223 relations: -onym, Amsterdam, Ankara, Arabic, Arabic exonyms, Athens, Austria, Bangkok, Bangkok Yai District, Barbarian, Beijing, Belarus, Belgrade, Berbers, Berlin, Bohemia, Bratislava, Brussels, Bucharest, Bulgarian language, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byzantium, Byzas, Calque, Catalan language, Chechens, Chennai, Chin people, China, Chinese exonyms, Chinese language, Cognate, Cologne, Conjoined twins, Copenhagen, Cornwall, Crusades, Czech language, Dialect, Dutch language, Egypt, England, English exonyms, English language, Ethnonym, Fars Province, Filipino language, Finnish exonyms, Finnish language, Flemish, ..., Florence, French exonyms, French language, Galician language, Geographical name changes in Greece, Geographical renaming, Geography, German language, German names for Central European towns, Germanic peoples, Germany, Greek language, Guangdong, Historicism, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Huns, Hyperforeignism, Icelandic exonyms, Icelandic language, Immanuel Kant, India, Ingroups and outgroups, International Olympic Committee, Iran, Irish language, Istanbul, Italian exonyms, Italian language, Italy, Ivory Coast, James Matisoff, Jingpho language, Jingpo people, Kaliningrad, Kiev, Latin, Latin exonyms, Lisbon, List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names, List of alternative country names, List of Armenian exonyms, List of Coptic place names, List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages, List of country names in various languages, List of English exonyms for Arabic-speaking places, List of English exonyms for German toponyms, List of English exonyms for Italian toponyms, List of English translated personal names, List of European exonyms, List of European regions with alternative names, List of European rivers with alternative names, List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms, List of French exonyms for German toponyms, List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms, List of German exonyms, List of German exonyms for places in Belgium, List of German exonyms for places in Croatia, List of German exonyms for places in Denmark, List of German exonyms for places in Estonia, List of German exonyms for places in Hungary, List of German exonyms for places in Italy, List of German exonyms for places in Latvia, List of German exonyms for places in Poland, List of German exonyms for places in Slovakia, List of German place names for places in Switzerland, List of Greek and Latin roots in English, List of Greek place names, List of Japanese exonyms, List of language names, List of Latin place names in Continental Europe, Ireland and Scandinavia, List of names of European cities in different languages, List of Portuguese exonyms, List of renamed places in India, List of Russian exonyms, Lisu people, Livorno, Ljubljana, Location, London, Madrid, Maltese language, Marcel Aurousseau, Mongols, Montenegrin language, Moscow, Munich, Myanmar, Name of Iran, Names for India, Names of China, Names of Germany, Names of Myanmar, Names of places in Finland in Finnish and in Swedish, Names of the Berber people, Naples, Navarre, New Amsterdam, New York City, Old Irish, Opposite (semantics), Orthography, Palaung language, Paris, Peace of Pressburg (1805), Pejorative, Peking duck, Peking opera, Persian language, Personal name, Phra Nakhon District, Pinyin, Place names in Ireland, Polish language, Portuguese language, Prague, Pronunciation, Qingdao, Rama I, Rapallo, Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Reza Shah, Roman Empire, Romani people, Romanian exonyms, Romanian language, Rome, Russian language, Saint Petersburg, Sardinian language, Sasanian Empire, Seoul, Serbo-Croatian, Shibboleth, Siamese cat, Siamese fighting fish, Siege of Leningrad, Sioux, Slavic languages, Slavs, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovene language, Slovenia, Spanish language, Speech community, Sri Lanka, Stockholm, Tatars, Tea production in Sri Lanka, Terminology of the Low Countries, Thailand, Turin, Turkey, Turkish language, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, United Nations, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Venice, Vienna, Vietnamese exonyms, Vilnius, Vlachs, Wales, Walhaz, Wallachia, Wallasey, Wallonia, Walloons, Warsaw, Welche, Zagreb. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -onym, in English and other languages, means "word, name", and words ending in -onym refer to a specified kind of name or word, most of which are classical compounds.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
This list of Arabic exonyms includes names which are significantly different from the names of the same places in other languages, as well as names of Arabic origin in countries (especially Spain) where Arabic is no longer spoken.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bangkok Yai (บางกอกใหญ่) is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
In Greek mythology, Byzas (Ancient Greek: Βύζας, Býzas) was the eponymous founder of Byzantium (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον Byzántion), the city later known as Constantinople and then Istanbul.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Chin people are one of the major ethnic nationalities in Burma.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
When a foreign place name, or toponym, occurs in Chinese text, the problem arises of spelling it in Chinese characters, given the limited phonetics and restrictive phonology of Mandarin Chinese, and the possible meaning of those characters when treated as Chinese words.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Conjoined twins are identical twins joined in utero.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Below is list of Finnish language exonyms for towns and cities in non-Finnish-speaking areas.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Flemish (Vlaams), also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Below is a list of French language exonyms for places in non-French-speaking areas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Geographical name change in Greece is the Greek state's systematic replacement of non-Greek geographical and topographic names within Greece with Greek names as part of a policy and ideology of Hellenization.
Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
This article deals with the historic German language names of towns and cities in Central Europe.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
A hyperforeignism is a type of qualitative hypercorrection that involves speakers misidentifying the distribution of a pattern found in loanwords and extending it to other environments, including words and phrases not borrowed from the language that the pattern derives from.
The following is a list of Icelandic exonyms, that is to say names for places in Icelandic that have been adapted to Icelandic spelling rules, translated into Icelandic or are simply native names from Viking times (i.e. old endonyms surviving in Icelandic).
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
James A. Matisoff (Chinese name: 马蒂索夫 Mǎdìsuǒfū or 马提索夫 Mǎtísuǒfū; born July 14, 1937) is a professor emeritus of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley and noted authority on Tibeto-Burman languages and other languages of mainland Southeast Asia.
Jingpho (Jinghpaw, Chingp'o) or Kachin (ကချင်ဘာသာ) is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sal branch mainly spoken in Kachin State, Burma and Yunnan, China.
The Jingpo people are an ethnic group who are the largest subset of the Kachin peoples, which largely inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province of China and India's Arunachal Pradesh, which is claimed by China.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Below is list of Latin exonyms for places in Europe and Middle East.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.
Most List of sovereign states have alternative names.
Below is a list of Armenian language exonyms for places.
Below is list of Coptic place names for places in Egypt (Kaami) and the Middle East.
The following chart lists countries and dependencies along with their capital cities, in English as well as any additional official language(s).
Most countries of the world have different names in different languages.
The list includes countries and territories, and their capitals or administrative centres, where at least one official language is Arabic.
This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i.e., names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features situated in a German-speaking area) that have traditional English exonyms.
This list of English exonyms for Italian toponyms is a compilation of Italian toponyms, names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features, in an Italian-speaking area (principally in Italy and Switzerland) which have traditional English exonyms.
The list does not include names which are commonly translated by the common set of English first names.
Below is a list with links to further Wikipedia-pages containing lists of exonyms of various European languages for villages, towns, and cities in Europe.
Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.
Many rivers in Europe have alternative names in different languages.
This list of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms shows the French names of cities and villages in the Netherlands (les Pays-Bas) used by the French and francophones living outside France.
This list shows the French exonyms for German toponyms.
This list of French exonyms for Italian toponyms is a compilation of Italian toponyms, names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features which are francized in Italy l'Italie, Italian Switzerland and other areas which are Italian-speaking or influenced by the Italian language.
Below is a list of German language exonyms for formerly German places and places in non-German-speaking areas of the world.
This is a list of German language exonyms for towns in Belgium.
This is a list of German exonyms for toponyms in Croatia.
Below is list of German language exonyms for places in Denmark.
Below is a list of German language exonyms for settlements and other places in Estonia.
This is a list of German language exonyms for towns located in Hungary.
Below is list of German language exonyms for places in non-German-speaking areas of Italy.
This page contains a list of exonyms in German for geographical places in the current and previous territory of Latvia.
Below are links to subpages listing German language exonyms of towns and villages in different regions of Poland.
List of German exonyms for places in Slovakia.
Below is list of German language exonyms for places in bilingual areas, and fully non-German-speaking areas of Switzerland.
The English language uses many Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes.
This is a list of Greek place names as they exist in the Greek language.
Japanese exonyms are the names of places in the Japanese language that differ from the name given in the dominant language of the aforementioned region.
This article is a resource of how to say the native name of most of the major languages in the world.
This list includes European countries and regions that were part of the Roman Empire, or that were given Latin place names in historical references.
Many cities in Europe have different names in different languages.
Below is a list of Portuguese language exonyms for places in non-Portuguese-speaking areas of Europe.
Many traditional place names were changed in India during British rule, as well as a limited number during earlier Muslim conquests.
Below is a list of Russian language exonyms for places, mainly in Europe.
The Lisu people (လီဆူလူမျိုး,;; ลีสู่; Lisu: or) are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group who inhabit mountainous regions of Burma (Myanmar), southwest China, Thailand, and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
The terms location and place in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Marcel Aurousseau BSc (Syd.) MC C. de G. (19 April 1891 in Woollahra, Sydney – 22 August 1983 in Sydney) was an Australian geographer, geologist, war hero, historian and translator.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
In the Western world, Persia (or one of its cognates) was historically the common name for Iran.
The name in Indian languages is Bharata after the emperor Bharata.
The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.
Because of Germany's geographic position in the centre of Europe, as well as its long history as a non-united region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely varying names of Germany in different languages, perhaps more so than for any other European nation.
The country known in English as both Myanmar and Burma has undergone changes in both its official and popular names worldwide.
Finland has two official languages, Finnish and Swedish.
The ethnonym Berber dates to the 19th century, derived from Barbary the term for the Maghreb coast used during the early modern period, itself from Greek barbaria "land of barbarians".
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palaung, or in Chinese De'ang, is a Mon–Khmer dialect cluster spoken by over half a million people in Burma (Shan State) and neighboring countries.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Peking duck is a dish from Beijing (Peking), locally more commonly referred to as Beijing Duck or Beijing Roast Duck as the Chinese capital city was known as its postal Mandarin romanisation Peking before the Pinyin romanisation system was widely adopted in the 1980s.
Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is a form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.
Phra Nakhon (พระนคร) is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The vast majority of placenames in Ireland are anglicisations of Irish language names; that is, adaptations of the Irish names to English phonology and spelling.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, born Thongduang and also known as Rama I (20 March 1737 – 7 September 1809), was the founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam (now Thailand).
Rapallo (Rapallu) is a municipality in the Metropolitan City of Genoa, located in the Liguria region of northern Italy.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Below is list of exonyms of Romanian language, or exonym-words for places outside Romania and Republic of Moldova.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
The Siamese cat is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Asian cat.
The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), commonly known as the betta, is a popular fish in the aquarium trade.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tea production is one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka (formerly called Ceylon), and accounts for 2% of GDP, contributing over US $1.5 billion in 2013 to the economy of Sri Lanka.
The Low Countries (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays-Bas) is the coastal Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta region in Western Europe whose definition usually includes the modern countries of Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Below is a list of Vietnamese exonyms for various cities and countries around the world.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Wallasey is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in Merseyside, England, on the mouth of the River Mersey, at the northeastern corner of the Wirral Peninsula.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Welche is a Gallo-Romance dialect of Lorrain spoken in Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin in the western part of Alsace in France.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Conventional name, Endonym, Endonym and exonym, Endonyms, English endonyms, Exonym, Exonym/endonym, Exonyms, Exonyms and endonyms, Exonymy, Local name, Orthographic exonymy, Self-appellation, Xenonym, Xenonymy.