven Crowell, Subject (philosophy), Suicide, Surrealism, Symbolic interactionism, Synecdoche, New York, T. S. Eliot, Taxi Driver, Terrence Malick, Terror management theory, The Blood of Others, The Brothers Karamazov, The Ethics of Ambiguity, The Great Silence, The Matrix, The Myth of Sisyphus, The New York Review of Books, The Outsider (Colin Wilson), The Plague, The Rebel (book), The Roads to Freedom, The Second Sex, The Seventh Seal, The Shawshank Redemption, The Sickness Unto Death, The Stranger (Camus novel), The Trial (1962 film), The Wall (short story collection), Theatre of the Absurd, Tom Stoppard, Toy Story (franchise), Tragicomedy, Understanding, Viktor Frankl, Waiting for Godot, Waiting staff, Waking Life, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Wes Anderson, William Shakespeare, Woody Allen, Works of Love, World War II, Zionism. Expand index (216 more) » « Shrink index
Pataphysics or pataphysics (pataphysique) is a difficult to define literary trope invented by French writer Alfred Jarry (1873–1907).
A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 dystopian crime film adapted, produced, and directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on Anthony Burgess's 1962 novel of the same name.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abandonment, in philosophy, refers to the infinite freedom of humanity without the existence of a condemning or omnipotent higher power.
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.
Adam Fong (born June 21, 1980) is an American composer, performer and producer active in the San Francisco Bay area.
was a Japanese film director and screenwriter, who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Alexandre Kojève (28 April 1902 – 4 June 1968) was a Russian-born French philosopher and statesman whose philosophical seminars had an immense influence on 20th-century French philosophy, particularly via his integration of Hegelian concepts into twentieth century continental philosophy.
André Breton (18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist.
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (p; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.
Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).
Anguish is a term used in philosophy, often as a translation from the Latin for angst.
Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.
Jean Anouilh's play Antigone is a tragedy inspired by Greek mythology and the play of the same name by Sophocles.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film directed, produced, and co-written by Francis Ford Coppola.
Arthur Adamov (23 August 1908 – 15 March 1970) was a playwright, one of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).
The Übermensch (German for "Beyond-Man", "Superman", "Overman", "Superhuman", "Hyperman", "Hyperhuman") is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Bad faith (French: mauvaise foi) is a philosophical concept utilized by existentialist philosophers Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre to describe the phenomenon in which human beings, under pressure from social forces, adopt false values and disown their innate freedom, hence acting inauthentically.
Badlands is a 1973 American crime film written and directed by Terrence Malick, starring Martin Sheen and Sissy Spacek, and featuring Warren Oates and Ramon Bieri.
Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes published with the subtitle A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author asserts the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence ("existence precedes essence") and seeks to demonstrate that free will exists.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
Being-in-itself is the self-contained and fully realized Being of objects.
Bharat (born Bharat Niwas) is an Indian film actor, working predominantly in the Tamil film industry along with a few films in Malayalam and Telugu.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Blade Runner is a 1982 American-Hong Kong neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
In conventional usage, boredom is an emotional or psychological state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, is not interested in his or her surroundings, or feels that a day or period is dull or tedious.
Caligula is a play written by Albert Camus, begun in 1938 (the date of the first manuscript 1939) and published for the first time in May 1944 by Éditions Gallimard.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
Charles Stuart Kaufman (born November 19, 1958) is an American screenwriter, producer, director, and lyricist.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Edward Nolan (born 30 July 1970) is an English film director, screenwriter, and producer who holds both British and American citizenship.
Charles Michael Palahniuk (born February 21, 1962) is an American novelist and freelance journalist, who describes his work as "transgressional" fiction.
Colin Henry Wilson (26 June 1931 – 5 December 2013) was an English writer, philosopher and novelist.
Combat was a French newspaper created during the Second World War.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Crime and Punishment (Pre-reform Russian: Преступленіе и наказаніе; post-reform prʲɪstʊˈplʲenʲɪje ɪ nəkɐˈzanʲɪje) is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
Critique of Dialectical Reason (Critique de la raison dialectique) is a 1960 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author further develops the existentialist Marxism he first expounded in his essay Search for a Method (1957).
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
In social science, disenchantment (Entzauberung) is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (retitled Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? in some later printings) is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
Easy Rider is a 1969 American independent road drama film written by Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, and Terry Southern, produced by Fonda, and directed by Hopper.
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe (often referred to as simply The Fringe) is the world's largest arts festival, which in 2017 spanned 25 days and featured 53,232 performances of 3,398 shows in 300 venues.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Either/Or (Danish: Enten – Eller) is the first published work of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.
Emmy van Deurzen (born 13 December 1951 in The Hague, Netherlands) is an existential therapist.
Ernest Becker (September 27, 1924 – March 6, 1974) was a Jewish-American cultural anthropologist and writer.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu,; 26 November 1909 – 28 March 1994) was a Romanian-French playwright who wrote mostly in French, and one of the foremost figures of the French Avant-garde theatre.
Eugène (Eugeniusz) Minkowski (17 April 1885 – 17 November 1972) was a French psychiatrist of Jewish Polish origin, known for his incorporation of phenomenology into psychopathology and for exploring the notion of "lived time".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The proposition that existence precedes essence (l'existence précède l'essence) is a central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being).
An existential crisis is a moment at which an individual questions if their life has meaning, purpose, or value.
Existential nihilism is the philosophical theory that life has no intrinsic meaning or value.
Existential phenomenology is Martin Heidegger's brand of phenomenology.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Existentialism Is a Humanism (L'existentialisme est un humanisme) is a 1946 work by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, based on a lecture by the same name he gave at Club Maintenant in Paris, on 29 October 1945.
Existentiell and existential are necessary discursive concepts used in the fundamental ontology of Dasein; whereby the former (ontic-existentiell) describes its ontic characteristics whilst the latter is an ontological-existential interpretation of the former.
Fight Club is a 1999 film based on the 1996 novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk.
Fight Club is a 1996 novel by Chuck Palahniuk.
François Roland Truffaut (6 February 1932 – 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film critic, as well as one of the founders of the French New Wave.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Gabriel Honoré Marcel (7 December 1889 – 8 October 1973) was a French philosopher, playwright, music critic and leading Christian existentialist.
is a Japanese anime studio famous for productions such as Gunbuster, The Wings of Honneamise, Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi, FLCL, Gurren Lagann and Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt, which have garnered critical acclaim and been commercially successful.
Gaspar Noé (born December 27, 1963) is an Argentine filmmaker living in France.
In critical theory, sociology, and psychoanalysis, the gaze (translated from French le regard) is the act of seeing and being seen.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.
Gerd B. Achenbach (born February 11, 1947 in Hameln as Gerd Böttcher) is a German philosopher.
Ghost in the Shell (known in Japan as) is a 1995 anime science fiction film based on the manga of the same name by Masamune Shirow.
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even crippling or destroying modern civilization.
Groundhog Day is a 1993 American comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Ramis and Danny Rubin.
Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
Harold and Maude is a 1971 American romantic black comedy drama directed by Hal Ashby and released by Paramount Pictures.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.
is a Japanese animator, film director, and actor.
High Noon is a 1952 American Western film produced by Stanley Kramer from a screenplay by Carl Foreman, directed by Fred Zinnemann, and starring Gary Cooper.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.
Hypostatic abstraction in mathematical logic, also known as hypostasis or subjectal abstraction, is a formal operation that transforms a predicate into a relation; for example "Honey is sweet" is transformed into "Honey has sweetness".
Ich und Du, usually translated as I and Thou, is a book by Martin Buber, published in 1923, and first translated from German to English in 1937.
I ♥ Huckabees (known usually as I Heart Huckabees but also as I Love Huckabees) is a 2004 American comedy-drama film directed and produced by David O. Russell, who co-wrote the screenplay with Jeff Baena.
is a 1952 Japanese drama film directed and co-written by Akira Kurosawa and starring Takashi Shimura.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio.
Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.
Irvin David Yalom (born 13 June 1931) is an American existential psychiatrist who is emeritus professor of psychiatry at Stanford University, as well as author of both fiction and nonfiction.
Jack Kerouac (born Jean-Louis Kérouac (though he called himself Jean-Louis Lebris de Kérouac); March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist and poet of French-Canadian descent.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
James Douglas Graham Wood (born 1 November 1965 in Durham, England)"WOOD, James Douglas Graham", Who's Who 2012, A & C Black, 2012; online edn, Oxford University Press, December 2011; online edn, November 2011, is an English literary critic, essayist and novelist.
Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (23 June 1910 – 3 October 1987) was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades.
Jean Beaufret (22 May 1907 in Auzances7 August 1982 in Paris) was a French philosopher and Germanist tremendously influential in the reception of Martin Heidegger's work in France.
Jean Genet (–) was a French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist.
Jean-Luc Godard (born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven (22 December 1807 – 21 October 1873) was a Norwegian author, poet, critic and art theorist.
José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American author of novels, short stories, plays and screenplays.
Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) is the first novel by Louis-Ferdinand Céline.
A kangaroo court is a court that ignores recognized standards of law or justice, and often carries little or no official standing in the territory within which it resides.
Karl Barth (–) was a Swiss Reformed theologian who is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
The knight of faith is an individual who has placed complete faith in himself and in God and can act freely and independently from the world.
Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.
Godiva, Countess of Mercia (died between 1066 and 1086), in Old English Godgifu, was an English noblewoman who, according to a legend dating at least to the 13th century, rode naked – covered only in her long hair – through the streets of Coventry to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation that her husband imposed on his tenants.
A leap of faith, in its most commonly used meaning, is the act of believing in or accepting something outside the boundaries of reason.
Les Nouvelles littéraires was a French literary and artistic newspaper created in October 1922 by the Éditions Larousse.
Les Temps modernes (Modern Times) is a French journal whose first issue appeared in October 1945.
Letter on Humanism (Brief über den Humanismus) refers to a famous letter written by Martin Heidegger in December 1946 in response to a series of questions by Jean Beaufret (10 November 1946) about the development of French existentialism.
Lev Isaakovich Shestov (Лев Исаа́кович Шесто́в, 1866 – 1938), born Yeguda Leib Shvartsman (Иегуда Лейб Шварцман), was a Russian existentialist philosopher, known for his "Philosophy of Despair".
Life in a Day is a crowdsourced drama/documentary film comprising an arranged series of video clips selected from 80,000 clips submitted to the YouTube video sharing website, the clips showing respective occurrences from around the world on a single day, 24 July 2010.
While some films criticize armed conflicts in a general sense, others focus on acts within a specific war, such as the use of poison gas or the genocidal killing of civilians (e.g., Hotel Rwanda, 2004).
Existentialism is a movement within Continental philosophy that developed in the late-19th and 20th centuries.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logotherapy was developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician.
Ludwig Binswanger (13 April 1881 – 5 February 1966) was a Swiss psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of existential psychology.
Luigi Pirandello (28 June 1867 – 10 December 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Martin Julius Esslin OBE (6 June 1918 – 24 February 2002) was a Hungarian-born English producer, dramatist, journalist, adaptor and translator, critic, academic scholar and professor of drama, best known for coining the term "Theatre of the Absurd" in his work of the same name (Theatre of the Absurd; 1962).
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Meaning in existentialism is descriptive; therefore it is unlike typical, prescriptive conceptions of "the meaning of life".
In psychology, meaning-making is the process of how people construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self.
Medard Boss (October 4, 1903 – December 21, 1990) was a Swiss psychoanalytic psychiatrist who developed a form of psychotherapy known as Daseinsanalysis, which united the psychotherapeutic practice of psychoanalysis with the existential-phenomenological philosophy of friend and mentor Martin Heidegger.
Melancholia is a 2011 science fiction art film written and directed by Lars von Trier and starring Kirsten Dunst, Charlotte Gainsbourg, Alexander Skarsgård, Cameron Spurr, and Kiefer Sutherland.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Michel Gondry (born 8 May 1963) is a French independent film director, screenwriter, and producer.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
Michelangelo Antonioni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (29 September 1912 – 30 July 2007), was an Italian film director, screenwriter, editor, and short story writer.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
Mood Indigo (L'Écume des jours) is a 2013 French surrealistic romantic science fantasy tragedy film co-written and directed by Michel Gondry and co-written and produced by Luc Bossi, starring Romain Duris and Audrey Tautou.
Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism or the error theory) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.
Nausea (La Nausée) is a philosophical novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, published in 1938.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neo-orthodoxy, in Christianity, also known as theology of crisis and dialectical theology, was a theological movement developed in the aftermath of the First World War.
is a Japanese mecha anime television series produced by Gainax and Tatsunoko Production and directed by Hideaki Anno, and was broadcast on TV Tokyo from October 1995 to March 1996.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.
No Exit (Huis Clos) is a 1944 existentialist French play by Jean-Paul Sartre.
Notes from Underground (pre-reform Russian: Записки изъ подполья; post-reform Zapíski iz podpólʹya), also translated as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld, is an 1864 novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
Nothing is a concept denoting the absence of something, and is associated with nothingness.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a 1975 American comedy-drama film directed by Miloš Forman, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey.
Ordinary People is a 1980 American drama film that marked the directorial debut of actor Robert Redford.
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film.
Oscar Zárate (born 1942) is an Argentine comic book artist and illustrator.
Otto Rank (né Rosenfeld; April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pathos (plural: pathea;, for "suffering" or "experience"; adjectival form: 'pathetic' from παθητικός) represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
Paths of Glory is a 1957 American anti-war filmhttp://www.tcm.com/this-month/article/191157|0/The-Big-Idea-Paths-of-Glory.html by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb.
Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century.
Penguin Classics is an imprint published by Penguin Books, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Phenomenology of Perception (Phénoménologie de la perception) is a 1945 book by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, in which the author expounds his thesis of "the primacy of perception".
Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.
Philosophical counseling, also sometimes called philosophical practice, is a contemporary movement in practical philosophy.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Questions is a game that is played by participants maintaining a dialogue of asking questions back and forth for as long as possible, without making any declarative statements.
Quietism in philosophy is an approach to the subject that sees the role of philosophy as broadly therapeutic or remedial.
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.
Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913 – April 16, 1994) was an American novelist, literary critic, and scholar.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Raymond Queneau (21 February 1903 – 25 October 1976) was a French novelist, poet, critic, editor and co-founder and president of Oulipo (Ouvroir de littérature potentielle), notable for his wit and cynical humour.
is a 1965 Japanese film directed by Akira Kurosawa about the relationship between a town doctor and his new trainee.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Rollo Reese May (April 21, 1909 – October 22, 1994) was an American existential psychologist and author of the influential book Love and Will (1969).
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, often referred to as just Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, is an absurdist, existential tragicomedy by Tom Stoppard, first staged at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1966.
Rudolf Karl Bultmann (20 August 1884 – 30 July 1976) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of New Testament at the University of Marburg.
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Rune Slagstad (born 22 February 1945) is a Norwegian historian, philosopher, legal theorist, professor and journal editor.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
San Manuel Bueno, mártir (1930) is a nivola by Miguel de Unamuno (1864–1936).
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
In Greek mythology Sisyphus or Sisyphos (Σίσυφος) was the king of Ephyra (now known as Corinth).
Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death (1969) is a science fiction-infused anti-war novel by Kurt Vonnegut about the World War II experiences and journeys through time of Billy Pilgrim, from his time as an American soldier and chaplain's assistant, to postwar and early years.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
Steven Crowell is an American philosopher who has taught at Rice University since 1983 and is the department chair.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.
Synecdoche, New York is a 2008 American postmodern drama film written and directed by Charlie Kaufman and starring Philip Seymour Hoffman.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
Taxi Driver is a 1976 American neo-noir psychological thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese, written by Paul Schrader, and starring Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster, Cybill Shepherd, Harvey Keitel, Peter Boyle, Albert Brooks and Leonard Harris.
Terrence Frederick Malick (born November 30, 1943) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
In social psychology, terror management theory (TMT) proposes a basic psychological conflict that results from having a self-preservation instinct, whilst realizing that death is inevitable and to some extent unpredictable.
The Blood of Others (Le Sang des autres) is a novel by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir first published in 1945 and depicting the lives of several characters in Paris leading up to and during the Second World War.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The Ethics of Ambiguity (French title: Pour une morale de l'ambiguïté) is Simone de Beauvoir's second major non-fiction work.
The Great Silence (Il grande silenzio) is a 1968 revisionist Spaghetti Western film directed and co-written by Sergio Corbucci.
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.
The Myth of Sisyphus (Le Mythe de Sisyphe) is a 1942 philosophical essay by Albert Camus.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The Outsider is a non-fiction book by English writer Colin Wilson, first published in 1956.
The Plague (French: La Peste) is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of a plague sweeping the French Algerian city of Oran.
The Rebel (L'Homme révolté) is a 1951 book-length essay by Albert Camus, which treats both the metaphysical and the historical development of rebellion and revolution in societies, especially Western Europe.
The Roads to Freedom (Les chemins de la liberté) is a series of novels by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, in which the author discusses the treatment of women throughout history.
The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) is a 1957 Swedish epic historical fantasy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman.
The Shawshank Redemption is a 1994 American drama film written and directed by Frank Darabont, based on the 1982 Stephen King novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption.
The Sickness Unto Death (Sygdommen til Døden) is a book written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1849 under the pseudonym Anti-Climacus.
L’Étranger (The Outsider, or The Stranger) is a 1942 novel by French author Albert Camus.
The Trial (1962) is a film directed by Orson Welles, who also wrote the screenplay based on the novel of the same name by Franz Kafka.
The Wall (Le Mur) by Jean-Paul Sartre, a collection of short stories published in 1939 containing the eponymous story "The Wall," is considered one of the author's greatest existentialist works of fiction.
The Theatre of the Absurd (théâtre de l'absurde) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work.
Sir Tom Stoppard (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter.
Toy Story is a computer animated film series and Disney media franchise that began with the 1995 film of the same name, produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms.
Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.
Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.
Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters.
Waiting staff are those who work at a restaurant or a bar, and sometimes in private homes, attending customers—supplying them with food and drink as requested.
Waking Life is a 2001 American adult animated docufiction film, directed by Richard Linklater.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American film director, film producer, screenwriter, and actor.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Heywood Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is an American director, writer, actor, comedian, and musician whose career spans more than six decades.
Works of Love (Kjerlighedens Gjerninger) is a work by Søren Kierkegaard written in 1847.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
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