43 relations: Acid, Acid strength, Adiabatic process, Alkali metal, Base (chemistry), Bond energy, Calorimetry, Carbohydrate, Cement, Chemical reaction, Chemical thermodynamics, Coal, Concrete, Condensation, Differential scanning calorimetry, Ectotherm, Electricity, Electronegativity, Endergonic reaction, Endotherm, Endothermic process, Energy, Enthalpy, Epoxy, Exergonic process, Exergonic reaction, Exothermic reaction, Fuel, Heat, Light, Marcellin Berthelot, Metabolism, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Oil, Outline of physical science, Petroleum, Polymerization, Sound, Sulfuric acid, Thermal energy, Thermodynamics, Wood.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.
An exergonic reaction is a chemical reaction where the change in the free energy is negative (there is a net release of free energy), indicating a spontaneous reaction.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.