97 relations: Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Allen W. Wood, Anarcho-syndicalism, Benjamin Tucker, Bourgeoisie, Capital, Volume I, Capitalism, Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), Cartel, Child labour, Child sexual abuse, Communism, Contemporary slavery, Cost the limit of price, Criticism of capitalism, Critique of the Gotha Program, Crony capitalism, Cruelty to animals, David Ramsay Steele, Debt bondage, Developed country, Developing country, Dictionary.com, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Exploitation of natural resources, Fair trade, Feudalism, First World, Forced prostitution, Free trade, Gap Inc., Globalization, Gulag, Henry George, Herbert Spencer, Hillel Steiner, Homogeneous function, Howard Dean, Human trafficking, Indentured servitude, International child abduction, International Labour Organization, Intrinsic theory of value, John Roemer, Karl Marx, Labor theory of value, Labour power, Laogai, Liberalism, ..., List of corporate collapses and scandals, Marginal utility, Marxian economics, Materialism, Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai, Merriam-Webster, Milgram experiment, Milton Friedman, Monopoly, Monopsony, Multinational corporation, Mutualism (economic theory), Neoclassical economics, Neocolonialism, Net national product, Nike, Inc., Noam Chomsky, Overexploitation, Overhead (business), Proletariat, Property income, Prosumer, Quality of life, Rate of exploitation, Redistribution of income and wealth, Relations of production, Revealed preference, Scottish Enlightenment, Sharecropping, Slavery, Social relation, Social theory, Social welfare function, Socialism, Stanford prison experiment, Surplus labour, Surplus product, Surplus value, Sweatshop, Third World, Trafficking of children, Unearned income, Unequal exchange, Unfree labour, United States, Wage slavery, Wilhelm von Humboldt. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Allen William Wood (born October 26, 1942) is an American philosopher specializing in the work of Immanuel Kant and German Idealism, with particular interests in ethics and social philosophy.
Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism) is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society.
Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery, refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day.
Cost the limit of price was a maxim coined by Josiah Warren, indicating a (prescriptive) version of the labor theory of value.
Criticism of capitalism ranges from expressing disagreement with the principles of capitalism in its entirety to expressing disagreement with particular outcomes of capitalism.
The Critique of the Gotha Program (Kritik des Gothaer Programms) is a document based on a letter by Karl Marx written in early May 1875 to the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP), with whom Marx and Friedrich Engels were in close association.
Crony capitalism is an economy in which businesses thrive not as a result of risks they take, but rather as a return on money amassed through a nexus between a business class and the political class.
Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (animal neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human animal.
David Ramsay Steele is the author of Orwell Your Orwell: A Worldview on the Slab (a study of George Orwell's beliefs), Atheism Explained: From Folly to Philosophy (a popular exposition of atheism), and From Marx to Mises: Post-Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation (an exposition of the economic calculation problem).
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.
The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The Gap, Inc., commonly known as Gap Inc. or Gap, (stylized as GAP) is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Hillel Isaac Steiner, FBA (born 1942) is a Canadian political philosopher and is Emeritus Professor of Political Philosophy at the University of Manchester.
In mathematics, a homogeneous function is one with multiplicative scaling behaviour: if all its arguments are multiplied by a factor, then its value is multiplied by some power of this factor.
Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American physician, author and retired politician who served as the 79th Governor of Vermont from 1991 to 2003 and Chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) from 2005 to 2009 and works as a political consultant and commentator.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
The term international child abduction is generally synonymous with international parental kidnapping, child snatching, and child stealing. However, the more precise legal usage of international child abduction originates in private international law and refers to the illegal removal of children from their home by an acquaintance or family member to a foreign country.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
An intrinsic theory of value (also called theory of objective value) is any theory of value in economics which holds that the value of an object, good or service, is intrinsic, meaning that it can be estimated using objective measures.
John E. Roemer (born February 1, 1945 in Washington D.C.) is an American economist and political scientist.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.
Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.
In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Meghnad Jagdishchandra Desai, Baron Desai (born 10 July 1940) is a United Kingdom economist and Labour politician.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (mónos) "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnía) "purchase") is a market structure in which only one buyer interacts with many would-be sellers of a particular product.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society with free markets and occupation and use property norms.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
Net national product (NNP) refers to gross national product (GNP), i.e. the total market value of all final goods and services produced by the factors of production of a country or other polity during a given time period, minus depreciation.
Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Property income refers to profit or income received by virtue of owning property.
A prosumer is a person who consumes and produces a product.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
In Marxian economics, the rate of exploitation is the divergence between labor productivity and the wage rate.
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.
Revealed preference theory, pioneered by economist Paul Samuelson, is a method of analyzing choices made by individuals, mostly used for comparing the influence of policies on consumer behavior.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
In welfare economics, a social welfare function is a function that ranks social states (alternative complete descriptions of the society) as less desirable, more desirable, or indifferent for every possible pair of social states.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Stanford prison experiment was a 1971 experiment that attempted to investigate the psychological effects of perceived power, focusing on the struggle between prisoners and prison officers.
Surplus labour (German: Mehrarbeit) is a concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
Surplus product (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.
Sweatshop (or sweat factory) is a pejorative term for a workplace that has very poor, socially unacceptable working conditions.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Trafficking of children (aka "Child Labor" and "Child Exploitation) is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation.
Unearned income is a term coined by Henry George to refer to income gained through ownership of land and other monopoly.
Unequal exchange is a much disputed concept which is used primarily in Marxist economics, but also in ecological economics, to denote forms of exploitation hidden in or underwriting trade.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
Exploitation (Marxism), Exploitation of labor, Exploitation of labor in developing countries, Exploitation of workers, Exploitation theory, Exploited classes, Labour exploitation, Labour exploitation of workers, Marx's theory of exploitation.