102 relations: Aftermath of World War II, Albania, Albanian Kingdom (1939–43), Albanian National Awakening, Ali Demi, Anatolia, Anti-communism, Anti-Fascist Committee of Cham Immigrants, Arrest, Axis occupation of Greece, Axis powers, Balkan Wars, Balli Kombëtar, Battle of Menina, Bey, Blackshirts, Cham Albanian collaboration with the Axis, Cham Albanians, Cham issue, Chameria, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Communal violence, Confiscation, Conscription, Corfu, Democratic Army of Greece, Democritus University of Thrace, Epirus, Epirus (region), Ethnic cleansing, Exile, Expulsion of Poles by Germany, Filiates, First Balkan War, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Forced displacement, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Francesco Jacomoni, Greater Albania, Greco-Italian War, Greece, Greek Civil War, Greek People's Liberation Army, Greek refugees, Greek Resistance, Greeks, Guerrilla warfare, Igoumenitsa, Ismail Qemali, Italian invasion of Albania, ..., Janina Vilayet, Këshilla, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Konispol, Konstantinos Mitsotakis, League of Nations, List of events named massacres, Mark Mazower, Memorandum, Military history of Italy during World War II, Muhaxhir (Albanians), Napoleon Zervas, National Liberation Movement (Albania), National Political Association "Çamëria", National Republican Greek League, Nazism, Paramilitary, Paramythia, Paramythia executions, Party for Justice, Integration and Unity, Peasant, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Persecution, Pogoni, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Population transfer, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Propaganda of Fascist Italy, Protectorate, Pursuit of Nazi collaborators, Refugee, Religion, Resistance during World War II, Sussex, The Expulsion of the Albanians, Thesprotia, Tirana, Treaty of Varkiza, Trial in absentia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Victor Gollancz, Village, Vlorë, Vrinë, War crime, Wehrmacht, World War II, World War II evacuation and expulsion, Xhemil Dino, 4th of August Regime. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanian Kingdom (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare, Regno albanese), also known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Albanian National Awakening (Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania from the 19th century until the declaration of independence in 1912.
Ali Demi (1918 - 1943) was an Albanian hero of World War II, born in Filiates, Greece in 1918, and died in battle fighting German forces in Vlora, Albania in 1943.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Anti-Fascist Committee of Cham Immigrants was an organization created by Cham Albanians, when they were expelled from Greece, with the help of the newly established communist government of Albania.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece since October 1940.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balli Kombëtar (literally National Front), known as Balli, was an Albanian anti-communist resistance movement and a political organization established in November 1942.
The Battle of Menina (Μάχη της Μενίνας) was conducted by the Greek resistance group EDES against the German garrison of the village Menina, Thesprotia, during the German occupation of Greece.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
During the Axis occupation of Greece between 1941 and 1944, large parts of the Albanian minority in the Thesprotia prefecture in Epirus, northwestern Greece, known as Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες, Tsamides) collaborated with the occupation forces.
Cham Albanians, or Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes), are a sub-group of Albanians who originally resided in the western part of the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece, an area known among Albanians as Chameria.
The Cham issue refers to a controversy which has been raised by Albania since the 1990s over the repatriation of the Cham Albanians, who were expelled from the Greek region of Epirus between 1944 and 1945, at the end of World War II, citing the collaboration of the majority of them with the occupying forces of the Axis powers.
Chameria (Çamëria; Τσαμουριά Tsamouriá; Çamlık) is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams.
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
Communal violence is a form of violence that is perpetrated across ethnic or communal lines, the violent parties feel solidarity for their respective groups, and victims are chosen based upon group membership.
Confiscation (from the Latin confiscare "to consign to the fiscus, i.e. transfer to the treasury") is a legal form of seizure by a government or other public authority.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
The Democratic Army of Greece (Δημοκρατικός Στρατός Ελλάδας, DSE (ΔΣΕ)), was the army founded by the Communist Party of Greece during the Greek Civil War, 1946–1949.
The Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH; Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης), established in July 1973, is based in Komotini, Greece and has campuses in the Thracian cities of Xanthi, Komotini, Alexandroupoli and Orestiada.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The Expulsion of Poles by Germany was a prolonged anti-Polish campaign of ethnic cleansing by violent and terror-inspiring means lasting nearly half a century.
Filiates (Φιλιάτες, Filat,Filati) is a town and a municipality in Thesprotia, Greece.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Viceré Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino (31 August 1893 – 17 February 1973) was an Italian diplomat and governor of Albania before and during World War II.
Greater Albania is an irredentist concept of lands that are considered to form the national homeland by many Albanians, based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
The Greek People's Liberation Army or ELAS (Ελληνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός (ΕΛΑΣ), Ellinikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), often mistakenly called the National People's Liberation Army (Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός, Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance until February 1945, then during the Greek Civil War.
Greek refugees is a collective term used to refer to the nearly one million Greek Orthodox natives of Asia Minor, Thrace and the Black Sea areas who fled during the Greek genocide (1914-1922) and Greece's later defeat in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), as well as remaining Greek Orthodox inhabitants of Turkey who were required to leave their homes for Greece shortly thereafter as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which formalized the population transfer and barred the return of the refugees.
The Greek Resistance (italic, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Igoumenitsa (Ηγουμενίτσα), is a coastal city in northwestern Greece.
Ismail Qemal Bej Vlora (16 October 1844 – 24 January 1919), commonly Ismail Qemali, was a member of the Albanian national movement.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Vilayet of Janina, Yanya or Ioannina (ولايت يانیه, Vilâyet-i Yanya) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867.
Këshilla (literally meaning "Council" in Albanian; translit) was an Albanian administration in Thesprotia, Greece, during the Axis occupation of Greece (1942-1944).
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Konispol (Konispoli) is the southernmost town in Albania.
Konstantinos Mitsotakis (Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης,; − 29 May 2017) was a Greek politician who was Prime Minister of Greece from 1990 to 1993.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre." Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers".
Mark Mazower (born 20 February 1958) is a British historian.
A memorandum (abbrev.: memo; from Latin memorandum est, "It must be remembered (that)...") is a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic such as may be used in a business office.
The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
Muhaxhir and Muhaxher (plural: Muhaxhirë and Muhaxherë, meaning "Muslim refugees") are terms borrowed from Ottoman muhacir and derived from Arabic muhajir.
Napoleon Zervas (Ναπολέων Ζέρβας; May 17, 1891 – December 10, 1957) was a Greek general and resistance leader during World War II.
The National Liberation Movement (Lëvizja Nacional-Çlirimtare or Lëvizja Antifashiste Nacional-Çlirimtare (LANÇ)), also translated as National Liberation Front, was an Albanian resistance organization that fought in World War II.
The National Political Association "Çamëria" (in Albanian: Shoqëria Politike Atdhetare "Çamëria"), a pressure group advocating the return of the Chams to Greece, receipt of compensation and greater freedom for the Orthodox Chams in Greece, was founded on 10 January 1991.
The National Republican Greek League or EDES (Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος (ΕΔΕΣ), Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos) was one of the major resistance groups formed during the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Paramythia (Παραμυθιά, Paramythiá) is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece.
The Paramythia executions, also known as the Paramythia massacre (19–29 September 1943) was a combined Nazi and Cham Albanian war crime perpetrated by members of the 1st Mountain Division and the Muslim Cham militia in the town of Paramythia and its surrounding region, during the Axis occupation of Greece, in World War II.
The Party for Justice, Integration and Unity (or PDIU) is a nationalist political party in Albania whose primary aim is the promotion of national issues.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group.
Pogoni (Πωγώνι) is a municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Propaganda of Fascist Italy was the material put forth by Italian Fascism to justify its authority and programs and encourage popular support.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-World War II pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
The Expulsion of the Albanians (Исељавање Арнаута/Iseljavanje Arnauta) was a lecture presented by the Yugoslav historian Vaso Čubrilović (1897–1990) on 7 March 1937.
Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
The Treaty of Varkiza (also known as the Varkiza Pact or the Varkiza Peace Agreement) was signed in Varkiza (near Athens) on February 12, 1945 between the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) for EAM-ELAS.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Sir Victor Gollancz (9 April 1893 – 8 February 1967) was a British publisher and humanitarian.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Vrinë is a village in the former Xarrë municipality, Vlorë County in Albania.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.
Xhemil Dino (1894–1972) was an Albanian politician and diplomat.
The 4th of August Regime (Καθεστώς της 4ης Αυγούστου, Kathestós tis tetártis Avgoústou), commonly also known as the Metaxas Regime (Καθεστώς Μεταξά, Kathestós Metaxá), was a totalitarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas that ruled the Kingdom of Greece from 1936 to 1941.