230 relations: Abel Tasman, Aeneid, Africa, Age of Discovery, Alaska, Aleixo Garcia, Alexander the Great, Amazon River, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Andes, Andrés de Urdaneta, Angola, António de Abreu, Antoninus Pius, Arabian Peninsula, Arctic exploration, Australia, AuthorHouse, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, Óc Eo, Bactria, Bartolomeu Dias, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Cambodia, Canary Islands, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Verde, Carthage, Caving, Christopher Columbus, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, Circumnavigation, Colorado River, Congo River, Cook Islanders, Crown of Castile, Daqin, Daxia, Dayuan, Desert exploration, Dido, Diogo Cão, Diogo Dias, Diogo Fernandes Pereira, ..., Dutch Empire, Early human migrations, Earth, East, East Africa, Eastern Wu, Emperor Huan of Han, Erik the Red, Ethiopia, Ethnic groups in Europe, Europe, European exploration of Africa, Explanation, Exploration of the High Alps, Exploration problem, Ferdinand Magellan, Fergana, Florida, Floruit, Francisco de Orellana, Francisco Serrão, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, French colonial empire, Gansu, Geography (Ptolemy), Germany, Golden Chersonese, Gran Chaco, Grand Canyon, Great Britain, Great Lakes, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greenland, Gulf of Mexico, Han dynasty, Hanno the Navigator, Hawaiian Islands, Hellenistic period, Henry Hudson, History, History of Antarctica, Hudson Bay, Iceland, Identity by descent, India, Indian Ocean, Indo-Roman trade relations, Indonesia, Indus River, Information, Isthmus of Panama, Italy, Jacques Cartier, James Cook, Java, Jiaozhou (region), Jorge de Menezes, Juan Ponce de León, Juan Sebastián Elcano, Kangju, Leif Erikson, List of explorations, List of explorers, List of maritime explorers, List of Russian explorers, Loaísa expedition, Luís Vaz de Torres, Luoyang, Madagascar, Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation, Major explorations after the Age of Discovery, Malay Peninsula, Maluku Islands, Marcus Aurelius, Mariana Islands, Marquesas Islands, Marseille, Marshall Islands, Mascarene Islands, Māori people, Mediterranean Sea, Ming treasure voyages, Mining engineering, Mississippi River, Moon, Namibia, Nanjing, Nero, New Guinea, New Zealand, Newfoundland and Labrador, Niger, Nigeria, Nile, North Africa, North America, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Norway, Nubia, Ocean exploration, Oceania, Outrigger canoe, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Parthian Empire, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, Pedro Mascarenhas, Phoenicia, Pitcairn Islands, Planet, Polynesians, Portuguese Empire, Ptolemy, Pytheas, Red Sea, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Rocket, Russian Empire, Sahara, Saint Lawrence River, Samuel de Champlain, Scientific method, Sessility (motility), Shetland, Siberia, Sino-Roman relations, Society Islands, Sogdia, Solar System, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Asia, South China Sea, Southeast Asia, Space exploration, Spanish Empire, Spice trade, Sri Lanka, State of the art, Strait of Magellan, Sucre, Sumatra, Sun Quan, Sunda Islands, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Thule, Timbuktu, Timeline of European exploration, Torres Strait, Trade winds, Tuamotus, Tuvalu, Twenty-Four Histories, Tyre, Lebanon, Uganda, United Kingdom, University of Otago, Urban exploration, Vanuatu, Vasco da Gama, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Vietnam, Vikings, Vitus Bering, Voyager program, Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Wairau Bar, Wake Island, Wang Dayuan, Willem Janszoon, Xiongnu, Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, Yuezhi, Zhang Qian, Zheng He. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleixo Garcia, also known in Spanish as Alejo García (d. 1525 Paraguay) was a Portuguese explorer and conquistador who explored the Rio de la Plata in service to Spain, and later Paraguay and Bolivia.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Friar Andrés de Urdaneta, OSA, (November 30, 1498 – June 3, 1568) was a Spanish Basque circumnavigator, explorer and Augustinian friar.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
António de Abreu (c. 1480 – c. 1514) was a 16th-century Portuguese navigator and naval officer.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
AuthorHouse, formerly known as 1stBooks, is a self-publishing company based in the United States.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.Seville, 1557/1558/1559/1560"Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Dec. 2014.) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition.
Álvaro de Mendaña y Neira (or Neyra) (October 1, 1542 – October 18, 1595) was a Spanish navigator.
Óc Eo (French, from អូរកែវ,: if the Khmer appears too small, kindly download better fonts--> O Keo, "Glass Canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Caving – also traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland – is the recreational pastime of exploring wild (generally non-commercial) cave systems.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
Cook Islanders or Cook Islands Māori are residents of the Cook Islands, which is composed of 15 islands and atolls in Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.
Daxia, Ta-Hsia, or Ta-Hia was apparently the name given in antiquity by the Han Chinese to Tukhara or Tokhara: the main part of Bactria, in what is now northern Afghanistan, and parts of southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Old Chinese reconstructed pronunciation: /dhaːts ʔwan/; Middle Chinese reconstructed pronunciation according to Edwin G. Pulleyblank: /daj ʔuan/) was a country in Ferghana valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han.
Desert exploration is the deliberate and scientific exploration of deserts, the arid regions of the earth.
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.
Diogo Cão, anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery.
Diogo Dias, also known as Diogo Gomes, was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer.
Diogo Fernandes Pereira, sometimes called simply Diogo Fernandes, was a Portuguese 16th-century navigator, originally from Setúbal, Portugal.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Emperor Huan of Han (132 – 25 January 168) was the 27th emperor of the Han Dynasty after he was enthroned by the Empress Dowager and her brother Liang Ji on 1 August 146.
Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The geography of North Africa has been reasonably well known among Europeans since classical antiquity in Greco-Roman geography.
An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.
The higher region of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the inhabitants of the adjoining valleys, even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys.
In robotics, the exploration problem deals with the use of a robot to maximize the knowledge over a particular area.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Francisco de Orellana (1511 – November 1546) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador.
Francisco Serrão (died 1521) was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Ferdinand Magellan.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Chersonese or Golden Khersonese (Χρυσῆ Χερσόνησος, Chrysḗ Chersónēsos; Chersonesus Aurea), meaning the Golden Peninsula, was the name used for the Malay Peninsula by Greek and Roman geographers in classical antiquity, most famously in Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography.
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
A DNA segment is identical by state (IBS) in two or more individuals if they have identical nucleotide sequences in this segment.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jiaozhou (Giao Châu) was an imperial Chinese province under the Han and Jin dynasties.
Jorge de Menezes (c. 1498 – 1537) was a Portuguese explorer, who in 1526–27 landed on the islands of Biak (Cenderawasih Bay), whilst he awaited the passing of the monsoon season, and on the northern coasts of the Bird's Head Peninsula, calling the region Ilhas dos Papuas.
Juan Ponce de León (1474 – July 1521) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador born in Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain in 1474.
Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
Kangju was the Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia which became for a couple of centuries the second greatest power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland.
Some of the most important explorations of State Societies, in chronological order.
The following is a list of explorers.
This is a list of maritime explorers.
The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.
The Loaísa expedition was a 16th-century voyage of discovery to the Pacific Ocean, commanded by Garcia Jofre de Loaísa (1490 – 20 July 1526) and ordered by King Charles I of Spain to colonize the Spice Islands in the East Indies.
Luís Vaz de Torres (Galician and Portuguese), or Luis Váez de Torres in the Spanish spelling (born c. 1565; fl. 1607), was a 16th- and 17th-century maritime explorer of a Spanish expedition noted for the first recorded European navigation of the strait which separates the continent of Australia from the island of New Guinea, and which now bears his name (Torres Strait).
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation was the first voyage around the world in human history.
Major explorations of Earth continued after the Age of Discovery.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
The Marquesas Islands (Îles Marquises or Archipel des Marquises or Marquises; Marquesan: Te Henua (K)enana (North Marquesan) and Te FenuaEnata (South Marquesan), both meaning "the land of men") are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Ocean exploration is a part of oceanography describing the exploration of ocean surfaces.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The outrigger canoe (Ketagalan: bangka; Filipino: bangka; Indonesian: bangka; New Zealand Māori: waka ama; Cook Islands Māori: vaka; Hawaiian: waa; Tahitian and Samoan: vaokinaa; Malagasy: lakana, Proto-Austronesian *waŋkaŋ) is a type of canoe featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós (Pedro Fernández de Quirós) (1565–1614) was a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain best known for his involvement with Spanish voyages of discovery in the Pacific Ocean, in particular the 1595–1596 voyage of Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira, and for leading a 1605–1606 expedition which crossed the Pacific in search of Terra Australis.
Dom Pedro Mascarenhas (1470 – 16 June 1555) was a Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
The Society Islands (Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société; Tōtaiete mā.) includes a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
State of the art (sometimes cutting edge) refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sun Quan (182 – 21 May 252), courtesy name Zhongmou, formally known as Emperor Da of Wu (literally "Great Emperor of Wu"), was the founder of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period.
The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay archipelago.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
The following timeline covers European exploration from 1418 to 1957.
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The Tuamotus, also referred to in English as the Tuamotu Archipelago or the Tuamotu Islands (Îles Tuamotu, officially Archipel des Tuamotu), are a French Polynesian chain of almost 80 islands and atolls forming the largest chain of atolls in the world.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Otago (Te Whare Wānanga o Otāgo) is a collegiate university located in Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.
Urban exploration (often shortened as UE, urbex and sometimes known as roof-and-tunnel hacking) is the exploration of man-made structures, usually abandoned ruins or not usually seen components of the man-made environment.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vitus Jonassen Bering (baptised 5 August 1681, died 19 December 1741),All dates are here given in the Julian calendar, which was in use throughout Russia at the time.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
The Wairau Bar, or Te Pokohiwi, is a gravel bar formed where the Wairau River meets the sea in Cloudy Bay, Marlborough, north-eastern South Island, New Zealand.
Wake Island (also known as Wake Atoll) is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, east of Guam, west of Honolulu and southeast of Tokyo.
Wang Dayuan (simplified Chinese: 汪大渊, fl. 1311–1350) was a traveller from Quanzhou, China during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in the 14th century.
Willem Janszoon (1570–1630), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch navigator and colonial governor.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yñigo Ortiz de Retez (''fl.'' 1545) was a 16th-century Spanish maritime explorer of Basque origin, who navigated the northern coastline of the Pacific–Melanesian island of New Guinea, and is credited with bestowing the island's name ("Nueva Guinea").
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Expeditions, Exploration of Earth, Exploration of the Earth, Exploration, Geographic, Explore, Explorer, Explorers, Exploring, Geographic exploration, History of exploration, Land exploration, Mountaineering expedition, Spanish explorers, The Explorers, Voyages of exploration.