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# External ballistics

External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight. [1]

106 relations: Altitude, Angle, Angular velocity, Arrow, Artillery, Azimuth, Ball, Ballistic coefficient, Ballistic missile, Ballistics, Base bleed, Caliber, Calibration, Center of mass, Center of pressure (fluid mechanics), Chord (geometry), Closed-form expression, Confidence interval, Coriolis force, Curvature, Degree (angle), Density of air, Doppler radar, Drag (physics), Drag coefficient, Eötvös effect, Elevation (ballistics), Exponentiation, Fire-control system, Flight dynamics, Foot per second, Force, Function (mathematics), Grain (unit), Gravitational acceleration, Gravity, Gravity of Earth, Gun barrel, Gunpowder, Gyroscope, Hollow-point bullet, Hornady, Humidity, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Internal ballistics, International Standard Atmosphere, Kilogram per cubic metre, Krupp, Laser rangefinder, Latitude, ... Expand index (56 more) »

## Altitude

Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

## Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

## Arrow

An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.

## Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

## Azimuth

An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

## Ball

A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid) with various uses.

## Ballistic coefficient

In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.

## Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.

## Ballistics

Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.

## Base bleed

Base bleed is a system used on some artillery shells to increase their range, typically by about 30%.

## Caliber

In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.

## Calibration

Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

## Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

## Center of pressure (fluid mechanics)

The center of pressure is the point where the total sum of a pressure field acts on a body, causing a force to act through that point.

## Chord (geometry)

A chord of a circle is a straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.

## Closed-form expression

In mathematics, a closed-form expression is a mathematical expression that can be evaluated in a finite number of operations.

## Confidence interval

In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.

## Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

## Degree (angle)

A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.

## Density of air

The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.

A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance.

## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

## Drag coefficient

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: \scriptstyle C_\mathrm d\,, \scriptstyle C_\mathrm x\, or \scriptstyle C_\mathrm w\) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.

## Eötvös effect

The Eötvös effect is the change in perceived gravitational force caused by the change in centrifugal acceleration resulting from eastbound or westbound velocity.

## Elevation (ballistics)

In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the axial direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery.

## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

## Fire-control system

A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.

## Flight dynamics

Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space.

## Foot per second

The foot per second (plural feet per second) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity, which includes direction).

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

## Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

## Gravitational acceleration

In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Gravity of Earth

The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth.

## Gun barrel

A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

## Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

## Gyroscope

A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.

## Hollow-point bullet

A hollow-point bullet is an expanding bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its tip often intended to cause the bullet to expand upon entering a target as it penetrates and disrupts more tissue.

## Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

## Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

## Internal ballistics

Internal ballistics (also interior ballistics), a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the propulsion of a projectile.

## International Standard Atmosphere

The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.

## Kilogram per cubic metre

Kilogram per cubic metre is an SI derived unit of density, defined by mass in kilograms divided by volume in cubic metres.

## Krupp

The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

## Laser rangefinder

A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.

## Latitude

In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

## Line-of-sight propagation

Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.

## M829

The M829 is an American Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized, Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) tank round.

## Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

## Magnus effect

The Magnus effect is an observable phenomenon that is commonly associated with a spinning object that drags air faster around one side, creating a difference in pressure that moves it in the direction of the lower-pressure side.

## Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

## Metre per second

Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.

A milliradian, often called a mil or mrad, is an SI derived unit for angular measurement which is defined as a thousandth of a radian (0.001 radian).

## Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

## Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.

## Mobile computing

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.

## Muzzle velocity

Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.

## Nammo

Nammo, short for Nordic Ammunition Company, is a Norwegian/Finnish aerospace and defence group specialized in production of ammunition, rocket motors and space applications.

## Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

## Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

## Paris Gun

The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.

## Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

## Point-blank range

Point-blank range is any distance over which the trajectory of a given projectile fired from a given weapon remains sufficiently flat that one can strike a target by firing at it directly.

## Precession

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.

## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

## Projectile

A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.

## Projectile motion

Projectile motion is a form of motion experienced by an object or particle (a projectile) that is thrown near the Earth's surface and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only (in particular, the effects of air resistance are assumed to be negligible).

## Propellant

A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

QuickLOAD is an internal ballistics predictor computer program for firearms.

## Relative velocity

The relative velocity \vec_ (also \vec_ or \vec_) is the velocity of an object or observer B in the rest frame of another object or observer A.

## Rifle

A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.

## Rifleman's rule

Rifleman's rule is a "rule of thumb" that allows a rifleman to accurately fire a rifle that has been calibrated for horizontal targets at uphill or downhill targets.

## Rocket

A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

## Rocket-assisted projectile

A Rocket assisted projectile (RAP) is an artillery, cannon or recoilless rifle round incorporating a rocket motor for independent propulsion.

## Runge–Kutta methods

In numerical analysis, the Runge–Kutta methods are a family of implicit and explicit iterative methods, which include the well-known routine called the Euler Method, used in temporal discretization for the approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations.

## Sabot

A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a relatively small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a significantly smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used.

## Sandia National Laboratories

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.

## Scale model

A scale model is most generally a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved.

## Sectional density

Sectional density is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross-sectional area with respect to a given axis.

## SG2 Shareable (Fire Control) Software Suite (S4)

The NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG) Integrated Capability Group Indirect Fires (ICGIF), formerly Land Group 4, and their Sub Group 2 (SG2) on Surface to Surface Ballistics has created a widely used set of shareable fire control software using the Ada programming language.

## Six degrees of freedom

Six degrees of freedom (6DoF) refers to the freedom of movement of a rigid body in three-dimensional space.

## Small arms

Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.

## Smartphone

A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

## Sniper rifle

A sniper rifle is a high-precision rifle designed for sniper missions.

## Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

## Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

## Spitzer (bullet)

The spitzer bullet, also commonly referred to as a spire point bullet, is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the late 19th and early 20th century, driven by military desire for aerodynamic bullet designs that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.

## Supergun

A supergun is an extraordinarily large artillery piece.

## Supersonic speed

Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).

## Table of handgun and rifle cartridges

Table of selected pistol/submachine gun and rifle/machine gun cartridges by common name.

## Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

## Terminal ballistics

Terminal ballistics (also known as wound ballistics), a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

## Trajectory

A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.

## Transitional ballistics

Transitional ballistics, also known as intermediate ballistics, at Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Accessed April 27, 2009 is the study of a projectile's behavior from the time it leaves the muzzle until the pressure behind the projectile is equalized, so it lies between internal ballistics and external ballistics.

## Transonic

In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.

## Very-low-drag bullet

The very-low-drag bullet (VLD) is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the 1980s–1990s, driven by shooters' desire for bullets that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.

A wadcutter is a special-purpose flat-fronted bullet specifically designed for shooting paper targets, usually at close range and at subsonic velocities typically under approximately 900 ft/s (274 m/s).

No description.

## Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

## .50 BMG

The.50 Browning Machine Gun (.50 BMG, 12.7×99mm NATO and designated as the 50 Browning by the C.I.P.) is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s.

## References

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