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Index Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system. [1]

167 relations: Accretion (astrophysics), Albedo, Aleksander Wolszczan, Andrew Lyne, Apparent magnitude, Astrobiology, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Aurora, Axial tilt, Barnard's Star, Binary star, Biomarker, Brown dwarf, Bruce Dorminey, California Institute of Technology, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chthonian planet, Circumbinary planet, Circumstellar habitable zone, Comet, Coronagraph, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, Dale Frail, Didier Queloz, Doppler spectroscopy, Earth, East India Company, European Southern Observatory, Exocomet, Exomoon, Exoplanetology, Extragalactic planet, Extraterrestrial life, False positives and false negatives, Fomalhaut b, Forest Ray Moulton, Galilean moons, Gamma Cephei, Gas giant, General Scholium, Geometric albedo, Geophysical Research Letters, Giordano Bruno, Gizmodo, Gliese 436 b, Gliese 504 b, Gravitational microlensing, Gravity, Hale Telescope, ..., Haute-Provence Observatory, HD 189733 b, HD 209458 b, Heliocentrism, High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, Hot Jupiter, HR 2562 b, HR 8799, Hydrogen, Ice crystals, Infinite Worlds (book), International Astronomical Union, Isaac Newton, Joule heating, Journal for the History of Astronomy, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Jupiter, Kappa Andromedae b, Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler-1520, Kepler-16, Kepler-452b, Life, Light-year, List of exoplanet extremes, List of exoplanet search projects, List of exoplanets, List of multiplanetary systems, List of nearest exoplanets, Lists of planets, LOFAR, Los Angeles Times, Madras Observatory, Main sequence, Metallicity, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Michel Mayor, Milky Way, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, NASA, NASA Exoplanet Archive, National Geographic Society, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, Nicolaus Copernicus, Ocean planet, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital period, Otto Struve, Oxygen, Paris Observatory, Parsec, Peter van de Kamp, PH1b, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photosynthesis, Planet, Planetary habitability, Planetary mass, Planetary phase, Planetary system, Plate tectonics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protoplanetary disk, Proxima Centauri, Proxima Centauri b, PSR B1257+12, PSR B1257+12 A, PSR B1829−10, Pulsar, Pulsar planet, Radio, Red dwarf, Reflection (physics), Ring system, Rings of Saturn, Rogue planet, Science (journal), Solar analog, Solar System, Spectroscopy, Star, Star system, Stellar classification, Stellar wind, Sub-brown dwarf, Sun, Super-Earth, Super-Jupiter, Supernova, Swarthmore College, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, The Tech (newspaper), Thomas Jefferson Jackson See, Tidal locking, Transit (astronomy), TrES-2b, TrES-3b, United States Naval Observatory, University of British Columbia, University of Chicago, University of Geneva, University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, University of Victoria, Upsilon Andromedae, Water, William Stephen Jacob, WISE 0855−0714, 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6, 2MASS J04414489+2301513, 51 Pegasi, 51 Pegasi b, 55 Cancri e, 70 Ophiuchi. Expand index (117 more) »

Accretion (astrophysics)

In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.

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Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).

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Aleksander Wolszczan

Aleksander Wolszczan (born 29 April 1946 in Szczecinek, Poland) is a Polish astronomer.

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Andrew Lyne

Andrew Geoffrey Lyne FRS (born 13 July 1942) is a British physicist.

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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.

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Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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Barnard's Star

Barnard's Star is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 6 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Bruce Dorminey

Bruce Dorminey (born March 8, 1959) is an American science journalist and author who primarily covers aerospace, astronomy and astrophysics.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Chandra X-ray Observatory

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.

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Chthonian planet

Chthonian planets (sometimes 'cthonian') are a hypothetical class of celestial objects resulting from the stripping away of a gas giant's hydrogen and helium atmosphere and outer layers, which is called hydrodynamic escape.

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Circumbinary planet

A circumbinary planet is a planet that orbits two stars instead of one.

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Circumstellar habitable zone

In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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A coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects – which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare – can be resolved.

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Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey is a 2014 American science documentary television series.

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Dale Frail

Dale A. Frail is an astronomer working at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico.

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Didier Queloz

Didier Queloz (born February 23, 1966) is an astronomer with a prolific record in finding extrasolar planets in the Astrophysics Group of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, and also at the University of Geneva.

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Doppler spectroscopy

Doppler spectroscopy (also known as the radial-velocity method, or colloquially, the wobble method) is an indirect method for finding extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs from radial-velocity measurements via observation of Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the planet's parent star.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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European Southern Observatory

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.

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An exocomet, or extrasolar comet, is a comet outside the Solar System, which includes interstellar comets and those that orbit stars other than the Sun.

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An exomoon or extrasolar moon is a natural satellite that orbits an exoplanet or other non-stellar extrasolar body.

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Exoplanetology, or exoplanetary science, is an integrated field of astronomical science dedicated to the search and study of exoplanets (extrasolar planets).

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Extragalactic planet

An extragalactic planet, also known as an extragalactic exoplanet, is a rogue planet, or a planet orbiting a star, located outside of the Milky Way galaxy.

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Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").

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False positives and false negatives

In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not present, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.

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Fomalhaut b

Fomalhaut b, also known as Dagon, is a confirmed, directly imaged extrasolar object and candidate planet orbiting the A-type main-sequence star Fomalhaut, approximately 25 light-years away in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus.

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Forest Ray Moulton

Forest Ray Moulton (April 29, 1872 – December 7, 1952) was an American astronomer.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Gamma Cephei

Gamma Cephei (γ Cephei, abbreviated Gamma Cep, γ Cep) is a binary star system approximately 45 light-years away in the constellation of Cepheus.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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General Scholium

The General Scholium is an essay written by Isaac Newton, appended to his work of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known as the Principia.

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Geometric albedo

In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.

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Geophysical Research Letters

Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.

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Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.

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Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.

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Gliese 436 b

Gliese 436 b (sometimes called GJ 436 b) is a Neptune-sized exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 436.

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Gliese 504 b

Gliese 504 b (often shortened to GJ 504 b) is a Jovian planet or a brown dwarf in the system of the solar analog 59 Virginis (GJ 504),In spite of names of some exoplanets, derived from theirs host stars Flamsteed designations (for example, 51 Pegasi b, 61 Virginis b, 70 Virginis b etc.), the discoverers of this exoplanet did not use a similar name (i.e. "59 Virginis b") to refer to it, but used the designation "GJ 504 b" instead, derived from the Gliese–Jahreiß identifier of its parent star "GJ 504".

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Gravitational microlensing

Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical phenomenon due to the gravitational lens effect.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Hale Telescope

The Hale telescope is a, f/3.3 reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California, US, named after astronomer George Ellery Hale.

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Haute-Provence Observatory

The Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP, Observatoire de Haute-Provence) is an astronomical observatory in the southeast of France, about 90 km east of Avignon and 100 km north of Marseille.

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HD 189733 b

HD 189733 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 63 light-years away from the Solar System in the constellation of Vulpecula.

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HD 209458 b

HD 209458 b, also given the nickname Osiris,http://exoplanets.co/exoplanets-tutorial/extrasolar-planet-hd-209458-b.html is an exoplanet that orbits the solar analog HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 159 light-years from the Solar System.

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Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher

The High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) is a high-precision echelle planet finding spectrograph installed in 2002 on the ESO's 3.6m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile.

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Hot Jupiter

Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital period (P The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Hot Jupiters are the easiest extrasolar planets to detect via the radial-velocity method, because the oscillations they induce in their parent stars' motion are relatively large and rapid compared to those of other known types of planets. One of the best-known hot Jupiters is 51 Pegasi b. Discovered in 1995, it was the first extrasolar planet found orbiting a Sun-like star. 51 Pegasi b has an orbital period of about 4 days.

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HR 2562 b

HR 2526b is a substellar companion of debris disk host star HR 2562.

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HR 8799

HR 8799 is a roughly 30 million-year-old main-sequence star located 129 light years (39 parsecs) away from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Ice crystals

Ice crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust.

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Infinite Worlds (book)

Infinite Worlds: An Illustrated Voyage to Planets Beyond Our Sun is a nonfiction book by Ray Villard and Lynette Cook about extrasolar planets, featuring Lynette Cook's artwork.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

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Journal for the History of Astronomy

Journal for the History of Astronomy (JHA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the History of Astronomy from earliest times to the present, and in history in the service of astronomy.

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Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1934.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kappa Andromedae b

Kappa Andromedae b is a substellar object and massive planet or brown dwarf orbiting Kappa Andromedae, a star in the Andromeda constellation, about 170 light years away.

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Kepler (spacecraft)

Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.

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Kepler-1520 (initially published as KIC 12557548) is a K-type main-sequence star located in the constellation Cygnus.

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Kepler-16 is a binary star system in the constellation of Cygnus that was targeted by the Kepler spacecraft.

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Kepler-452b (sometimes nicknamed Earth 2.0 or Earth's Cousin based on its characteristics; known sometimes as Coruscant by NASA, also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-7016.01) is an exoplanet orbiting the Sun-like star Kepler-452 about from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.

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List of exoplanet extremes

The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets.

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List of exoplanet search projects

The following is a list of exoplanet search projects.

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List of exoplanets

This is a list of exoplanets.

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List of multiplanetary systems

From the total of stars known to have exoplanets (as of), there are a total of known multiplanetary systems, or stars with at least two confirmed planets, beyond the Solar System.

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List of nearest exoplanets

There are known exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system that orbit a star, as of; only a small fraction of these are located in the vicinity of the Solar System.

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Lists of planets

The following are lists of planets.

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The Low-Frequency Array or LOFAR, is a large radio telescope network located mainly in the Netherlands, completed in 2012 by ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy and its international partners, and operated by ASTRON's radio observatory, of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Madras Observatory

The Madras Observatory was an astronomical observatory which had its origins in a private observatory set up by William Petrie in 1786 and later moved and managed by the British East India Company from 1792 in Madras (now known as Chennai).

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.

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Methods of detecting exoplanets

Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.

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Michel Mayor

Michel G.E. Mayor (born 12 January 1942, Lausanne) is a Swiss astrophysicist and professor emeritus at the University of Geneva's Department of Astronomy.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Exoplanet Archive

The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online astronomical exoplanet catalog and data service that collects and serves public data that support the search for and characterization of extra-solar planets (exoplanets) and their host stars.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Neil deGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator.

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Nexus for Exoplanet System Science

The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) initiative is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) virtual institute designed to foster interdisciplinary collaboration in the search for life on exoplanets.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Ocean planet

An ocean planet, ocean world, water world, aquaplanet or panthalassic planet is a type of terrestrial planet that contains a substantial amount of water either at its surface or subsurface.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Otto Struve

Otto Struve (August 12, 1897 – April 6, 1963) was a Russian-American astronomer.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paris Observatory

The Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon), a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world.

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The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.

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Peter van de Kamp

Piet van de Kamp (December 26, 1901 in KampenLaurence W. Fredrick,, Publications of the Astronomical Socitiey of the Pacific 108:556-559, July 1996 – May 18, 1995 in Amsterdam), known as Peter van de Kamp in the United States, was a Dutch astronomer who lived most of his life in the United States.

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PH1b (standing for "Planet Hunters 1"), or by its NASA designation Kepler-64b, is an extrasolar planet found in a circumbinary orbit in the quadruple star system Kepler-64.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary habitability

Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.

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Planetary mass

Planetary mass is a measure of the mass of a planet-like object.

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Planetary phase

A planetary phase is a period of time during which a certain portion of a planet's area reflects sunlight from the perspective of a given vantage point.

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Planetary system

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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Proxima Centauri

Proxima Centauri, or Alpha Centauri C, is a red dwarf, a small low-mass star, about from the Sun in the constellation of Centaurus.

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Proxima Centauri b

Proxima Centauri b (also called Proxima b or Alpha Centauri Cb) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.

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PSR B1257+12

PSR B1257+12, previously designated PSR 1257+12, alternatively designated PSR J1300+1240, also named Lich, is a pulsar located 2,300 light years from the Sun in the constellation of Virgo.

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PSR B1257+12 A

PSR B1257+12 b, alternatively designated PSR B1257+12 A, also named Draugr, is an extrasolar planet approximately 2,300 light-years away in the constellation of Virgo.

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PSR B1829−10

PSR B1829-10 (often shortened to PSR 1829-10) is a pulsar that is approximately 30,000 light-years away in the constellation of Scutum.

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A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.

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Pulsar planet

Pulsar planets are planets that are found orbiting pulsars, or rapidly rotating neutron stars.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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Ring system

A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.

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Rings of Saturn

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.

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Rogue planet

A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, or sunless planet) is a planetary-mass object that orbits a galactic center directly.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Solar analog

Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star system

A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar wind

A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.

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Sub-brown dwarf

A sub-brown dwarf or planetary-mass brown dwarf is an astronomical object that formed in the same manner as stars and brown dwarfs (i.e. through the collapse of a gas cloud) but that has a mass below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (about). Some researchers call them free-floating planets whereas others call them planetary-mass brown dwarfs.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.

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A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that is more massive than the planet Jupiter.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Swarthmore College

Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college located in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, southwest of Philadelphia.

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The Astronomical Journal

The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Tech (newspaper)

The Tech, first published on November 16, 1881, is the campus newspaper at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Thomas Jefferson Jackson See

Thomas Jefferson Jackson (T. J. J.) See (February 19, 1866 – July 4, 1962) was an American astronomer whose promulgated theories in astronomy and physics were eventually disproven.

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Tidal locking

Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.

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Transit (astronomy)

In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.

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TrES-2b (TrES-2 or Kepler-1b) is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star GSC 03549-02811 located 750 light years away from the Solar System.

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TrES-3b is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star GSC 03089-00929.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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University of British Columbia

The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Geneva

The University of Geneva (French: Université de Genève) is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.

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University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo

The University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (UPRA or UPR-Arecibo) is a state university located in the city of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and part of the eleven campuses that compose the University of Puerto Rico system.

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University of Victoria

The University of Victoria (UVic) is a major research university located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

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Upsilon Andromedae

Upsilon Andromedae (υ Andromedae, abbreviated Upsilon And, υ And) is a binary star located approximately 44 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Andromeda.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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William Stephen Jacob

William Stephen Jacob (1813–1862) was an English astronomer, director of the Madras Observatory from 1848 to 1859.

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WISE 0855−0714

WISE 0855−0714 (full designation WISE J085510.83−071442.5) is a (sub-) brown dwarf from Earth, whose discovery was announced in April 2014 by Kevin Luhman using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).

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1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6

1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6 (often abbreviated 1SWASP J140747 or J1407) is a star similar to the Sun in the constellation Centaurus at a distance of about 420 light years from Earth.

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2MASS J04414489+2301513

2MASS J04414489+2301513 (often abbreviated as 2M J044144) is a young brown dwarf approximately 470 light years (145 parsecs) away with an orbiting companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.

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51 Pegasi

51 Pegasi (abbreviated 51 Peg), also named Helvetios, is a Sun-like star located from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus.

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51 Pegasi b

51 Pegasi b (abbreviated 51 Peg b), unofficially dubbed Bellerophon, later named Dimidium, is an extrasolar planet approximately 50 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus.

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55 Cancri e

55 Cancri e (abbreviated 55 Cnc e, also named Janssen), is an exoplanet in the orbit of its Sun-like host star 55 Cancri A.

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70 Ophiuchi

70 Ophiuchi is a binary star system located 16.6 light years away from the Earth.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exoplanet

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