93 relations: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Agglutination (biology), Animal, Ankylosauria, Arachnid, Aragonite, Armadillo, Armour (anatomy), Arthropod exoskeleton, Azadirachtin, Bacteria, Bivalvia, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Burgess Shale, Burrow, Calcification, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Chitin, Chiton, Clam, Cloudinidae, Cockroach, Composite material, Crab, Crustacean, Dentin, Desiccation, Diatom, Ecdysis, Echinoderm, Ediacaran, Ediacaran biota, Elastic energy, Endoskeleton, Foraminifera, Fossil, Fungus, Gastropoda, Geological Society of London, Grasshopper, Greigite, Horn (anatomy), Human skeleton, Hydrostatic skeleton, Hydrothermal vent, ..., Insect, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Keratin, Lagerstätte, Lobster, Locust, Metastability, Mineralization (biology), Mollusc shell, Muscle, Nature Geoscience, Nautilus, Ocean chemistry, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ordovician, Ostracoderm, PALAIOS, Pangolin, PDF, Phylum, Polychaete, Polysaccharide, Powered exoskeleton, Protein, Pyrite, Radiolaria, Scaly-foot gastropod, Science (journal), Scute, Silicon dioxide, Skeleton, Small shelly fauna, Snail, Spider, Spiracle, Sponge, Tendon, Test (biology), The Journal of Experimental Biology, Tortoise, Turtle, Tusk shell, Wiley-Blackwell. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal of paleontology and paleobiology.
Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Ankylosauria is a group of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs of the order Ornithischia.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
Armour or armor in animals is external or superficial protection against attack by predators, formed as part of the body (rather than the behavioural use of protective external objects), usually through the hardening of body tissues, outgrowths or secretions.
Arthropods are covered with a tough, resilient integument or exoskeleton of chitin.
Azadirachtin, a chemical compound belonging to the limonoid group, is a secondary metabolite present in neem seeds.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
The cloudinids, an early metazoan family containing the genera Acuticocloudina, Cloudina and Conotubus, lived in the late Ediacaran period and became extinct at the base of the Cambrian. They formed millimetre-scale conical fossils consisting of calcareous cones nested within one another; the appearance of the organism itself remains unknown. The name Cloudina honors the 20th-century geologist and paleontologist Preston Cloud. Cloudinids comprise two genera: Cloudina itself is mineralized, whereas Conotubus is at best weakly mineralized, whilst sharing the same "funnel-in-funnel" construction. Cloudinids had a wide geographic range, reflected in the present distribution of localities in which their fossils are found, and are an abundant component of some deposits. They never appear in the same layers as soft-bodied Ediacaran biota, but the fact that some sequences contain cloudinids and Ediacaran biota in alternating layers suggests that these groups had different environmental preferences. It has been suggested that cloudinids lived embedded in microbial mats, growing new cones to avoid being buried by silt. However no specimens have been found embedded in mats, and their mode of life is still an unresolved question. The classification of the cloudinids has proved difficult: they were initially regarded as polychaete worms, and then as coral-like cnidarians on the basis of what look like buds on some specimens. Current scientific opinion is divided between classifying them as polychaetes and regarding it as unsafe to classify them as members of any broader grouping. Cloudinids are important in the history of animal evolution for two reasons. They are among the earliest and most abundant of the small shelly fossils with mineralized skeletons, and therefore feature in the debate about why such skeletons first appeared in the Late Ediacaran. The most widely supported answer is that their shells are a defense against predators, as some Cloudina specimens from China bear the marks of multiple attacks, which suggests they survived at least a few of them. The holes made by predators are approximately proportional to the size of the Cloudina specimens, and Sinotubulites fossils, which are often found in the same beds, have so far shown no such holes. These two points suggest that predators attacked in a selective manner, and the evolutionary arms race which this indicates is commonly cited as a cause of the Cambrian explosion of animal diversity and complexity.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.
An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
Greigite is an iron sulfide mineral with formula Fe3S4 (Iron(II,III) sulfide).
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an inorganic substance precipitates in an organic matrix.
The mollusc (or molluskOften spelled mollusk shell in the USA; the spelling "mollusc" are preferred by) shell is typically a calcareous exoskeleton which encloses, supports and protects the soft parts of an animal in the phylum Mollusca, which includes snails, clams, tusk shells, and several other classes.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The nautilus (from the Latin form of the original ναυτίλος, 'sailor') is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.
Ocean chemistry, also known as marine chemistry, is influenced by turbidity currents, sediments, pH levels, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity, and ecology.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Ostracoderms ("shell-skinned") are the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.
PALAIOS is a bimonthly academic journal dedicated to the study of the impact of life on Earth history, combining the fields of palaeontology and sedimentology.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
A powered exoskeleton (also known as powered armor, power armor, exoframe, hardsuit, or exosuit) is a wearable mobile machine that is powered by a system of electric motors, pneumatics, levers, hydraulics, or a combination of technologies that allow for limb movement with increased strength and endurance.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
Chrysomallon squamiferum, common name the scaly-foot gastropod, is a species of deep-sea hydrothermal-vent snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Peltospiridae.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A scute or scutum (Latin scutum, plural: scuta "shield") is a bony external plate or scale overlaid with horn, as on the shell of a turtle, the skin of crocodilians, and the feet of birds.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
The small shelly fauna, small shelly fossils (SSF), or early skeletal fossils (ESF) are mineralized fossils, many only a few millimetres long, with a nearly continuous record from the latest stages of the Ediacaran to the end of the Early Cambrian Period.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
In biology, a test is the hard shell of some spherical marine animals, notably sea urchins and microorganisms such as testate foraminiferans, radiolarians, and testate amoebae.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (Greek, "boat-footed"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.